39 References on Active Learning


Books & Book Chapters

  1. Blumberg P. Developing Learner-Centered Teaching. A Practical Guide for Faculty. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco, CA, 2009.
  2. Bransford JD, Brown AL, Cocking RR. How People Learn. Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 2000.
  3. Fink L D: Creating Significant Learning Experiences. An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco CA, 2003.
  4. Huba ME, Freed JE. Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses. Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning. Allyn & Bacon. Boston. 2000.
  5. Myers C, Jones TB. Promoting Active Learning. Strategies for the College Classroom. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco, CA, 1993.
  6. Silberman A. 101 Ways to Make Training Active. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc, San Francisco, CA, 2005.
  7. Simkins S, Maier MH. Just-in-Time-Teaching. Across the Disciplines, Across the Academy. Stylus Publishing, Sterling VA, 2010.
  8. Thomas PA: Step 4. Educational Strategies. Chapter 5. In: Curriculum Development for Medical Education. A Six-Step Approach. 2nd Edition. Kern DE, Thomas PA, Hughes MT (Editors). Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore. 2009.
  9. Weimer M. Learner-Centered Teaching. Five Key Changes to Practice. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco, 2002.


Journal Articles

  1. Cameron VL: Teaching advanced genetics without lectures. Genetics. 165:945-950, 2003.
  2. Carvalho H: Active teaching and learning for a deeper understanding of physiology. Adv Physiol Educ 33:132-133, 2009.
  3. Cherney ID: The effects of active learning on students' memories for course content. Active Learning in Higher Education 9(2) 152-171, 2008.
  4. Chickering AW, Gamson ZF: Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, 39(7):3-7, 1987.
  5. Crowe A, Dirks C, Wenderoth MP: Biology in Bloom: Implementing Bloom's Taxonomy to Enhance Student Learning in Biology  CBE Life Sci Educ. 7(4): 368–381, 2008.
  6. DeBourgh GA: Use of classroom “clickers” to promote acquisition of advanced reasoning skills. Nurse Education in Practice 8:76-87, 2008.
  7. Doucet M, Vrins A, Harvey D: Effect of using an audience response system on learning environment, motivation and long-term retention, during case-discussions in a large group of undergraduate veterinary clinical pharmacology students. Medical Teacher 31: e570-e579, 2009.
  8. Freeman S, O'Connor E, Parks JW, Cunningham M, Hurley D, Haak D, Dirks C, Wenderoth MP: Prescribed active learning increases performance in introductory biology. CBE Life Sci Educ 6:132-139, 2007.
  9. Gauci SA, Dantas AM, Williams DA, Kemm RE: Promoting student-centered active learning in lectures with a personal response system. Adv Physiol Educ 33:60-71, 2009.
  10. Gonzalez HL, Palencia AP, Umana LA, Galindo L, Villafrade M LA: Mediated learning experience and concept maps: a pedagogical tool for achieving meaningful learning in medical physiology students. Adv Physiol Educ 32: 312-316, 2008.
  11. Graffam B: Active learning in medical education: strategies for beginning implementation. Medical Teacher 29:38-42, 2007.
  12. Hoskins SG, Stevens LM: Learning our L.I.M.I.T.S.: less is more in teaching science. Adv Physiol Educ 33:17-20, 2009.
  13. Knight JK, Wood WB: Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biol Educ 4:298-310, 2005.
  14. Krontiris-Litowitz J: Using truncated lectures, conceptual exercises, and manipulatives to improve learning in the neuroanatomy classroom. Adv Physiol Educ 32:152-156, 2008.
  15. Lord TR: 101 reasons for using cooperative learning in biology teaching. Amer Biol Teacher 63(1): 30-38, 2001.
  16. Luckie DB, Maleszewski JJ, Loznak SD, Krha M: Infusion of collaborative inquiry throughout a biology curriculum increases student learning: a four-year study of "Teams and Streams". Adv Physiol Educ 287:199-209, 2004.
  17. Meltzer DE, Manivannan K: Transforming the lecture-hall environment: the fully interactive physics lecture. Am J Phys 70(6):639-654, 2002.
  18. Michael J: Where’s the evidence that active learning works? Adv Physiol Educ 30: 159-167; 2006.
  19. Preszler RW, Dawe A, Shuster CB, Shuster M: Assessment of the effects of student response systems on student learning and attitudes over a broad range of biology courses. Cell Biol Educ 6:29-41, 2007.
  20. Prince M: Does active learning work? A review of the research. J Engr Education 93(3): 223-231; 2004.
  21. Schackow TE, Chavez M, Loya L, Friedman M: Audience response system: Effect on learning in family medicine. Family Medicine 36: 496-504, 2004.
  22. Silverthorn DU: Teaching and learning in the interactive classroom. Adv Physiol Educ 30: 135-140, 2006.
  23. Smith KA, Sheppard SD, Johnson DW, Johnson RT: Pedagogies of engagement: classroom-based practices. J Engr Educ  January 1-15, 2005.
  24. Smith MK, Wood WB, Adams WK, Wieman C, Knight JK, Guild N, Su TT: Why peer discussion improves student performance on in-class concept questions. Science 323: 122-124, 2009.
  25. Springer L, Stanne ME, Donovan SS: Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: a meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research 69 (1): 21-51, 1999.

Active Learning & Long Term Retention

  1. Cortright RN, Collins HL, Rodenbaugh DW, DiCarlo SE: Student retention of course content is improved by collaborative-group testing. Adv Physiol Educ 27(3):102-108, 2003.
  2. Francis GE, Adams JP, Noonan EJ: Do they stay fixed? Physics Teacher 36:488-490, 1998.
  3. Halpern DF, Hakel MD: Applying the science of learning to the university and beyond. Teaching for long-term retention and transfer. Change 35(4) July/August: 36-41 2003.


Online Resources

  1. Bonwell CC, Eison JA: Active learning: creating excitement in the classroom. The National Teaching & Learning Forum. (accessed 3/6/09)
  2. Johnson DW, Johnson RT, Stanne MB: Cooperative learning methods: a meta-analysis.

National Calls for Reform in Education:

  1. DiCarlo SE: Cell biology should be taught as science is practiced. Nature Reviews Mol Cell Biol 7: 290-296, 2006.
  2. National Commission on Excellence in Education. A Nation at Risk: the Imperative for Reform. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1983. (the first of many calls for reform of K-12 science education in the US)
  3. Association of American Medical Colleges. Physicians for the Twenty-First Century, the GPEP Report. Washington DC: Association of American Medical Colleges, 1984.  (AAMC call for significant changes in the teaching of basic sciences to medical students)
  4. Handelsman J, Ebert-May D, Belchner R, Bruns P, Chang A, DeHaan R, Gentile J, Lauffer S, Stewart J, Tilghman SM, Wood WB: Scientific Teaching. Science 304: 521-522, 2004.
  5. National Research Council on Undergraduate Biology Education to Prepare Research Scientists for the 21st Century. BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Washington DC: National Academy, 2003.



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