Cyril Bowers
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Cyril Y. Bowers, MD
Emeritus Professor of Medicine
Phone: (504)-988-3581


Dr. Bowers attended medical school at the University of Oregon and did an internship at the University of Washington. He then studied biochemistry at Cornell University and attended the Postgraduate School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1961-2004 he was the director of the Section of Endocrinology & Metabolism in the Department of Medicine at Tulane University School of Medicine. Dr. Bowers has served on the editorial board of several endocrine journals, was a member of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Study Section for eight years and has written over 400 articles in peer reviewed journals including chapters in books and over 200 abstracts.

Research Interests

Some noteworthy accomplishments include the development of TRH analogs, LHRH antagonists and the development of a new class of small synthetic peptides (GHRPs, growth hormone releasing peptides) that specifically release growth hormone in animals and humans. In 1969, the Van Meter Award was given to Drs. Bowers, Schally and Folkers for the isolation and identification of TRH. The work on TRH strongly supported that additional hypothalamic releasing hormones would be discovered which was accomplished within the next 2 years with the discovery of LHRH by Dr. Schally’s group and others followed in subsequent years. In 1998 he received the Monsanto Clinical Investigator Award from the Endocrine Society in recognition of his contribution in the field of hypothalamic hormones and his discovery of the GHRP pathway and its clinical and therapeutic importance.

Some of Dr. Bowers’ current and future objectives include development of 1) ghrelin receptor agonists for undernutrition, i.e., cancer, cachexia, starvation; 2) ghrelin receptor antagonists for overnutrition, i.e., obesity; 3) use of ghrelin agonists in diabetes; 4) use of ghrelin agonists to restore normal function of the GH-IGF-I axis in older men and women; 5)intranasal and long acting delivery systems for ghrelin agonists/antagonists, and to obtain licenses and funds for development of the ghrelin agonists/antagonists as well as for a completed Phase I LHRH antagonist.

Selected Publications

  1. Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, Mohan S, Baxter RC, Veldhuis JD, Bowers CY, Bouillon R. Reactivation of Pituitary Hormone Release and Metabolic Improvement by Infusion of Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide and Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone in Patients with Protracted Critical Illness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:2140-50. PMID:10199772
  2. Meacham LR, Culler FL, Abdul-Latif H, Sullivan KM, Bowers CY. Preservation of Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 During Prednisone Therapy. Metabolism 1999; 48(5):585-89. PMID:10337858
  3. Bowers CY. GH Releasing Peptides (GHRPs). Handbook of Physiology, Kostyo J, Goodman H, eds, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999; pg 267-297.
  4. Bowers CY. GHRP Historical Perspective Basic and Clinical. Human Growth Hormone Basic and Clinical Research. Contemporary Endocrinology. eds R. Smith, M. Conn, Humana Press, New York, pg 17-43, 2000.
  5. Bowers CY. Unnatural GHRP Begets Natural Ghrelin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:1464-1469. PMID:11297568
  6. Gondo RG, Aguiar-Oliveira MH, Hayashida CY, Toledo S, Abelin N, Levine MA, Bowers CY, Souza A, Pereira R, Santos N, Salvatori R. Growth Hormone (GH) Releasing Peptide-2 Stimulates GH Secretion in GH Deficient Patients with Mutated GH-Releasing Hormone Receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:3279-83.
  7. Van den Berghe G, Baxter RC, Weekers F, Woeters P, Bowers CY, Iranmanesh A, Veldhuis JD, Bouillon R. The combined administration of GHRP-2, TRH and GnRH to men with prolonged critical illness evokes superior endocrine and metabolic effects compared to treatment with GHRP-2 alone. Clin Endo 2002;
    56:655-669. PMID:12030918
  8. Tannenbaum GA, Epelbaum J, Bowers CY. Interrelationship between the novel peptide ghrelin and somatostatin/growth hormone-releasing hormone in regulation of pulsatile growth hormone secretion. Endocrinology 2003; 967-974. PMID:12586774
  9. Mericq V, Cassorla F, Bowers CY, Avila A, Gonen B, Merriam G. Changes in Appetite and Body Weight in Response to Long Term Oral Administration of the Ghrelin Agonist GHRP-2 in GH Deficient Children. J Pediatric Endocrinol Metab 2003; 16:981-985.  PMID:14513874
  10. Bowers CY. Historical Milestones. Ghrelin. Ghigo E, ed, Klerwer Academic Publishers, Boston/London; 2004, pg 1-13.
  11. Iranmanesh A, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Activation of Somatostatin-Receptor Subtype (SSTR)-2/5 Suppresses the Mass, Frequency and Irregularity of GHRP-2 Growth Hormone Secretion in Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:4581-87.  PMID:15356066
  12. Inui A, Asakawa A, Bowers CY, Mantovani G, Laviano A, Meguid M, Fujimiya M. Ghrelin, Appetite, and Growth-The Emerging Role of the Stomach as an Endocrine Organ. FASEB J 2004; 18:439-456.  PMID:15003990
  13. Bowers CY, Granda-Ayala R, Mohan S, Kuipers J, Baylink D, Veldhuis JD. Sustained Elevation of Pulsatile GH Secretion and IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 Concentration during 30-Day Continuous Infusion of GHRP-2 in Older Men and Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:2290-2300. PMID:15126555
  14. Veldhuis JD, Roemmich JN, Richmond EJ, Rogol AD, Lovejoy JC. Sheffield-Moore M, Mauras N, Bowers CY. Endocrine Control of Body Composition in Infancy, Childhood, and Puberty. Endoc Rev 2005; 26:114-146. PMID:15689575
  15. Laferrere B, Abraham C, Russell CD, Bowers CY. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide -2 (GHRP-2), Like Ghrelin, Increases Food Intake in Healthy Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:611-614.  PMID:15699539
  16. Veldhuis JD, Anderson SM, Iranmanesh A, Bowers CY. Testosterone Blunts Feedback Inhibition of Growth Hormone Secretion by Experimentally Elevated Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Concentration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:1613-1617. PMID:15585557
  17. Erickson D, Keenan DM, Farhy L, Mielke K, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Determinants of Dual Secretagogue Drive of Burst Like Growth Hormone Secretion in Premenopausal Women Studied Under a Selective estradiol Clamp. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:1741-1751. PMID:15613434
  18. Soares-Welsh C, Farhy L, Mielke KL, Mahmud FH, Miles JL, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Complementary Secretagogue Pairs Unmask Prominent Gender-related Contrasts in Mechanisms of Growth Hormone Pulse Renewal in Young Adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:2225-2232. PMID:15634714
  19. Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Bowers CY. Joint Mechanisms of Impaired GH Pulse Renewal in Aging Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:4177-4183. PMID:15811926
  20. Bowers CY. Octanoyl Ghrelin is Hypothalamic Rooted. Endocrinology 2005; 146:2508-2509. PMID:15897269
  21. Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Mielke K, Miles JM, Bowers CY. Testosterone supplementation in healthy older men drives GH and IGF-I secretion without potentiating peptidyl secretagogue efficacy. Eur J Endocrinol 2005; 153:1-10. PMID:16189179
  22. Fintini D, Alba M, Schally AV, Bowers CY, Parlow AF,  Salvatori R. Effects of Combined Long Term Treatment with a Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Analogue and a Growth Hormone Secretagogue in the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Knock Out Mouse. Neuroendocrinology 2005; 82(3-4):198-207. PMID:15985453
  23. Veldhuis JD, Roemmich JN, Richmond EJ, Bowers CY. Somatotropic and Gonadotropic Axes Linkages in Infancy, Childhood and the Puberty-Adult Transition. Endocr Rev 2006; 27(2):101-40. PMID:16434512
  24. Bowers CY, Chang J-K, Wu S, Linse KD, Hurley DL, Veldhuis JD. Biochemistry of Growth Hormone Secretagogue Molecules, In: Fat Loss, Wasting and Cachexia in Medicine. (Ed:) Schuster, M. and Mantovani, G. Springer Verlag, Chapter 5.7, 2006. p 219-234.
  25. Laferrere B, Hart AB, Bowers CY. Obese Subjects Respond to the Stimulatory Effect of the Ghrelin Analogue Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide-2 (GHRP-2) on Food Intake. Obesity 2006; 14(6):1056-63. PMID:16861611
  26. Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Mielke K, Miles JM, Carpenter PC, Bowers CY. Ghrelin Potentiates Growth Hormone Secretion Driven by Putative Somatostatin Withdrawal and Resists Inhibition by Human Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91(6)2441-6. PMID:16537682
  27. Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Iranmanesh A, Mielke K, Miles JM, Bowers CY. Estradiol Potentiates Ghrelin-Stimulated Pulsatile GH Secretion in Postmenopausal Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91(9):3559-65. PMID:16804038
  28. Farhy LS, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Model-Projected Mechanistic Bases for Sex Differences in Growth-Hormone (GH) Regulation in the Human. Am J Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2007; 292(4):R1577-93. PMID:17185408
  29. Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Bowers CY. Estimation of the Size and Shape of GH Secretory Burst in Healthy Women Using a Physiological Estradiol Clamp and Variable-Waveform Deconvolution Model. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007; 293(3):R1013-21. PMID:17537842
  30. Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Bowers CY. Peripheral Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Selectivity Modulates the Waveform of GH Secretory Burst in Healthy Women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007; 293(4):R1514-21. PMID:17686882
  31. Iranmanesh A, Carpenter PC, Mielke K, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Putative Somatostatin Suppression Potentiates ACTH Secretion Driven by Ghrelin and Human Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92(9):3653-9. PMID:17566099
  32. Veldhuis JD, Cosma M, Erickson D, Paulo R, Mielke K, Farhy LS, Bowers CY. Tripartite Control of Growth Hormone Secretion in Women during Controlled Estradiol Repletion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92:2336-2345. PMID:17405836
  33. Bowers CY, Laferrere B, Hurley D, Veldhuis JD. The Role of GHS and Ghrelin in Feeding and Body Composition. Metabolism and Obesity, Research and Clinical Applications. (Ed) Patricia A. Donohoue, MD, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey 2008, p. 125-154.
  34. Bowers CY, Merriam GR, Veldhuis JD. Validation of Growth-Hormone-Releasing Peptide-2 for the Diagnosis of Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2008; 4(2):68-9. PMID:17971793
  35. Cosma M, Bailey J, Miles JM, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Pituitary and/or Peripheral Estrogen-Receptor Alpha ER{alpha}) Regulated FSH Secretion Whereas Non-pituitary/peripheral/ER {alpha} Pathways Direct GH and Prolactin Secretion in Postmenopausal Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 93(3):951-8. PMID:18089703
  36. Paulo RC, Cosma M, Soares-Welch C, Bailey JN, Mielke KL, Miles JM, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Gonadal Status and Body-Mass Index Jointly Determine GHRH/GHRP Synergy in Healthy Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93(3):944-50. PMID:18073313
  37. Perboni S, Bowers CY, Kojima S, Asakawa A, Inui A. Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide 2 Reverses Anorexia Associated with Chemotherapy with 5-Fluoruracil in Colon Cancer Cell-Bearing Mice. World J Gastroenterology 2008; 14(41): 6303-05. PMID:19009643
  38. Veldhuis JD, Reynolds GA, Iranmanesh A, Bowers CY. Twenty-Four Hour Continuous Ghrelin Infusion Augments Physiologically Pulsatile Nycthemeral and Entropic (feedback-regulated) Modes of Growth Hormone Secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93(9):3597-603. PMID:18593763
  39. Kok P, Paulo R, Cosma M, Mielke KL, Miles JM, Bowers CY, Veldhuis, JD. Estrogen Supplementation Selectively Enhances Hypothalamo-Pituitary Sensitivity to Ghrelin in Postmenopausal Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93(10):4020-6. PMID:18611978
  40. Paulo R, Brundage R, Cosma M, Mielke KL, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Estrogen Elevates the Peak Overnight Production Rate of Acylated Ghrelin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93(11):4440-7. PMID:18697865
  41. Veldhuis JD, Cosma M, Soares-Welch C, Paulo R, Miles JM, Bowers, CY. Aromatase and 5alpha-Reductase Inhibition during an Exogenous Testosterone Clamp Unveils Selective Sex-Steroid Modulation of Somatostatin and Growth Hormone Secretagogue Actions in Healthy Older Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; [Epub ahead of print] PMID 19088159.
  42. Kudoh K, Shibata C, Funayama Y, Fukushima K, Ueno T, Hayashi K, Inui A, Bowers CY, Sasaki I. The effect of growth hormone releasing peptide-2 on upper gastrointestinal contractile activity and food intake in conscious dogs. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44(4):297-304. doi: 10.1007/s00535-009-0025-y. Epub 2009 Mar 7. PMID:19271111
  43. Veldhuis JD, Bowers CY. Determinants of GH-releasing hormone and GH-releasing peptide synergy in men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 May;296(5):E1085-92. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.91001.2008. Epub 2009 Feb 24. PMID:19240251
  44. Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Bailey JN, Adeniji AM, Miles JM, Bowers CY. Novel relationships of age, visceral adiposity, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein concentrations to growth hormone (GH) releasing-hormone and GH releasing-peptide efficacies in men during experimental hypogonadal clamp. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jun;94(6):2137-43. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-0136. Epub 2009 Apr 7. PMID:19351723
  45. Veldhuis JD, Bowers CY. Factors other than sex steroids modulate GHRH and GHRP-2 efficacies in men: evaluation using a GnRH agonist/testosterone clamp. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jul;94(7):2544-50. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-2767. Epub 2009 Apr 7. PMID:19351731
  46. Veldhuis JD, Keenan DM, Bailey JN, Miles JM, Bowers CY. Preservation of GHRH and GH-releasing peptide-2 efficacy in young men with experimentally induced hypogonadism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Aug;161(2):293-300. doi: 10.1530/EJE-09-0270. Epub 2009 May 20. PMID:19458139
  47. Veldhuis JD, Hudson SB, Erickson D, Bailey JN, Reynolds GA, Bowers CY. Relative effects of estrogen, age, and visceral fat on pulsatile growth hormone secretion in healthy women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Aug;297(2):E367-74. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00230.2009. Epub 2009 May 26. PMID:19470834
  48. Hudson SB, Schroeder DR, Bailey JN, Mielke KL, Erickson D, Miles JM, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Pre- versus postmenopausal age, estradiol, and peptide-secretagogue type determine pulsatile growth hormone secretion in healthy women: studies using submaximal agonist drive and an estrogen clamp. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95(1):353-60. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-1769. Epub 2009 Oct 26. PMID:19858315
  49. Veldhuis JD, Bowers CY. Integrating GHS into the Ghrelin System. Int J Pept. 2010;2010. pii: 879503. doi: 10.1155/2010/879503. Epub 2010 Mar 18. PMID:20798846
  50. Iranmanesh A, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Secretagogue type, sex-steroid milieu, and abdominal visceral adiposity individually determine secretagogue-stimulated cortisol secretion. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Jun;162(6):1043-9. doi: 10.1530/EJE-10-0149. Epub 2010 Mar 18. PMID:20299490
  51. Veldhuis JD, Erickson D, Miles JM, Bowers CY. Complex regulation of GH autofeedback under dual-peptide drive: studies under a pharmacological GH and sex steroid clamp. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jun;300(6):E1158-65. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00054.2011. Epub 2011 Apr 5. PMID:21467302
  52. Veldhuis JD, Erickson D, Wigham J, Weist S, Miles JM, Bowers CY. Gender, sex-steroid, and secretagogue-selective recovery from growth hormone-induced feedback in older women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug;96(8):2540-7. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-0298. Epub 2011 May 25. PMID:21613353
  53. Veldhuis JD, Bowers CY. Regulated recovery of pulsatile growth hormone secretion from negative feedback: a preclinical investigation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Oct;301(4):R1143-52. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00293.2011. Epub 2011 Jul 27. PMID:21795635
  54. Bowers CY. History to the discovery of ghrelin. Methods Enzymol. 2012;514:3-32. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-381272-8.00001-5. PMID:22975043
  55. Veldhuis JD, Norman C, Miles JM, Bowers CY. Sex steroids, GHRH, somatostatin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-1 modulate ghrelin's dose-dependent drive of pulsatile GH secretion in healthy older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4753-60. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-2567. Epub 2012 Sep 18. PMID:22990092
  56. Norman C, Miles J, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Differential pulsatile secretagogue control of GH secretion in healthy men. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013 May 1;304(9):R712-9. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00069.2013. Epub 2013 Mar 13. PMID:23485864
  57. Norman C, Rollene N, Erickson D, Miles J, Bowers C, Veldhuis JD. Estradiol Regulates GH Releasing-Peptide's Interactions with GH-Releasing Hormone and Somatostatin in Postmenopausal Women. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Oct 10. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:24114435
  58. Norman C, Rollene N, Weist SM, Wigham JR, Erickson D, Miles JM, Bowers CY, Veldhuis JD. Short-Term Estradiol Supplementation Potentiates Low-Dose Ghrelin Action in the Presence of GHRH or Somatostatin in Older Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:24203062

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