Master of Public Health Course Learning Objectives
GHSD 6010 COMPARATIVE HEALTH SYSTEMS
- Analyze the boundaries and scope of a modern health system, including the building blocks of the system and the inter-relationships among the building blocks.
- Apply a systematic approach to analyzing the health system of any country in the world, by examining health system performance, health systems functioning (governance, health financing, service delivery, health information, human resources for health, access to medicines), and the degree of market orientation.
- Discuss the role of health resources and health financing in determining the effectiveness and efficiency of the system.
- Analyze the concepts of catastrophic health expenditure and fair financing and discuss policy options to improve equity in the system.
- Analyze health system reforms and the impact of the reforms on health system.
- Discuss global strategies for health person power education and credentialing and the status of the global labor market for health professionals.
GHSD 6030 INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH SYSTEMS, MANAGEMENT, & POLICY
- Describe the organization, financing, and delivery of health care in the United States through both the public health system and the medical care delivery system, and analyze the system’s performance in terms of cost, quality, and access.
- Identify the basic elements of a health care system, and compare the U.S. health care system and its legal foundation with health systems of other developed and developing countries.
- Describe the policy-making process for improving the health status of populations.
- Use an ethics framework to examine public health programs and interventions.
- Identify and explore the principles of program planning, organization, and control required to effectively lead organizations towards achievement of their mission or purpose.
- Apply basic managerial concepts and tools integral to organizational success, including strategic management and project management, among others.
- Apply systems thinking approaches to viewing complex situations, defining problems and formulating solutions.
GHSD 6050 HEALTH SYSTEMS CONCEPTS
A. Describe and place in context the defining characteristics of the U.S. health care system by:
- Identify the major categories, constructs, and data elements used to describe the health care delivery system and its performance
- Differentiate between public and private payers and the types of health plans within the public and private payment systems
- Contrast the domain of public health with personal health care
- Describe the evolution of federal, state and local government involvement in the U.S. health care delivery system
- Contrast the U.S. health care system with those of other wealthy nations in terms of organization, performance and citizen satisfaction.
B. Articulate the relationships between the various components of and inputs to the US health system by:
- Describe the continuum of care from preventive and acute care through post-acute and long-term care and chronic care and end of life treatment and discuss the principal organizations or institutions that deliver care across this continuum
- Identify the contributions of personal health practices to individual and population health outcomes
- Characterize the U.S. pharmaceutical and medical device industries and their growing role and importance in health care
- Explain the factors that influence the supply and demand of health care workers
- Contrast the role of the health services manager with that of the clinician and discuss major issues that stem from these role differences
C. Identify the major issues confronting the performance of the U.S. health care delivery system by:
- Specify how governance and management contribute to health organization performance and examine challenges presented by increasing levels of accountability in the system
- Describe and analyze alternative approaches taken by health care purchasers (Medicare, employer groups, health plans, etc.) to ensure quality of delivered services
- Discuss the access barriers to health care insurance coverage and to health care services and explain their relationship to health disparities across the U.S. population
- Describe potential policy solutions to constrain the growth in health care costs and evaluate whether proposed solutions are likely to be effective
GHSD 6120 FOUNDATIONS OF MANAGEMENT
- Foster creation and communication of core purpose, core values, goals, and envisioned future, and use these to guide group or organizational activities
- Demonstrate the fundamental leadership skills of team learning, systems thinking, dialogue, and network development, and articulate a personal philosophy of authentic leadership
- Inspire commitment, involvement, and empowerment in others to act toward achievement of group or organizational goals, including the creation of organizational framework for change
- Promote organizational learning and foster development, implementation, and monitoring of methods to improve work processes and organizational outcomes
- Formulate a personal and professional ethical code and promote an organizational culture that fosters high ethical standards
GHSD 6140 LEADERSHIP FOR CLINICAL IMPROVEMENT
- Apply leadership skills through individual and group exercises
- Design a program of personal growth and development toward a leadership model
- Analyze the basic functions of management and their inter-relationships
- Incorporate the principle roles and skills of managers
- Determine an effective balance between clinical and managerial activities
- Evaluate the forces shaping the environment of the health care industry and discuss their implications for management
- Recognize the principle manifestations and importance of organizational culture
- Describe the strategic management process, discuss its application in the health care industry, and identify potential sources of competitive advantage in health care delivery organizations
- Differentiate between organizational mission, vision, values, goals, and strategies.
- Evaluate the effect of a group's composition and structure on its decision making processes and its ability to manage organizational change
- Explain why innovation is important in health care institutions and describe ways in which innovation can be fostered
- Contrast the sources of power and illustrate how leaders can successfully use power
- Understand the importance of delegation as it relates to personal and professional development
- Describe the increasing importance of outcomes management in health care and discuss the unique role of the physician executive in this activity
- Design the key elements of a quality management process that leads to organizational learning
GHSD 6170 – QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HEALTH CARE
- Define Quality in Healthcare
- Describe the impact the quality movement has had in the current healthcare environment
- Design and demonstrate the PDCA cycle, Lean, Six Sigma, RCA (root cause analysis), FMEA, and reliability science for improving healthcare processes
- Organized and manage a structured and facilitated team-learning environment to improve the health of those served
- Define the different types of measures: clinical, health status, utilization, and patient satisfaction
- Discuss methods of developing and implementing clinical practice guidelines
- Define the public and payer policy implications for quality review and demonstration in the near future
GHSD 6190 ETHICAL CONCERNS OF HEALTH CARE MANAGERS
- Recognize a wide range of ethical problems that arise in the health care arena.
- Compare models of governance in various health care settings and contrast the benefits and liabilities of each for ethical conduct inside the organization.
- Identify issues, rights, and obligations and apply ethical principles to their resolution in various administrative and clinical situations.
- Apply the reasoning of previously resolved situations to hypothetical and real-life situations.
- Use the principles studied to approach the resolution of ethical problems.
- Formulate one or more plans of action through ethical policy development to problems identified.
- Convey descriptive and analytical information clearly in writing and verbally.
- Articulate and compare the ethical traditions, culture, and obligations of a variety of professional disciplines including health care administration.
- Address issues of personal and public policy issues from an ethical perspective.
- Design an organizational culture which promotes ethical decision making within the organization and identify the role of a corporate compliance function within the organization.
GHSD 6210 HEALTH LAW AND REGULATION
- Articulate the basic types of law, the sources of law, and the organization of the legal system in the United States.
- Explain the process by which legislative and regulatory mechanisms establish law for health care delivery.
- Examine and distinguish principles of jurisdiction affecting federal and state health care laws, regulation, and judicial and administrative agency opinions.
- Evaluate how business relationships are governed and affected by a variety of laws, regulations, and legislative/political issues.
- Identify and match legal principles to specific health care delivery and management situations.
- Articulate the process by which managers associate understanding of and compliance with law and regulation to routine decision making in health care settings, to include knowing whether to seek professional legal advice.
- Recognize and distinguish competing interests and philosophical postures of various stakeholders and policy makers as they relate to the health care system.
- Read materials regarding legal issues in the health care delivery environment, summarize them accurately, and interpret and articulate their relevance and effect on patient care delivery and its management.
- Discuss the legal, regulatory and policy aspects of environmental assessment, evaluation and control, including risk assessment, management and communication.
- Identify and discuss methods of collection, treatment, disposal and recycling of human waste and biosolids, solid and hazardous waste, infectious waste and describe the health hazards associated with improper management of these wastes.
- Identify and discuss adverse health effects in occupational settings due to exposure to dust, gases, vapor fumes, noise, and their mitigation and control and discuss the legal, regulatory processes to provide workers with a safe workplace.
GHSD 6270 MONITORING OF PROGRAM INTERVENTIONS IN GLOBAL HEALTH
A. Explain the major concepts in program monitoring:
- The objectives of monitoring versus impact evaluation;
- The continuum of formative, process, and summative evaluation;
- Input, process, output and outcome;
- Levels of measurement: program-level versus population level;
- Sources of data;
- The role of health information systems (HIS) in program monitoring.
B. Perform skills required in program monitoring:
- Design a conceptual framework;
- Develop goals, objectives, and indicators;
- Conduct a focus group;
- Use Stat compiler to track outcomes and make cross national comparisons;
- Process data from an HIS and describe trends in service utilization;
- Use mapping software to monitor program implementation and uptake
C. Interpret results from a process evaluation
GHSD 6320 MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
- Practice basic management communication concepts that lead to effective decision-making;
- Analyze different audiences to create messages that accomplish a desired goal;
- Use problem-solution approaches to analyze business issues and articulate steps to problem-solving orally and in writing;
- Demonstrate ways to persuade others and to gain commitment to the organization’s objectives;
- Utilize the language of business and apply that language clearly, concisely, and correctly;
- Select, structure, and present data in appropriate oral and written form for a variety of business settings; and
- Identify and define individual strengths, biases, and weaknesses in working with others in a team.
GHSD 6360 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
- Analyze the major HR challenges facing healthcare organizations.
- Interpret how Human Resources functions in the organization setting.
- Examine the major HR functions.
- Examine the legal environment of employee/employer relationships.
- Analyze demographic and technological shifts and its impact on the workplace.
- Analyze the changing employee/employer relationship and its implication for human resources departments.
- Assess how human resources are related to organizational productivity.
- Assess the relationship between employee involvement and productivity.
- Probe how discrimination occurs and the basic EEO concepts.
- Interpret the two types of sexual harassment and employer responses to complaints.
- Examine the learning principles related to employee development.
- Examine compensation systems and strategies
GHSD 6380 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
- Explore the role of the manager in an organization and view organizational processes and outcomes in relation to this role.
- Compare and contrast the concepts of organization behavior and structure and the interrelationship between the two throughout their histories.
- Discuss the foundations in the social science disciplines of sociology, psychology, economics, and social psychology in contributing to our understanding of behavior in organizations.
- Identify the major features of organizations (structure, culture, technology) and recognize the form they might take in health care organizations.
- Utilize current managerial concepts and tools to manage organizations and behavior in organizations
- Apply theories of change management and organizational development to increase workforce effectiveness.
- Identify and apply conflict resolution methods to effectively achieve organizational goals.
- Describe the informal organization and its effect on communication within organizations, including confidential and sensitive information
- Describe the use of power in policy making, both from an organizational and community perspective.
- Recognize patterns of behavior and causal relationships and identify appropriate approaches or solutions.
- Anticipate or think through the implications of system changes to meet organizational goals.
GHSD 6450 HEALTH ECONOMICS
- Model the economic and non-economic factors that affect the production of health by society members and explain how these factors alter the health status of a population.
- Explain and predict behavior relating to the demand for health and health care by consumers and the supply of medical care and its substitutes and complements by producers using basic economic theory.
- Identify the key characteristics of perfectly competitive and monopolistic markets and assess their impact on quantity, cost, prices, and quality of health-related goods and services.
- Characterize the differences between public goods and private goods and explain how society makes decisions about their production and distribution under different political systems.
- Demonstrate the use of cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness (CB-CE) analysis in decisions to produce and distribute health-related goods and services.
- Assess the sources of market failure in the health system, how it affects the efficient functioning of heath care markets, and potential remedies for correcting it.
- Analyze the basic structure, operation and performance of health care industries including health insurance, hospitals, physician services, pharmaceuticals and long term care.
- Interpret the findings of empirical health economics research and its implications for understanding and predicting health system performance.
- Gather data and evidence to support a proposal to supply a specific health-related good or service, develop a written business plan as a member of a team, and present the proposed business plan to theoretical group of potential investors or donors.
GHSD 6490 POLICY OPTIONS ON MEDICAL PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGIES
- Demonstrate the processes on how pharmaceutical policies are made, how regulations are formulated and administered and, finally, the effects of policy making, particularly with regard to drug utilization.
- Analyze the key issues and central aspects of various pharmaceutical policy approaches and policy decision-making, including the central actors and institutions on global, EU and national levels.
- Evaluate the drug distribution, financing, drug safety and drug use to illustrate the dynamics and consequences of pharmaceutical policy.
GHSD 6500 INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH CARE ACCOUNTING
- Students will recognize the context of health care financial management to appreciate the economic and political pressures within which health care organizations operate.
- Students will learn to read and interpret financial statements so they can make informed decisions about the economic condition of the health care organization.
- Students will recognize the inter-relationships between the four predominant financial statements to better appreciate the manner in which profits impact cash and capital structure that, in turn, impact that ability of organizations to acquire assets to survive.
- Students will identify some of the important measurement and reporting principles and practices of financial accounting to better understand the economic events in the financial statements.
- Students will learn to read and interpret financial ratios to enhance their understanding and decision-making capabilities pertaining to the financial statements of the health care organization.
- Students will learn to read and interpret some of the non-financial data being reported in a balanced scorecard (or dashboard) format to complement and enhance the financial information embedded in the financial statements.
GHSD 6540 MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING FOR HEALTH CARE MANAGERS
- Students will appraise cost behavior such that the cost structure of an organization can be managed in a meaningful manner to respond to the economic and political pressures faced by health care entities.
- Students will assess how to manage the fixed and variable costs of a health care organization through the use of such managerial tools as pro forma income statements, breakeven analysis, and cost-volume-profit analysis in fee-for-service and capitated revenue environments.
- Students will incorporate management accounting information to examine the economics of service/product lines and therefore form important managerial decisions such as make-or-buy service/products, adding or dropping services/products, and expanding or reducing service/products.
- Students will explore the important role that budgeting plays in healthcare organizations. Here we will compare the different types of budgets that are part of organizational planning and control with a particular focus on developing a detailed operating budget.
- Students will examine the manner in which the operating budget serves as a form of responsibility accounting (variance analysis) to enhance decentralized management decision making and control.
- Students will examine some of the capital budget processes with a particular focus on the manner in which accounting information in the capital investment decision overlaps with traditional financial accounting information embedded in financial statements.
- Students will examine some of the fundamental principles and methods guiding the allocation of costs within healthcare organizations with a particular focus on the understating of cost structure gained from activity based costing.
- Students will examine the various pricing approaches that have evolved in the healthcare setting with a particular focus on the manner in which accounting information (knowledge of the cost structure) provides one critical piece of information to guide and enhance pricing strategies.
GHSD 6550 DYNAMICS OF PAYMENT SYSTEMS‒POLICY & FUNCTION
- Describe the economic structure of the U.S. health care sector, including major sources of funds and the way in which those funds are distributed across health care uses
- Demonstrate a working knowledge of the mechanics of traditional fee-for-service payment, cost-based reimbursement, prospective payment (including the nature of classification groupings [e.g., DRGs, APGs], physician payment with emphasis on the use of the RBRVS, capitation systems, and the interactions of all of the above in mixed payment mode settings.
- For public systems, extract the key elements and variables from statutory/regulatory documents dealing with changes to any or all of the items in Objective 2 and predict fiscal consequences a provider of health care services is likely to experience as a result.
- Distinguish among the factors in both public-sector and private-sector payment systems which may further or hinder various public policy objectives.
- Predict or recommend provider behavior in response to explicit or implicit incentives in payment systems.
GHSD 6710 QUANTITATIVE DECISION MODELS
- Identify a variety of quantitative methods (e.g. operations research models such as for project planning, forecasting, queuing analysis, inventory systems, Markov models and decision analysis) available and recognize situations in which specific methods and analytical approaches might be beneficial.
- Define the data requirements, limitations, assumptions, outputs and benefits of applying each of the methods.
- Apply each of the decision making tools (performing quantitative analysis) to real world situations.
- Apply decision making concepts (e.g. role of uncertainty, sensitivity, scenario and "what if" analysis, implicit quantification, trade-offs, indifference points, etc.).
- Solve example problems using quantitative methods software (e.g. EXCEL, Microsoft Project/Open Project and TreeAge).
- Describe the application of these models and methods to health care environment.
- Describe the implications of real world issues to these decision making and planning approaches.
- Apply systems thinking, viewing and analyzing organizational and broader environment system challenges by seeing the component parts of that system in the context of their relationships with each other and other systems and how that influences strategies for change
GHSD 6760 HEALTH SYSTEMS STRENGTHENING: INTERNATIONAL FAMILY PLANNING
- Describe the public health rationale for family planning, current levels of contraceptive prevalence worldwide, and determinants of contraceptive use;
- Analyze the historical events that have led to the current state of family planning at the global level;
- Discuss the role of U.S. policy as it impacts on FP programs worldwide (e.g., the Global Gag rule);
- Assess information on family planning through key resources (e.g., Knowledge for Health website, Population Reference Bureau);
- Use SPECTRUM and DEMOPROJ software to analyze relationships between fertility and contraceptive use.
- Explain all elements in the conceptual framework for effective family planning programs, including:
a. External influences to a program (donor support, political support, socio-cultural factors);
b. Elements of a family planning program:
i. Supply environment
ii. Demand for FP and demand creation
c. Service utilization
d. Contraceptive prevalence and unmet need
7. Analyze the family planning program of a given country, drawing on framework for effective family planning programs.
GHSD 6780 INFORMATION SYSTEMS
- Demonstrate knowledge of the basic technology underlying information systems, including hardware, software, and telecommunications and networking.
- Discuss the structure of health care data and basic principles of managing data.
- Describe the evolution of health care information systems.
- Examine the systems development life cycle as it pertains to both the development of a custom application and the selection of a proprietary system.
- Recognize the importance of health care information standards.
- Discuss issues surrounding security of health information systems.
- Describe the process of setting a direction, and developing strategic and operational plans for IT management.
- Identify the principles of managing technology resources and the information systems function.
- Discuss problems and solutions to the issue of demonstrating value from IT/IS investments.
- Discuss the main features and capabilities of the following categories of information systems applications:
a. Patient administration systems (admission, discharge, transfer (ADT); registration; scheduling; patient billing or accounts receivable; and utilization management)
b. Financial management systems (accounts payable, general ledger, personnel management, materials management, payroll, staff scheduling, and staff time and attendance).
c. Ancillary information systems (laboratory, radiology, pharmacy, and other ancillary information systems)
d. Other clinical information systems (nursing documentation, electronic medical record, computerized physician order entry, decision support systems, tele-medicine and tele-health, rehabilitation service documentation, and medication administration)
GHSD 6890 HEALTH MARKET ANALYSIS- EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, AND BEHAVIORAL CONSIDERATIONS
- Analyze key concepts in health care services marketing
- Identify markets in the health care industry
- Examine the role marketing plays in health care organizations
- Recognize trends in the health industry that call for marketing strategies
GHSD 6910 LEADERSHIP & PROFESSIONALISM
- Examine various components of the healthcare delivery system.
- Define typical leadership management activities in selected segments of the healthcare delivery system.
- Describe principles of management as applied in differing healthcare environments.
- Develop personal and professional skills that will be utilized in employment searches and in workplace.
GHSD 6980 HEALTH SYSTEM OF CHINA: AN APPLIED PERSPECTIVE
- Systems Thinking: (a) Identify characteristics of a system (b) Analyze unintended consequences produced by changes made to a public health system.
- Diversity and Culture: (a) Describe the roles of history, power, privilege and structural inequality in producing health disparities: (b) Differentiate among availability, acceptability, and accessibility of health care across diverse populations.
GHSD 7170 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS
- Define strategic management in the context of a health care organization.
- Design a strategic analysis process for a health care organization.
- Perform a demographic assessment for the service area of a health care organization.
- Apply a set of tools to assess a health care organization’s strategic situation, including analysis of external environment; organizational mission/vision/values and culture; resource and core competencies; stakeholder relationships; competitive analysis, and situation analysis.
- Formulate strategic alternatives based on the situational assessments; evaluate and choose strategic alternatives.
- Design control measures to align organizational performance with strategic goals.
GHSD 7330 NEGOTIATION ANALYSIS
- Identify the four phases of negotiations
- Recognize the four types of communication styles that influence negotiations
- Create alternatives to negotiated agreements
- Interpret the underlying needs in a negotiation
- Analyze the level of power of the negotiating partners
- Discover the value of objective criteria in a negotiation
GHSD 7580 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
- Identify the various qualitative components of returns to capital (time value of money, default risk, inflation, and so on). Predict how changes in the economy or the health care system might affect these components for a variety of organizations.
- Identify the factors involved in determining (a) organizational required rates of return including the Weighted Average Required Rate of Return (WARR) and (b) organizational costs of capital including the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC), including explaining the nature of capitalization effects; and be able to distinguish between the two concepts, including explaining the nature of capitalization effects;
- Distinguish between cash flows and financial accounting accruals and the relationships/non-relationships between financial accounting statements and the information needed for managerial finance;
- Analyze the nature of cash flow equivalents and their importance;
- Identify and describe the distinct categories of financial cash flows and the relevance of each to management decision-making;
- Distinguish between capital cash flows and operational cash flows and demonstrate the necessity for separating them for decision making purposes;
- Derive the distinct categories of cash flows from standard financial statements and pro forma financial statements;
- Explain the economic underpinnings and implications of the concepts of present value;
- Demonstrate proficiency in the mechanics of present value calculations;
- Distinguish among competing time value analytical tools, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each;
- Perform present value calculations based on gross operational cash flows/WARR and net operational cash flows/WACC and demonstrate the economic equivalence to the present values of capital suppliers;
- Use net present value for asset acquisition decisions, cost minimization choices, and to analyze pricing and contracting decisions under alternative payment systems;
- Determine relevant cash flows for decision-making purposes by applying principles of incremental ("but for") analysis to valuing capital claims and investments/divestments;
- Apply concepts of risk to valuation using risk-adjusted discount rates using the capital asset pricing model;
- Integrate the above with the economics of divergent payment mechanisms, particularly in mixed settings with economic dependence, using the concepts of value additivity and conservation of value;
- Identify and describe sources of risk as they apply to managed care organizations and their contractual partners;
- Explain the rudiments of an option-pricing approach to valuation.
GHSD 7660 HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
- Exhibit a conceptual understanding of the forces and factors accounting for legislation and regulation pertaining to health services.
- Develop a framework to critically discuss and evaluate whether the “market” in health services is or is not a policy issue.
- Compare and contrast the public policy objectives of Medicare and Medicaid and the private insurance sector with the realities of the political process.
- Critically evaluate the research literature that examines the federal and state role in health services.
- Evaluate current proposals advanced in Congress and by the private sector which impact upon health services delivery.
- Demonstrate a working understanding of private insurance and the federal and state regulation that oversees it. The objective is to provide students with the necessary institutional and evaluative tools that can be applied within a private insurance organization or health delivery organization as well as government.
- Examine the development and regulation of the private insurance market over the past 20 years.
- Demonstrate competence in presentation of model Congressional testimony developed by the student and presented to peers.
GHSD 7990 INDEPENDENT STUDY (1-12)
GHSD 8250 ADVANCED RESEARCH METHODS IN GLOBAL HEALTH
- Describe key sources of data in global health.
- Describe the key assumptions that allow for unbiased and consistent parameter estimates in linear regression models and models with limited dependent variables
- Estimate multivariate regression models with continuous and limited dependent variables (e.g. dichotomous, ordered, unordered categorical, truncated, censored)
- Develop structural models for analyzing health, population and nutrition (HPN) programs,
- Calculate basic tests for model specification, identification, endogeneity, and sample selection
- Estimate models controlling for multiple/hierarchical levels and multi-stage sampling in estimations
- Conduct program evaluations with (propensity score) matching methods or multiple regression analysis
- Analyze cross-sectional or time series health, population or nutrition data, while dealing with common problems in evaluation research such as endogeneity, sample selection, measurement error, and missing data.
GHSD 8050 DOCTORAL SEMINAR
- Define terminology relevant to the conduct of international health research
- List and describe peer-reviewed journals that are relevant to his/her proposed subject areas
- Critically review research publications (articles) relevant to his/her field of study using systematic approach to literature review
- Collaborate with fellow (advanced) Tulane Students who can provide peer-support as the student progresses through the program
- Identify Tulane faculty who are suitably skilled and knowledgeable about the student’s intrests to serve on committees and refine suitable subject areas for comprehensive exams.
- Present findings and issues in research according to accepted professional conference standards
- Define global standards of ethical conduct of research with reference to appropriate resources and institutions
- Gain exposure to major topics and substantive issues in global health systems research
GHSD 9970 DISSERTATION
GHSD 9990 DISSERTATION RESEARCH
Executive Doctor of Science Course Learning Objectives
ESCD 8310 ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND ASSESSMENT
- List prominent theoretical and/or paradigmatic perspectives on organizations.
- Compare and contrast the way in which the choice of any perspective affects and limits consideration of the operational components of an organization and its relationships;
- Describe the financing, regulatory, and delivery system affecting health care and articulate how these are inter-related with organizational structure;
- Apply the theoretical concept of power to analyses of the professions as a unique force in health organizations.
- Identify the theoretical bases of organizational behavior and the way in which it differs continually from organization theory.
- Demonstrate research skill in organizational model development through the development of a plan for analysis of their own organization.
ESCD 8410 COST BENEFIT AND COST-EFFECTIVE ANALYIS
- Examine the use of cost-effectiveness in decision-making in clinical and non-clinical settings of healthcare systems.
- Analyze costs from the points of view of individual, health facilities, insurance agencies, government entities and form the societal perspectives.
- Examine the issues related to micro-costing and macro-costing; costs and charges, full economic evaluation and partial economic evaluation.
- Analyze and calculate the effectiveness of various types of health interventions: curative, preventive and promotive.
- Calculate and interpret the cost-effectiveness ratios for decision making and understand the use of willingness to pay in the choice of projects or programs.
- Analyze and calculate utility values of health outcomes and understand the use of utility values to obtain the benefits of health interventions.
- Calculate and interpret the cost-utility rations in decision–making.
- Analyze and calculate the monetary benefits derived from health interventions. Examine the problems of estimating the monetary value of health benefits.
- Calculate the cost-benefit rations of health interventions.
ESCD 8430 DECISION ANALYSIS/ADVANCED UTILITY THEORY
- Differentiate the characteristics of "structural modeling".
- Interpret the structures and applications of decision trees and probability trees.
- Explain how decision analysis, as a science, provides structure and benefits for the decision making process.
- Define, construct and solve decision trees.
- Perform and interpret sensitivity analysis.
- 6. Define, construct and solve probability trees.
- Explain the fundamentals of probability theory for decision analysis and decision models (conditionality, expectation and probabilistic independence)
- Apply Bayes' theorem and describe its role in decision analysis.
- Describe the use of decision models in clinical decision-making, including the use of Markov Analysis and simulation.
- Construct and solve decision analysis problems that include a Markov Analysis solved through simulation.
- Analyze processes using Markov Analysis (using both cohort analysis and simulation).
- Explain utility theory
- Explain QALYs
- Assess and draw single-attribute utility functions
- Describe multi-criteria decision making.
- Evaluate current health services research literature that uses decision analysis: its procedures, rationale, strengths and limitations of the studies you read.
- Apply critical skills to appraising decision analysis literature.
- Utilize TreeAge software to solve decision tree and Markov analysis problems
ESCD 8510 APPLIED HEALTH ECONOMICS
- Analyze the role and importance of theory in explaining and understanding complex phenomenon in the social and behavioral sciences
- Be able to identify the limitations of natural experiments
- Identify how economists develop analytical tools to empirically deal with statistical problems not inherent in randomized case controlled trials.
- Create theoretical models of the economic and non-economic factors that affect the production of health by society members and how these factors might alter the health status of a population.
- Predict health-related behavior using basic economic principles of opportunity cost, economic scarcity, utility maximization, and the theories ("laws") of demand and supply.
- Identify the key characteristics of perfectly competitive and monopolistic markets.
- Assess the impact of market structure on quantity, cost, prices and quality of health-related goods and services.
- Define public goods and private goods and describe how decisions about their production and distribution are made.
- Demonstrate the use of corporate finance and cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness (CB-CE) analysis in making decisions to produce and distribute health-related goods and services.
- Analyze the sources of market failure in the health system, how it affects the efficient functioning of heath care markets, and potential remedies for correcting it.
- Characterize verbally and in writing the basic structure, operation, and performance of health care industries including health insurance, hospitals, physician services, pharmaceuticals and long term care.
- Critique the findings of health economics research literature and its implications for future studies and contribution to the body of knowledge.
ESCD 8610 HEALTH POLICY ANALYSIS
- Describe the forces and factors accounting for legislation and regulation pertaining to health services.
- Evaluate why the "market" in health services is or is not a policy issue.
- Identify the public policy implications of Medicare and Medicaid and the private sector.
- Critically evaluate the research literature that examines the federal and state role in health services.
- Evaluate current proposals advanced in Congress and by the private sector which impact upon health services delivery.
- Identify the role of private insurance in the policy process, and federal and state regulation that oversees it. The objective is to provide students with the necessary institutional and evaluative tools which can be applied within a private insurance organization or health delivery organization as well as government.
- Summarize the development of the private insurance market over the past 20 years, with specific application to public policy and regulation.
- Interpret critical public policy issues in "real time" as they develop, and apply contemporary information sources to one's ongoing analysis.
- Describe the difference between politics and policy analysis and the role of each in fashioning health policy
ESCD 8710 HEALTH OUTCOMES
- Interpret the meaning and purpose of clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes assessments (Session 2, 3)
- Analyze variation in clinical practice and identify possible sources (Session 1, 4, 5)
- Define the different types of measures including: clinical indicators, health status, quality-of-life, health care utilization, and patient satisfaction (Session 2)
- Explain the significance of findings from various health outcomes studies and reports (Case studies, Assignment #2)
- Evaluate the usefulness and appropriateness of outcomes assessment (Session 2, 3 Assignment 1, 2, and 3)
- Explain fundamental appreciation of the statistical analysis appropriate for outcomes assessment, including the analysis of longitudinal and categorical data (Session 4, 5, and Assignment #3)
- Specify a clinical measurement system for a health care organization, including the provider, payor, accreditation agency, and patient perspective (Session 6, 7, Assignment #1)
- Differentiate types, purposes, and sources of outcomes assessment tools and methods (Session 1, 2, 3)
- Construct a useful balanced clinical measurement and outcomes assessment system (Assignment #1, #3)
- Explain experimental, observational, and meta-analysis designs (Session 5, 6)
ESCD 8730 BIOSTATISTICS
- Compute regression coefficients for simple linear regression and test hypotheses concerning these coefficients. Interpret the coefficients.
- Construct prediction and confidence intervals using the regression model.
- Calculate and test hypotheses about the correlation coefficient.
- Interpret regression coefficients in multiple linear regression.
- Use Analysis of Variance to test for significant fit of the multiple regression equation.
- Perform partial F-tests to compare model components.
- Define, calculate, and interpret multiple and partial correlation coefficients.
- Define interaction.
- Define dummy variables.
- Compare regression lines for two or more populations.
- Compare study factors adjusted for confounding variables.
- Select the most parsimonious subset of predictor variables from a larger set of predictor variables.
- Identify and check the appropriate assumptions for use of regression techniques.
- Introduce polynomial terms as needed.
- Fit a logistic regression model using both continuous and categorical predictor variables.
- Calculate estimated risks, relative risks, and odds ratios from a fitted logistic regression model.
- Compute confidence intervals for predicted odds ratios.
- Calculate adjusted odds ratios and confidence intervals using the logistic prediction equation.
ESCD 8750 ADVANCED REGRESSION
- Perform appropriate predictor selection
- Interpret multivariate linear regression model to predict continuous outcomes
- Interpret multivariate logistic regression model to predict categorical outcomes
- Interpret multivariate survival analysis to predict time-event outcomes
- Classify nonparametric analysis as an alternative way to analyze datasets
- Differentiate several techniques (meta-analysis, path analysis, forecasting)
ESCD 8770 HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH METHODS
- Analyze the theoretical and statistical issues involved in the design of health services research.
- Describe and contrast appropriate usage of various research designs.
- Formulate research problems in a manner that is both theoretically and methodologically sound.
- Delineate measurement issues inherent in conducting and analyzing research.
- Differentiate the effects of interactions, mediators, and moderators in research designs.
- Demonstrate proficiency in sampling, including issues of sample size and selection.
- Summarize issues inherent in measuring opinions and attitudes.
- Contrast advantages and disadvantages of qualitative data, self-report data, behavioral measures, and unobtrusive measures.
- Formulate correct and incorrect ways to design and conduct interviews, questionnaires, and rating scales.
- Explain measurement issues concerning range restriction, power, reliability, and validity.
- Examine ethical responsibilities of researchers.
ESCD 8780 QUALITATIVE METHODS (3)
- List various types of qualitative research methods and identify when their use is most appropriate.
- Describe the different types of research designs that can be used in qualitative research.
- Identify a research problem that can be explored using qualitative research methods.
- Design a research study using qualitative research methods.
- Identify the differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods a. and understand how they can be used together
- Design research guides to use in collecting qualitative data.
- Practice the research methods discussed in class, including interviewing key informants.
- Evaluate research articles that use qualitative research methods for health research.
- Prepare data collection notes and write-up reports of data collection process.
- Analyze qualitative data using two types of coding strategies.
- Synthesize and prepare a final report based on individual research project.
ESCD 8790 ADVANCED RESEARCH METHODS
- Examine the importance of combining statistics, economics and health services research methodologies.
- Analyze and apply ordinary least squares on economic and health services data and interpret the empirical results obtained.
- Examine the restrictive nature of OLS assumptions and analyze the problems of using linear models in health services research.
- Analyze and correct empirical models for various problems like multicollinearity, heterscedasticity, autocorrelation.
- Analyze and apply dummy variables in empirical analysis including the use of dummy variables in the analysis of seasonality, discontinuities in the functional form and shift of the models for policy changes.
- Employ time series modeling to analyze time series health services data.
- Analyze tie series data for seasonality, trend and cyclical effects, employ various time series methodology for empirical analysis.
- Employ advanced regression models including logit and tobit models, truncated dependent variable models, instrumental variable approach, fixed effect and random effect models, Heckman's self-selection correction.
ESCD 8900 ADVANCED HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH THEORY AND DESIGN