1. Researchers wished to examine whether people prefer feedback congruent with their self-concepts. Twenty individuals with a negative self concept and twenty individuals with a positive self concept (as determined by low and high scores on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale, respectively) were presented with negative and positive feedback about their personalities. The time that each person attended to each type of feedback was assessed.

2. Researchers wished to examine whether preference for feedback
congruent with self-concepts varied as a function of gender. Twenty individuals with a negative self concept and twenty individuals with a positive self concept (as determined by low and h
igh scores on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale, respectively)participated. Half of the individuals in each self concept group were men, and half were Participants were presented with either negative or positive feedback about their personalities. The time
that each person attended to the feedback was assessed.assessed.
**Note: this is an example of 3-way between groups ANOVA, not taught
since 7/03**

3. Researchers wished to examine whether preference for positive feedback was related to self esteem. They assessed scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale for forty individuals, then examined how long those individuals attended to positive feedback ab out their personalities.

4. Researchers wished to examine whether the relation between self-esteem and focus on positive feedback varied as a function of gender. They assessed scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale for forty men an for forty women, then examined how long tho se individuals attended to positive feedback about their personalities.

5. Researchers wished to examine whether self-esteem and gender covary. They counted the number of women who reported having high self esteem and the number who reported having low self esteem. They then repeated the process for men.

6. A researchers examined imprinting, as a function of species and maturity. He exposed newly hatched wood ducks, mallards, and domestic ducks to a rolling soccer ball. Then he measured their distance from the ball at 10, 15, and 30 hours post-hatch.

7. A researchers examined imprinting, as a function of species and maturity. He exposed newly hatched wood ducks, mallards, and domestic ducks to a rolling soccer ball. Then he measured their distance from the ball at 10, 15,or 30 hours post-hatch.

8. A teacher examined the effect of maturity on task persistence, as a function of the type of task. She followed20 children through 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade, and examined the number of minutes that they spent on reading as well as the number of minutes that they spent on math.

**This is an example of SxAxB, two-way
repeated measures. Not taught in Psyc212/667 since 7/03
9. A researcher is interested in whether body image consciousness predicts
negative
generalized metaperceptions (i.e., beliefs that others view one negatively). She assesses
body image using an established aggregate measure of body image, and also obtains a rating on
a 7-point scale on generalized metaperceptions. Recognizing that being overweight could add
unwanted noise in the analysis, she also indexes height-to-weight ratio to include in the
analysis.
**

__Answers__

1. DV: feedback preference operationalized by attention time

IVs: self concept, operationalized by low versus high scores on Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (between) and feedback congruency, operationalized by negative and positive personality feedback (within)

S/AxB

2. DV: feedback preference operationalized by attention time

IVs: self concept, operationalized by low versus high scores on Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (between) and feedback congruency, operationalized by negative or positive personality feedback (between) and gender (between)

3-way between groups ANOVA

3. Question is: are two continuous variables related?

correlation

4. Question is are two continuous variables related differently across groups?

z-test for independent correlations

5. All we have are frequencies, falling into a dimensional structure: gender and self-esteem

chi-square test of independence

6. DV: imprinting, operationalized by distance from ball

IVs: species, operationalized by wood, mallard, or domestic ducks (between) and maturity, operationalized by 10, 15, and 30 hours post-hatch (within)

S/AxB

7. DV: imprinting, operationalized by distance from ball

IVs: species, operationalized by wood, mallard, or domestic ducks (between) and maturity, operationalized by 10, 15, or 30 hours post-hatch (between)

2way between groups ANOVA

8. DV: persistence, operationalized by time on task

IVs: maturity, operationalized as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade (within) and task type, operationalized as math and reading (within)

SxAxB
9. DV (or criterion) is negative metaperceptions, operationalized by the score on a 7-point
scale

The predictor of interest is 'body image consciousness' also operationalized by a scale

,
but the researcher also recognizes that 'height-to-weight' ratio could affect the findings.
Its a predictor, but used as a control variable.

Hierarchical regression, entering 'height-to-weight' first, then assessing whether body image
consciousness predicts above and beyond.