Just-in-Time-Teaching (JiTT)


What is JiTT?

Just-in-Time-Teaching (JiTT) is a new teaching & learning method designed to engage students by using feedback from pre-class web-based assignments to adjust class sessions so that they are focused primarily on areas identified by students as being difficult, confusing or particularly challenging. This method encourages students to take control of the learning process, and to become more active, interested learners. It was originally developed by a group of professors at Indiana University-Purdue University, the US Airforce Academy & Davidson College. The three main parts of JiTT are: 

  1. a pre-class reading assignment with specific learning objectives.
  2. a short graded web-based quiz that must be completed the night before class; the last question is a short essay question asking "what objective did you find most difficult or confusing? If nothing was challenging, explain what you found most useful. (Blackboard will grade multiple choice questions automatically)
  3. a class session focused on solving problems related to the identified areas of difficulty (or main concepts if everything was clear). Peer Instruction is another active learning problem-solving strategy that can be used in class to maximize learning.

The two main pedagogical goals of JiTT are:

  1. to maximize the efficacy of the classroom session
  2. to structure out of class time


  1. Novak GM, Patterson ET, Gavrin AD, Christian W. Just-in-Time-Teaching: Blending Active Learning with Web Technology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 1999. (ISBN 0-13-085034-9)
  2. Simkins S, Maier MH. Just-in-Time-Teaching. Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy. Stylus Publishing. Sterling VA. 2010. (ISBN: 978-1-57922-293-2)


  2. Novak GM, Patterson ET: Just-in-Time Teaching: active learner pedagogy with www. (
  3. Novak GM, Middendorf J: Just-in-Time Teaching. 2004 article:
  4. Gregor Novak, one of the founders of JiTT, is a professor of physics at Indiana University-Purdue Univ Indianapolis
  5. . A pedagogic portal "Pedagogy in Action" provided by the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College. The site includes a description of JiTT, JiTT research, how to use JiTT, and a library of JiTT examples.


  1. Benedict J, Anderton J: Applying the Just-in-Time Teaching approach to teaching statistics. Teaching of Psychology 31(3):197-99, 2004.
  2. Chambers KA, Blake B: Enhancing student performance in first-semester general chemistry using active feedback through the world wide web. J Chemical Educ 84(7): 1130-1135, 2007.
  3. Klionsky DJ: Constructing knowledge in the lecture hall: A quiz-based, group-learning approach to introductory biology. J College Science Teaching 31(4):246-251, 2002.
  4. Linneman S, Plake T: Searching for the difference: A controlled test of just-in-time-teaching for large-enrollment introductory geology courses. J Geosci Educ 54(1):18-24, 2006.
  5. Luo W: Just-in-Time-Teaching (JiTT) improves students' performance in classes - adaptation of JiTT in four geography courses. J Geosci Educ 56(2):166-171, 2008.
  6. Marrs KA, Novak G: Just-in-Time Teaching in biology: creating an active learner classroom using the internet. Cell Biol Educ 3:49-61, 2004.
  7. McDaniel CN, Lister BC, Hanna MH, Roy H: Increased learning observed in redesigned introductory biology course that employed web-enhanced, interactive pedagogy. Cell Biol Educ 6:243-249, 2007.
  8. Simkins S, Maiser M: Using Just-in-Time Teaching techniques in the principles of economics course. Social Science Computer Review 22(4):444-56, 2004.
  9. Slunt KM, Giancarlo LC: Student-centered learning: A comparison of two different methods of instruction. J Chemical Education 81(7):985-988, 2004.


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