Sponsored by the American Ornithologists' Union, the British Ornithologists' Union, and Birds Australia

January  2001


Subject heading Code
Avian biology & life history  
General or Worldwide B102
Africa, sub-Saharan & Madagascar B104
Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand B108
Europe & Iceland B110
Mexico, Central America, & Caribbean B112
North Africa & Middle East  B116
North America & Greenland B118
Northern Hemisphere B122
Oceanic islands not incl. elsewhere  B124
Oriental (India, SE Asia, Indonesia,Philippines) B128
South America B130
Behavior & communication B300
Agonistic, aggressive & defensive behavior B302
Learning, memory, & intelligence B304
Locomotion (Flight, swimming, walking, etc) B306
Self-maintenance (Daily time budget, preening, bathing, anting, roosting) B308
Sensory perception (Auditory, magnetic, olfactory, tactile, visual sensing) B310
Sexual behavior (Courtship, pair bonding, copulation) B312
Social and interspecific behavior (Colonial behavior, social organization) B314
Territoriality & home range  B316
Visual signals B318
Vocalizations & other sounds B320
Birds & humans B500
Collisions & other artificial fatalities B502
Damage to crops or fisheries B504
Gamebird management & hunting B508
Introduced species (non-game) B509
Uses of birds by humans B510
Breeding habits B700
Breeding schedule & dates B702
Brood parasitism , egg dumping, & foster parenting B704
Cooperative or communal breeding B706
Effects of human studies or presence B708
Eggs & incubation, including egg physiology & morphology B710
Extra-pair mating, paternity B712
Mating systems, sex ratio B714
Nesting habitat, nest site, & structure B716
Parental care & feeding B718
Young, from hatching to fledging (Growth & Development) B720
Conservation B900
Captives (Maintenance, rehabilitation, & release) B902
Declining & endangered species B904
Education programs, politics, planning B906
Effects of human disturbance or environmental changes B908
Habitat protection & management; importance of non-breeding habitats B910
Species protection & recovery B912
Wild bird trade B914
Diseases, parasites, & pathology  
Diseases & disease transmission C102
Parasites: external & internal C104
Distribution & avifaunas  
Africa, sub-Saharan & Madagascar C304
Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand C308
Europe & Iceland C310
Mexico, Central America, & Caribbean C312
North America & Greenland C318
Northern Asia & Far East C320
Oceanic islands not incl. elsewhere C324
Oriental (India, SE Asia, Indonesia, Philippines) C328
South America C330
Documentation C700
Bibliographies, databases, & atlases C702
Biographies, obituaries, & history C704
Collecting & collections, taxonomic specimens C706
Terminology C708
Ecology, environment, & populations C900
Biocides & pollution C902
Birds as environmental monitors C904
Climate & weather effects C906
Habitat change, selection, & use; community structure, habitat suitability models C908
Impacts by birds on their environment C909
Life span & survivorship C910
Mortality causes C912
Population numbers, censuses, trends, & dynamics  C914
Predation & predators  C916
Reproductive effort & productivity C918
Site fidelity & dispersal C920
Species composition & competition; biodiversity C922
Trophic levels, energy cycles, & related relationships C924
Winter and migration habitat & habits C926
Evolution & systematics  
Classification & phylogeny D103
Evolutionary patterns, rates, & processes: species or higher taxa D105
Co-evolution or interaction between avian and non-avian species D106
Intraspecific variation D108
New and rediscovered taxa D110
Taxonomy & nomenclature D114
Food habits & nutrition  
Diet, food selection, & nutrition D302
Drinking, pellet-casting, & defecation D304
Foraging habits, food transport, storage D306
Kleptoparasitism D308
Genetics & hybridization D500
Behavioral and population genetics D502
Genetic polymorphism, cytogenetics and molecular genetics D504
Hybrids & progeny D508
Species and subspecies identification D702
Sex or age class identification D704
Migration & navigation D900
Migratory behavior D902
Migratory dates, timing, counts, & routes D904
Migratory physiology D906
Navigation & homing D908
Morphology & physiology  
Abnormal external appearance E101
Circulatory and lymphatic systems E102
Digestive system E104
Endocrine system & hormones E108
Excretory system & water metabolism (Urinary structures, nasal glands) E110
Integument (Feathers, molts, plumages, integumentary structures, skin) E114
General morphology (Body size, sexual dimorphism, regional morphology) E116
Physiology & biochemistry (Body composition, day length effects, energy metabolism, lipid physiology, protein physiology) E118
Reproductive system & physiology E120
Respiratory system E122
Sensory & nervous system E124
Skeletomuscular system E126
Jurassic & Cretaceous fossils E302
Paleocene, Eocene, & Oligocene fossils E304
Pleistocene & Holocene fossils & subfossils E308
Biochemical or biophysical assay E502
Captive breeding, care, & rehabilitation E504
Censuses, maps, & surveys E506
Environmental monitoring E508
Feeding methods and diet analysis E509
Field methods not included elsewhere E510
Genetic methods E512
Mathematical models E514
Nesting studies E515
Photographic & video documentation E516
Physiological methods E518
Predator and nuisance control E520
Sound recording E522
Tracking & remote monitoring E524
Trapping, netting, banding, & marking E526

Acknowledgments: We appreciate the work of the following abstractors who contributed to this issue: Luis J. Alberto, Rob T. Barrett, Peter H. Becker, PRB [unknown abstractor], William E. Davis, Jr., Robert J. Dowsett, Kevin Eddings, Ian Endersby, David L. Evans, John R. Faaborg, David E. Fatina, William M. Gilbert, Paul A. Grindrot, George A. Hall, Jo-Ann Jennier, William P. Johnson, Richard F. Johnston, Michael J. Justice, Anthony L. Lang, Sheriden N. Leckie, Gina C. Levesque, Martin K. McNicholl, Robert W. Nero, G. Olioso, John M. Peter, James R. Phillips, Ghislain Rompre, Ian Rowley, Edward I. Saiff, Jay M. Sheppard, Will Steele, Angela K. Turner, Mutsuyuki Ueta, Tomasz Wesolowski.

Serials: The following serials are represented by abstracts in this issue:

Acarologia 40 (2000)

Alberta Naturalist 28 (1998)

Alytes R.E.C.N. 5--8 (1991, 1993, 1995, 1996)

American Birds 43 (1989)

American Naturalist 151–153 (1998, 1999)

Animal Behaviour 56--58 (1998, 1999)

Ardeola 42--46 (1995--1999)

Australian Bird Watcher 18 (1999)

Australian Entomologist 26 (1999)

Australian Zoologist 31 (1999)

Biotropica 29 (1997)

Bird Conservation International 9 (1999)

Bird Observer (Massachusetts) 27 (1999)

Birders Journal 8 (1999)

Birds Australia Report Series 5, 6, 7 (1999)

Blue Jay 52, 56, 57 (1994, 1998, 1999)

British Columbia Birds 6, 7 (1996, 1997)

Bulletin of the Kansas Ornithological Society 42, 49, 50 (1991, 1998, 1999)

Canadian Field-Naturalist 113 (1999)

Canadian Journal of Zoology 74, 75 (1996, 1997)

Condor 100–102 (1998–2000)

Conservation Biology 11, 12 (1995, 1996)

Corella 23 (1999)

Current Ornithology 9, 12–14 (1992, 1995–1997)

Doñana A. Vert. 21--24 (1994–1997)

Ecología 9, 12 (1995, 1998)

Emu 99 (1999), 100 (2000)

Environmental Pollution 91, 92, 95--97 (1996, 1997)

Faune de Provence 19 (1998)

Forktail 15 (1999)

Gli Uccelli d'Italia 20, 21 (1995, 1996)

Journal für Ornithologie 140, 141 (1999, 2000)

Journal of Avian Biology 30 (1999)

Journal of Parasitology 85 (1999)

Journal of Raptor Research 32–34 (1998–2000)

Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35, 36 (1999, 2000)

Kukila 10 (1998)

La Garcilla 93, 95, 96 (1995, 1996)

Landscope 13 (1998), 15 (1999)

Loon 71 (1999)

Miscellania Zoologica 17--21 (1993--1998)

New Jersey Birds 25, 26 (1999, 2000)

Notatki Ornitologiczne 39, 40 (1998, 1999)

Ontario Birds 16 (1998)

Ontario Field Ornithologist (1998)

Oriental Bird Club Bulletin 27, 28 (1998), 29, 30 (1999)

Ornithos 6 (1999)

Passenger Pigeon 60, 61 (1998, 1999)

Queensland Naturalist 37 (1999)

Redstart 64, 65 (1997, 1998)

Science 285, 286 (1999)

Stilt 34, 35 (1999)

Strix 18 (2000)

Tichodroma 9, 10 (1996, 1997)

U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Forest Service, PSW-GTR-120, 124, 144 (1990, 1993)

U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Forest Service, NC-GTR-190 (1997)

U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Forest Service, RM-GTR-229 (1993)

Victorian Naturalist 116 (1999)

Wetlands 19 (1999)

Wildlife Society Bulletin 27 (1999)

{B104} Fjeldsa, J. 1999. The impact of human forest disturbance on the endemic avifauna of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 47--62. (Ctr. Trop. Biodiversity, Zool. Mus., Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark; EM: communities in adjacent mature and disturbed forests compared; Model design presented for other studies needing quantitative data but facing logistical constraints during exploratory visits to areas of difficult access.---K.J.E. {B900, C900} {ROL #81}

{B104} Seddon, N., et al. 1999. Notes on the ecology and conservation status of key bird species in Nilo and Nguu North Forest Reserves, Tanzania. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 9--28. (Dept. Zool., Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK.) {B904, C908} {ROL #81}

{B104} Virani, M., & R. T. Watson. 1998. Raptors in the east African tropics and western Indian Ocean islands: state of ecological knowledge and conservation status. J. Raptor Res. 32: 28--39. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 W. Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709, USA.) {B904, C908} {ROL #81}

{B108} Daugherty, C. H., M. Williams, & J. M. Hay. 1999. Genetic differentiation, taxonomy and conservation of Australasian teals Anas spp. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 29--42. (Dept. Biol., Pennsylvania St. Univ., 208 Mueller Lab., Univ. Pk., PA. 16802 USA.)---Analysis of genetic variation supports specific status of the 3 New Zealand teals (Anas chlorotis, Anas auklandica, Anas nesiotis) and increased conservation effort for each.---K.J.E. {B900, D114} {ROL #81}

{B108} Mooney, N. 1998. Status and conservation of raptors in Australia’s tropics. J. Raptor Res. 32: 64--73. (Parks and Wildl. Serv., GPO Box 44A, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia.) {B900} {ROL #81}

{B108} Olsen, J., & S. Trost. 1997. Territorial and nesting behavior in Southern Boobook (Ninox novaeseelandiae). USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 308--313. (Appl. Ecol. Res. Group, Fac. Educ., Univ. Canberra, PO Box 1, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia.)---First study of color-marked individuals of this species made during 1993--1997 differed from previous behavior accounts.---J.M.S. {B320, B302, B316, B702, B714, B718, C920} {ROL #81}

{B110} Blanco, G., et al. 1996. Breeding phenology and productivity of ducks in rivers of the Tajo Valley [Spain]. Ardeola 43 (1): 31--39. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Alacalá de Henares, E-28871 Madrid, España.) {B702, C918} {ROL #81}

{B110} Bort, J., & M. Surroca. 1995. Study of the breeding behaviour of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, and first data on migration in the province of Castellón [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 297--316. (G.E.R. Obispo Rocamora 37-2º A. E-12540. Villa Real, Castellón, España.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{B110} Coles, C. F., & S. J. Petty. 1997. Dispersal behavior and survival of juvenile Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) during the low point in a vole cycle. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 111--118. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Durham, Sci. Lab., South Rd., Durham DH1 3L3, UK.)---Radio-tracking data are discussed in relation to survival, movement patterns, food resources, and habitat preferences of juvenile owls.---J.M.S. (C910, C920} {ROL #81}

{B110} Costillo, E., C. Corbacho, & A. López. 1995. Status, phenology and habitat selection of the Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus, in the mid Guadiana basin [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 73--77. (Biol. Anim. Univ. Extremadura. Avda. de Elvas s/n. E-06071 Badajoz, España.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Fernández-Palacios, J., & C. Raya. 1993. The Crested Coot (Fulica cristata, Gmelin 1789) in the lower basin of Guadalquivir (Spain): Status and biology. Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 159--185. (Junta Andalucía, Agencia Medio Ambiente, Avda. Eritaña, 1, E-41071 Sevilla, España.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Lorenzo G., J. A., & J. González D. 1993. [Data on the biology of the last breeding population of the Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) in the province of Sta. Cruz de Tenerife {Canary Islands, Spain}, with a view to its future protection and conservation.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 199--219. (Depto. Zool., Fac. Biol., Univ. La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, España.) {B904, B912} {ROL #81}

{B110} Mancuso, C & A. Ceruso. 1997. The Bee-eater Merops apiaster in the Province of Salerno [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 39--44. (Via Zoccoli, 9 Salerno, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Martín A., M. 1993. [The White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in Barcarrota, Badajoz {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 45--50. (Olivo 8, E-06160 Barcarrota, Badajoz, España.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Mazzone, A. 1996. The result of a biennial research on the Red-rumped Swallow, Hirundo daurica, in Basilicata [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 75--77. (Via Sta. Teresa, 7. I-75019 Tricarico, MT, Italy). {ROL #81}

{B110} Navarro, J. D., F. Robledano, & A. Green. 1995. [The Marbled Teal, Marmaronetta angustirostris.] La Garcilla 93: 24--28. (C/O S.E.O., Ctra. de Húmera, 63, 1, E-28224 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Nystrom, K. G. K. 1997. Food density, song rate, and body condition in territory-establishing Willow Warblers (Phylloscopus trochilus). Can. J. Zool. 75: 47--58. (Karlbergsvagen 71B, S-113 35 Stockholm, Sweden.) {C900, B320, E118} {ROL #81}

{B110} Paracuellos R., M., et al. 1993. [Annual phenology of the ornithofauna in the saline marshes of Guardias Viejas {Spain}. Ornithological quality.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 317--333. (Zurbarán, 2-1ºB, E-04770 Adra, Almería, España.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Pilard, P. H., & L. Brun. 1998. [Breeding of the Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni in Crau, south-east France and management of breeding sites.] Faune de Provence 19: 43--50. (3 rue Marc Antoine, F-13104 Mas Thibert, France.)---48 pairs in 1997. Various type of nest-boxes. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {B912} {ROL #81}

{B110} Rodríguez, F., & A. Moreno. 1996. [The Teide Finch, Fringilla teydea.] La Garcilla 95: 24--26. (C/O S.E.O., Ctra. de Húmera, 63, 1, E-28224 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Sanchéz, J. A., et al. 1995. Distribution, status and notes on the biology of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Alicante and Murcia [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 339--348. (Depto. Biol. Anim. y Ecol., Univ. Murcia, Murcia, España.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Sergio, F., & A. Boto. 1999. Nest dispersion, diet, and breeding success of Black Kites (Milvus migrans) in the Italian pre-Alps. J. Raptor Res. 33: 207--217. (Edward Grey Inst. Field Ornithol., Dept. Zool., South Parks Road, Oxford 0X1 3PS, U.K.) {B716, D302, C918} {ROL #81}

{B110} Siverio, F., & J. Carrillo. 1993. [Habitat and reproduction of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Tenerife {Canary Islands, Spain}]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 231--240. (Rodelundvej 12, Rodelund, DK-8653 Them, Denmark.) {ROL #81}

{B110} Swaddle, J. P., & M. S. Witter. 1997. The effects of molt on the flight performance, body mass, and behavior of European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris): an experimental approach. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1135--1146. (Div. Environ. & Evol. Biol., Inst. Biomed. & Life Sci., The Graham Kerr Bldg., Univ. Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.) {E114, B306, D302} {ROL #81}

{B110} Swaddle, J. P., & M. S. Witter. 1997. Food availability and primary feather molt in European Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris. Can. J. Zool. 75: 948--953. (Div. Environ. & Evol. Biol., Inst. Biomed. & Life Sci., The Graham Kerr Bldg., Univ. Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.) {D302, E114} {ROL #81}

{B110} Tishechkin, A. K. 1997. Comparative food niche analysis of the Strix owls in Belarus. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 456--460. (Dept. Biol. Sci., 402 Life Sci. Bldg., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-1710, USA.)---Strix nebulosa, Strix uralensis, Strix aluco.---J.M.S. {D302} {ROL #81}

{B110} Tishechkin, A. K., et al. 1997. Breeding population of the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) in Belarus: Summary of recent knowledge. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 449--455. (Inst. Zool., Belarusian Sci. Acad., ul.F.Skoriny 27, 220090 Minsk, Belarus.)---Population of 50-100 pairs isolated by several hundred km from nearest known conspecifics.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B112} Gerhardt, R. P., & D. M. Gerhardt. 1997. Size, dimorphism, and related characteristics of Ciccaba owls from Guatemala. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 190--196. (341 NE Chestnut, Madras, OR 97741, USA.)---Results are at odds with important assumptions or predictions of numerous hypotheses regarding the evolution of reversed size dimorphism in owls. Ciccaba virgata, Ciccaba nigrolineata.---J.M.S. {B714, D704, E116} {ROL #81}

{B112} Schulze, M. D., et al. 2000. Behavior, diet, and breeding biology of Double-toothed Kites at a Guatemalan lowland site. Condor 102: 113--126. (Dept. Biol., 208 Mueller Lab, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA 16802, USA; EM: bidentatus. {Neotropical forest, raptor, B300, B700, D302} {ROL #81}

{B112} Seavy, N. E., & R. P. Gerhardt. 1998. Breeding biology and nestling diet of the Great Black-Hawk. J. Raptor Res. 32: 175--177. (17142 Lemolo Shr. Dr. N.E., Poulsbo, WA 98370, USA.)---Buteogallus urubitinga. {B700, B718} {ROL #81}

{B112} Winker, K., et al. 1997. Periodic migration and lowland forest refugia in a "sedentary" Neotropical bird, Wetmore’s Bush-Tanager. Conserv. Biol. 11: 692--697. (Univ. Alaska Mus., 907 Yukon Dr., Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA.)---Chlorospingus ophthalmicus wetmorei. {D902} {ROL #81}

{B116} Clouet, M., C. Barrau, & J.-L. Goar. 1999. The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Balé Mountains, Ethiopia. J. Raptor Res. 33: 102--109. (16 Avenue des Charmettes, 31500 Toulouse, France.)---Also Aquila verreauxii.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B116} Yosef, R., J. Boulos, & O. Tubbeshat. 1999. The Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) at Dana Nature Reserve, Jordan. J. Raptor Res. 33: 341--342. (Int. Birding and Res. Ctr. in Eilat, P.O. Box 774, Eilat 88000, Israel.) {ROL #81}

{B118} Anonymous. 1999. Erratum. Diet composition and reproductive success of Mexican Spotted Owls. J. Raptor Res. 33: 273. (No address given)---Correction of an error in the paper J. Raptor Res. 33(2): 143--148. At p. 143, 3rd sentence of abstract should read "This was contrary to previously observed diet patterns in Northern (Strix occidentalis caurina) and California Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). Mammals comprised 88.2% of the dietary biomass in Arizona and 94.0% in New Mexico."---P.A.G. {C918, D302} {ROL #81}

{B118} Frank, R. A., & R. S. Lutz. 1997. Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) productivity and home range characteristics in a shortgrass prairie. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 185--189. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol., Univ. Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706, USA.)---Study in Colorado of breeding owls with radios over 3 nesting seasons.---J.M.S. {B316, C918} {ROL #81}

{B118} Kristensen, J., K. J. Kristensen, & T. J. Kristensen. 1998. Great Horned and Short-eared owls at Bretona Pond. Alberta Nat. 28: 14--15. (23224 Township 515, Sherwood Park, AB T8B 1L1, Can.)---Behavioral and ecological notes on Bubo virginianus and Asio flammeus in Alberta, notably one Bubo virginianus hunting diurnally as frequently as nocturnally.---M.K.M. {D302} {ROL #81}

{B118} Mahony, N., E. Nol, & T. Hutchinson. 1997. Food-chain chemistry, reproductive success, and foraging behaviour of songbirds in acidified maple forests of central Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 75: 509--517. (76 Foster Ave., Guelph, ON. N1H 3B3, Can.)---Success of Poecile atricapillus and Dendroica pensylvanica in relation to food chain chemistry.---D.E.F. {C924, C918, D306} {ROL #81}

{B118} Marti, C. D. 1997. Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) breeding in deciduous forests. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 262--266. (Dept. Zool., Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT 84408-2505, USA; nest boxes, owls nested 34 times in 5 years; provides measures of productivity and habitat needs.---J.M.S. {B716, C918} {ROL #81}

{B118} Rottenborn, S. C. 2000. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of urban Red-shouldered Hawks in central California. J. Raptor Res. 34: 18--25. (H. T. Harvey Assoc., 3150 Almaden Expressway, Suite 145, San Jose, CA 95118, USA.)---Buteo lineatus. {B716, C918} {ROL #81}

{B118} Sadler, D. 1998. The 1995--1997 Great Gray Owl invasions in the Peterborough area [Ontario]. Ontario Birds 18: 81--87. (R.R. 4, Peterborough, ON K9J 6X5, Can.)---Summary of estimated 330 Strix nebulosa wintering in one portion of Ontario during the winter of 1995--1996 and 265 birds in a 1996--1997 "echo" flight, with details on age, duration of stay, and prey captured. The fact that most birds examined in the hand or closely in the field in 1995--1996 appeared to have fledged in 1994, while most in 1996--1997 appeared older suggests that many of the same birds may have been involved in both flights. Some details of earlier flights are included, and possible causes of these influxes are discussed.---M.K.M. {C914} {ROL #81}

{B122} Duncan, J. R., D. H. Johnson, & T. H. Nicholls, Eds. 1997. Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 1--635, + xxii. (Orders: N. Central Res. Stn., For. Serv.-US Dept. Agric., 1992 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA; also available: international symposium held Feb 5--9, 1997, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 86 papers (incl. posters and workshops), 5 other speeches, and 31 color photographs of 29 taxa; all but 2 (brief abstract only provided) of the 86 papers, as well as the 2 published speeches cited individually elsewhere in this issue of the ROL.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B124} Bretagnolle, V., et al. 2000. Distribution, population size, and habitat use of the Réunion Marsh Harrier, Circus m. maillardi. J. Raptor Res. 34: 8--17. (CEBC-CNRS, 79360 Beauvoir sur Niort, France.)---Circus maillardi. {ROL #81}

{B124} Grant, P. R., & R. Grant. 1997. The rarest of Darwin’s finches. Conserv. Biol. 11: 119--126. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NF 08544, USA.)---Current status of and threats to the Mangrove Finch (Cactospiza [=Camarhynchus] heliobates).---G.C.L. {B904} {ROL #81}

{B124} Griffin, C. R., P. W. C. Paton, & T. S. Baskett. 1998. Breeding ecology and behavior of the Hawaiian Hawk. Condor 100: 654--662. (Dept. For. & Wildl. Manage. & Grad. Prog. Organismic & Evol. Biol., Univ. Massachusetts, Holdsworth Hall, Amherst, MA 01003, USA; EM: solitarius breeding habits are typical of a K-selected species in tropical environment. Brood-rearing is among longest reported for any diurnal raptor. Species could be down-listed from endangered to threatened.---S.N.L. {clutch size, diet, nest success} {B700, B904} {ROL #81}

{B128} Frith, C. B., & M. K. Poulsen. 1999. Distribution and status of the Paradise Crow Lycocorax pyrrhopterus and Standardwing Bird of Paradise Semioptera wallacii, with notes on biology and nidification. Emu 99: 229--238. (P.O. Box 581, Malanda, Qld. 4885, Australia.)---2 species endemic to the Moluccas, Indonesia.---W.K.S. {C908} {ROL #81}

{B128} Pfister, O. 1999. Observations on dippers, including the sordidus morph of White-throated Dipper in Ladakh, India. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 30: 26--30. (Transversal 1 Este # 57-42, Apto, 501, Barrio El Castillo, Bogota, .D.C., Colombia.)---Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus pallasii occur on the upper reaches of the Indus River and overlap at about 3600 m near Leh. C. cinclus has a dark-breasted form (C. c. sordidus); 2 pairs, each with a white-throated and a dark member, were watched feeding their young. Excellent photographs.---I.C.R. {B718} {ROL #81}

{B128} van Balen, S. 1998. Tropical forest raptors in Indonesia: recent information on distribution, status, and conservation. J. Raptor Res. 32: 56--63. (BirdLife Int.-Indonesia Prog., P. O. Box 310, Bogor 16003, Indonesia; or Dept. Terrestrial Ecol. Nat. Conserv., Wageningen Agric. Univ., Bornsesteeg 69, 6708 PD Wageningen, The Netherlands) {B900, C328} {ROL #81}

{B130} Codenotti, T. L., D. Beninca, & F. Alvarez. 1995. Ethogram and relationships between behaviour, age and habitat in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana). Doñana Acta Vert. 22(1-2): 65--86. (Univ. Passo Fundo, Barrio S. José, Ramal 178, Passo Fundo R. S., Brasil.) {ROL #81}

{B130} Jahn, O., E. E. Vargas Grefa, & K-L. Schuchmann. 1999. The life history of the Long-wattled Umbrellabird Cephalopterus penduliger in the Andean foothills of north-west Ecuador: leks, behavior, ecology and conservation. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 81--94. (Fundacion Ecuatoriana de Estudios Ecologicos, EcoCiencia, Isla San Cristobal 1523 e Isla Seymour, P.O. Box 17-12-257, Quito, Ecuador.) {ROL #81}

{B130} Weller, A. A. 2000. Biography, geographic variation and habitat preference in the Amazilia Hummingbird, Amazilia amazilia Lesson (Aves: Trochilidae), with notes on the status of Amazilia alticola Gould. J. f. Ornithol. 141: 93--101. (Zool. Forschungsinst. & Zool. Mus. A. Koenig, Ornithol., AG Biol. & Phylogenie tropischer Vögel, Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, FRG.) {ROL #81}

{B300} Guerra-Garcìa, J. M., et al. 1999. Behavioural comparative study of the normal, leucistic and partially albinistic forms of a Greylag Geese Anser anser flock. Ardeola 46 (2): 213--222. (LBM: Depto. Fisiologìa y Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Sevilla, Apdo 1095, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain; EM: {E101} {ROL #81}

{B300} Onofre, N. 1995. Some unusual observations on the behaviour of the Montagu´s Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the region of Barroso [Portugal]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 519--537. (Junitec. Ave. Manuel da Maia, nº 36 R/C dto., P-1100 Lisboa, Portugal.) {ROL #81}

{B300} Palestis, B. G., & J. Burger. 1999. Individual sibling recognition in experimental broods of Common Tern chicks. Anim. Behav. 58: 375--381. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. & Nat. Res., Rutgers Univ., Nelson Biological Labs, 604 Allison Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082, USA. EM: hirundo. {B720} {ROL #81}

{B302} Brigham, R. M., & A. C. Brigham. 1999. Peregrine Falcon attacks hot-air balloon. Blue Jay 57: 200. (6723 Gillmore Dr., Regina, SK S4X 3Z1, Can.)---Falco peregrinus. {ROL #81}

{B302} Bryan, J. E. 1996. Model snake elicits nest defense behaviour by White-breasted Nuthatches, Sitta carolinensis. Brit. Columbia Birds 6: 12--14. (B.C. Environment, 3547 Skaha Lake Rd., Penticton, BC V2A 7K2, Can.)---Descriptions of displays and other behavior, including previously undescribed variant of previously described display, and differences between sexes in intensity of displaying.---M.K.M. {C916} {ROL #81}

{B302} Cresswell, W. 1998. Relative competitive ability changes with competitor density: evidence from feeding Blackbirds. Anim. Behav. 56: 1367--1373. (EGI, Dept. Zool., Univ. Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.)---Turdus merula. {ROL #81}

{B302} Davis, W. E., Jr. 1999. Red-eyed Vireos attack their images. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 194--196. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.)---A presumed pair of Vireo olivaceus attacked their reflection in windows and mirror.---W.E.D. {ROL #81}

{B302} Ellis, D. H., et al. 1999. Siblicide, splayed-toes-flight display, and grappling in the Saker Falcon. J. Raptor Res. 33: 164--167. (USGS Patuxent Wildl. Ctr., HCR 1, Box 4420, Oracle, AZ 85623, USA.)---Falco cherrug. {C912, C918} {ROL #81}

{B302} Ferriere, R., et al. 1999. Predictability, chaos and coordination in bird vigilant behaviour. Anim. Behav. 57: 497--500. (Lab. Ecol., CNRS UMR 7625, 46 Rue d’Ulm, 75232 Paris Cedex 05, France. EM: to Ruxton & Roberts (Anim. Behav. 1999, 57: 493--495.)---A.K.T. {C916} {ROL #81}

{B302} Kitowski, I. 1998. [Group mobbing on birds and foxes by the Montagu’s Harrier Circus pygargus in the period of fledgling dispersal.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 211--217. (Zaklad Ochrony Przyrody UMCS, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland)---Studied in 14 families, E. Poland. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {B718} {ROL #81}

{B302} Lima, S. L., & Bednekoff, P. A. 1999. Back to the basics of antipredatory vigilance: can nonvigilant animals detect attack? Anim. Behav. 58: 537--543. (Dept. Life Sci., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA. EM: hyemalis with their heads down can still detect a predator---A.K.T. {C916} {ROL #81}

{B302} Nuyts, E., A. Bult, & E. A. Van Der Zee. 1996. The influence of age on the acquirement of a perch in the Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus L.): new data and a review of the literature. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1713--1720. (Psychol. Dept., Room 204 PRB, MI State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B302} Roth, A. 1999. Red-tailed Hawk chased off by Common Nighthawks. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 264--265. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.)---Roof-nesting Chordeiles minor pair chased Buteo jamaicensis.---W.E.D. {ROL #81}

{B302} Ruxton, G. D., & G. Roberts. 1999. Are vigilance sequences a consequence of intrinsic chaos or external change? Anim. Behav. 57: 493--495. (Div. Environ. Evol. Biol., Univ. Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. EM: {C916} {ROL #81}

{B302} Salt, J. R. 1998. Aggressive incident between Blue Jay and Least Chipmunk. Alberta Nat. 28: 9. (464 Nelson St., Victoria, BC V9A 6P4, Can.)---Cyanocitta cristata attacked Tamias minimus while both were foraging on ground.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B302} Tuckwell, J., & E. Nol. 1997. Intra- and inter-specific interactions of foraging American Oystercatchers on an oyster bed. Can. J. Zool. 75: 182--187. (EN: Watershed Ecosystems Graduate Prog., Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8, Can.)---Haematopus palliatus, Larus argentatus, Larus marinus. {ROL #81}

{B304} Balda, R. P., A. C. Kamil, & P. A. Bednekoff. 1996. Predicting cognitive capacity from natural history: Examples from four species of corvids. Curr. Ornithol. 13: 33--66. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA.)---Cognitive abilities of Clark’s Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), Pinyon Jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), and Mexican Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) compared with respect to phylogenetic considerations.---S.N.L. {spatial memory, caching} {ROL #81}

{B304} Burt de Perera, T, & T. Guilford. 1999. The social transmission of spatial information in homing pigeons. Anim. Behav. 57: 715--719. (Inst. Ecol., Uni. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-275, 04510 Mexico DF, Mexico.)---Columba livia. {D908} {ROL #81}

{B304} Campbell, F. M., C. M. Heyes, & A. R. Goldsmith. 1999. Stimulus learning and response learning by observation in the European Starling, in a two-object/two-action test. Anim. Behav. 58: 151--158. (CMH: Dept. Psychol., Univ. Coll. Lond., Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK. EM: vulgaris. {ROL #81}

{B304} Freire, R., & C. J. Nicol. 1999. Effect of experience of occlusion events on the domestic chick’s strategy for locating a concealed imprinting object. Anim. Behav. 58: 593--599. (Dept. Clin. Vet. Sci., Univ. Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS18 7DU, UK. EM: domesticus. {ROL #81}

{B304} Fritz, J., & K. Kotrschal. 1999. Social learning in Common Ravens, Corvus corax. Anim. Behav. 57: 785--793. (Konrad Lorenz Forschungsstelle, 4645 Gruenau 11, Austria. EM: {B314} {ROL #81}

{B304} Hultsch, H., F. Schleuss, & D. Todt. 1999. Auditory-visual stimulus pairing enhances perceptual learning in a songbird. Anim. Behav. 58: 143--149. (Inst. f. Verhaltensbiol., Haderslebener Str. 9, 12163 Berlin, Germany. EM: size and copy quality of songs learnt by Luscinia megarhynchos increased when tutor song was paired with strobe light flashes---A.K.T. {B320} {ROL #81}

{B304} Johnston, A. N. B., T. H. J. Burne, & S. P. R. Rose. 1998. Observation learning in day-old chicks using a one-trial passive avoidance learning paradigm. Anim. Behav. 56: 1347--1353. (Dept. Biol., Open Univ., Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK. EM: gallus. {ROL #81}

{B304} Jones, R. B., et al. 1999. T-maze behaviour in domestic chicks: a search for underlying variables. Anim. Behav. 58: 211--217. (Div. Environ. Welf., Roslin Inst. (Edinburgh), Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK. EM: in performance in Gallus domesticus probably due to individual variation in sociality---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B304} Marjan, R. 1999. Clever Magpies open pizza box. Blue Jay 57: 119--121. (Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, 204 Fifth Ave., N, Saskatoon, SK S7K 2P1, Can.)---Photo story of three Pica pica in wild.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{B304} McGregor, A., & S. D. Healy. 1999. Spatial accuracy in food-storing and nonstoring birds. Anim. Behav. 58: 727--734. (Dept. Psychol., Univ. Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK. EM: ater was more accurate in a spatial task than Parus major or Parus caeruleus---A.K.T. {D306} {ROL #81}

{B304} Nicol, C. J., & S. J. Pope. 1999. The effects of demonstrator social status and prior foraging success on social learning in laying hens. Anim. Behav. 57: 163--171. (Dept. Clin. Vet. Sci., Univ. Bristol, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU, UK. EM: gallus. {ROL #81}

{B304} Orr, A. G. 1999. Evidence for unpalatability in the genus Delias Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and its role in mimetic assemblages. Aust. Entomol. 26: 45--52. (Environ. Sci., Griffith Univ., Nathan, Qld. 4111, Australia.)---Butterfly wing damage noted only for a short time after fledging of Meliphaga lewinii and Dicrurus hottentottus.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B304} Regolin, L., & S. P. R. Rose. 1999. Long-term memory for a spatial task in young chicks. Anim. Behav. 57: 1185--1191. (Dept. Psychol., Univ. Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy. EM: gallus domesticus. {ROL #81}

{B304} Stardom, R. A. 1999. Ravens pulling wool from sheep. Blue Jay 57: 160--161. (Manitoba Natural Resources, Box 24, 200 Saulteaux Cr., Winnipeg, MB R3J 3W3, Can.)---Corvus corax. {ROL #81}

{B304} Whaling, C. S., et al. 1998. Photoperiod and tutor access affect the process of vocal learning. Anim. Behav. 56: 1075--1082. (1604 Burton Ave., Nashville, TN 37215, USA.)---Zonotrichia leucophrys. {B320, E118} {ROL #81}

{B306} Boyd, I. L., & J. P. Croxall. 1996. Dive durations in pinnipeds and seabirds. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1696--1705. (Brit. Antarct. Survey, Nat. Environ. Res. Counc., Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK.)---Dive durations of 2 mammals (Mirounga leonina and Arctocephalus gazella) and 3 birds (Phalacrocorax atriceps, Pygoscelis papua, and Eudyptes chrysolophus) which regularly exceed their maximum theoretical aerobic dive times.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{B306} De Leeuw, J. J. 1996. Diving costs as a component of daily energy budgets of aquatic birds and mammals : generalizing the inclusion of dive-recovery costs demonstrated in Tufted Ducks. Can. J. Zool. 74: 2131--2142. (Zool. Lab., Univ. Groningen, P.O. Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, the Netherlands.)---Aythya fuligula. {E118} {ROL #81}

{B306} Osiejuk, T. S. 1998. Correlates of creeping speed variability in two species of treecreepers. Condor 100: 174--177. (Dept. Anim. Morphology, Univ. A. Mickiewicz, Szamarzewskiego 91A, 60-569 Poznan, Poland; EM: brachydactyla creeps, on average, more slowly than Certhia familiaris. Both move more slowly on larger trees and when probing as compared to gleaning. Creeping speed is crucially influenced by handling time, which is determined by foraging technique.---S.N.L. {D306, optimal foraging hypotheses} {ROL #81}

{B306} Swaddle, J. P., E. V. Williams, & J. M. V. Rayner. 1999. The effect of simulated flight feather moult on escape take-off performance in starlings. J. Avian Biol. 30: 351--358. (Ctr. Behav. Biol., Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Bristol, Woodland Rd., Bristol BS8 1UG; EM: involved novel method using energy gain per wingbeat as measure of take-off performance.---R.T.B. {ROL #81}

{B306} van Gessel, F. W. C. 1999. Noisy flight and other observations of the Rufous Owl Ninox rufa in the Northern Territory. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 121--123. (64 Dorothy Ave., Woy Woy, NSW 2257, Australia.)---Swooshing flight sounds apparently an aggressive response to mimicked calls.---I.D.E. {B320} {ROL #81}

{B306} Watanuki, Y., A. Kato, & Y. Naito. 1996. Diving performance of male and female Japanese Cormorants. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1098--1109. (Lab. Appl. Zool., Fac. Agric., Hokkaido Univ., Kita--9 Nishi--9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060, Japan.)---Phalacrocorax capillatus. {ROL #81}

{B306} Whitford, P. C. 1999. Repeated inverted free-fall by an American Crow. Loon 71: 113--114. (Biol. Dept., Capital Univ., 2199 East Main St., Columbus, OH 43209, USA.)---Corvus brachyrhynchos dropped 70-80 feet upside down, with wings folded, about 25 times in 1.5 hours.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{B308} Blanco, G., & J. L. Tella. 1999. Temporal, spatial and social segregation of Red-billed Choughs between two types of communal roost: a role for mating and territory acquisition. Anim. Behav. 57: 1219--1227. (Dept. Anim. Biol., Univ. Alcalá, 22871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. EM: pyrrhocorax. {ROL #81}

{B308} Bosch, M., & D. Sol. 1996. Daily activity patterns in breeding Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus cachinnans). Ardeola 43: 97--101. (Depto. Ecol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{B308} Davidson, A. H. 1998. Simultaneous anting by three species of birds. Ontario Birds 18: 145--146. (1805 Region Rd. 19, R.R. 3, Vanessa, ON N0E 1V0, Can.)---Anting by Turdus migratorius apparently stimulated Cyanocitta cristata and male and female Pheucticus ludovicianus to ant at same time in same spot.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B308} Davis, C. A., & L. M. Smith. 1998. Behavior of migrant shorebirds in playas of the Southern High Plains, Texas. Condor 100: 266--276. (Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc., 6611 W. Whooping Crane Dr., Wood River, NE 68883, USA; EM: spring and fall migration, Recurvirostra americana, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Calidris minutilla, and Calidris mauri differ in amount of time spent on various activities. Feeding is the dominant activity of all except American Avocets, for which sleeping and feeding are dominant.---S.N.L. {D902} {ROL #81}

{B308} Jessop, R., & P. Collins. 1999. Observations of feeding and roosting behaviour of Little Curlew Numenius minutus overwintering in the North-west of Australia. Stilt 35: 62--63. (Phillip Island Nat. Pk., P.O. Box 97, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---As daytime temperature increases, feeding is interspersed with bathing and drinking. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {D306} {ROL #81}

{B308} Johnston, R. F. 1999. Barred Owl sunning behavior. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 50(4): 38--39. (Natural History Museum, Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2454, USA.)---First recorded instance in Strix varia.---R.F.J. {ROL #81}

{B308} Mace, T. R. 2000. Time budget and pair-bond dynamics in the Comb-crested Jacana, Irediparra gallinacea: a test of hypotheses. Emu 100: 31--41. (Biol. Dept., Univ. Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA 98416, USA.)---Results best support the "replacement-clutch hypothesis" for the adaptiveness of polyandry, although the "female-energetic hypothesis" cannot be ruled out.---W.K.S. {B312, B714} {ROL #81}

{B308} Negro, J. J., & A. Margalida. 2000. How Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) acquire their orange coloration: a comment on Xirouchakis (1998). J. Raptor Res. 34: 62--63. (Estación Biol. de Doñana, Dept. Appl. Biol., Spanish Council for Research (CSIC), Apdo. 1056, 41080 Sevilla, Spain.)---Vultures dust bathe in iron oxide to stain their feathers red. Comment on J. Raptor Res. 32: 322.---P.A.G. {E101} {ROL #81}

{B308} Palestis, B. G., & J. Burger. 1998. Evidence for social facilitation of preening in the Common Tern. Anim. Behav. 56: 1107--1111. (Dept. Ecol., Evol., Nat. Res., Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ 08855-8082, USA. EM: hirundo. {ROL #81}

{B308} Pinilla, J., R. Arambarri, & A. F. Rodríguez. 1995. Contribution to the study of winter roosts of the Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, in the Iberian Peninsula. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 135--147. (Coslada 8. E-28002, Madrid, España.) {C926} {ROL #81}

{B308} Rogers, D. I. 1999. Roost choice in the waders of Roebuck Bay [Australia]: is avoiding heat stress their main concern? Stilt 35: 65. (340 Ninks Rd., St Andrews, Vic. 3761, Australia.)---Strongly prefer damp substrate, which lowers local temperature. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {C908, E118} {ROL #81}

{B308} Salt, J. R. 1998. The feigning of injury by a Gray Jay (Perisoreus canadensis). Alberta Nat. 28: 44. (464 Nelson St., Victoria, BC V9A 6P4, Can.)---Jay caught by neck in a mammal trap remained perched on author's fingers for over two hours in spite of no visible signs of injury, then flew off when other people approached. Behavior interpreted as injury feigning seems similar to "trance" sometimes exhibited by birds after being caught in mist-nets.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B308} Sato, M. 2000. [Observation of roosting Red-rumped Swallows.] Strix 18: 141--143. (5-18-20 Sakura, Minoo, Osaka 562-0041, Japan.)---Hirundo daurica. (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{B308} Sproat, T. McK. 1997. Male Eastern Screech-owl (Otus asio) roosting behavior: Possible effects from nesting stage and nest type. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 408--410. (Dept. Biol., Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN 47306, USA.)---Males roost closer to nest during nestling stage than during incubation, but farther from artificial nest box than from natural cavity.---J.M.S. {B700} {ROL #81}

{B308} Thomas, R. J. 1999. The effect of variability in the food supply on the daily singing routines of European Robins: a test of a stochastic dynamic programming model. Anim. Behav. 57: 365--369. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. EM: rubecula. {B320, E514} {ROL #81}

{B308} Thomas, R. J. 1999. Two tests of a stochastic dynamic programming model of daily singing routines in birds. Anim. Behav. 57: 277--284. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. EM: output of Erithacus rubecula increased by food supplements and higher ambient temperatures---A.K.T. {B320, E514} {ROL #81}

{B308} Vestergaard, K. S., et al. 1999. Regulation of dustbathing in feathered and featherless domestic chicks: the Lorenzian model revisited. Anim. Behav. 58: 1017--1025. (B. I. Damm: Dept. Anim. Sci. Anim. Health, Roy. Vet. Agric. Univ., 8 Grønnegårdsvej, DK-1870 Frederiksberg, Denmark.)---Gallus domesticus. {ROL #81}

{B308} Xirouchakis, S. 1998. Dust bathing in the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). J. Raptor Res. 32: 322. (Nat. Hist. Mus. Crete, Univ. Crete, Knossou Ave., Heraklion 71409, Greece.) {ROL #81}

{B310} Burne, T. H. J., & L. J. Rogers. 1999. Changes in olfactory responsiveness by the domestic chick after early exposure to odorants. Anim. Behav. 58: 329--336. (Dept. Neurobiol., Babraham Inst., Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK. EM: domesticus. {ROL #81}

{B310} Hunt, S., et al. 1999. Preferences for ultraviolet partners in the Blue Tit. Anim. Behav. 58: 809--815. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. EM: caeruleus. {ROL #81}

{B310} Jurisevic, M. A., & K. J. Sanderson. 2000. Responses of Australian raptors to pure tones. Emu 100: 70--71. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Flinders Univ. SA, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.)---Confirms previous studies’ conclusions that raptors are most sensitive to tones between 1 and 6 kHz.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{B310} Rodriguez-Girones, M. A., & A. Lotem. 1999. How to detect a cuckoo egg: a signal-detection theory model for recognition and learning. Am. Nat. 153: 633--648. (Zool. Lab., Groningen Univ., PO Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands; EM: M.A. suggests how enigmatic acceptance of parasitic eggs is explained by adaptive discrimination mechanisms; Cuculus canorus and Acrocephalus arundinaceus.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B312} Alonso, J. A. 2000. The breeding system of the Orange-crowned Manakin. Condor 102: 181--186. (Inst. Invest. Amazonía Peruana-IIAP, Av. A. Quiñones km 2.5, Apdo. 784-Iquitos, Perú; EM: Heterocercus aurantiivertex in Peruvian lowland rainforest maintain loosely packed courts inside exploded leks, vocalize throughout the day, and perform two different displays, one aerial, one just above the ground.---S.N.L. {B714, courtship, display, female choice, lek} {ROL #81}

{B312} Amrhein, V. 1999. [Sexual selection and the evolution of extra-pair copulation: rules of the game from the females' point of view.] J. f. Ornithol. 140: 431--441. (Univ. Basel, Inst. f. Medizinische Biol., Schönbeinstr. 40, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland.) (German, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{B312} Barber, P. M., T. E. Martin, & K. G. Smith. 1998. Pair interactions in Red-faced Warblers. Condor 100: 512--518. (Archbold Biol. Stn., P.O. Box 2057, Lake Placid, FL 33862-2057, USA; EM: study of 40 pairs of breeding Cardellina rubrifrons, males responded to intrusions by extra-pair males by staying closer to their mates. These distances were short during nest building and as short or shorter during incubation as during egg laying.---S.N.L. {mate guarding} {ROL #81}

{B312} Borgia, G., & D. C. Presgraves. 1998. Coevolution of elaborated male display traits in the Spotted Bowerbird: an experimental test of the threat reduction hypothesis. Anim. Behav. 56: 1121--1128. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Maryland, MD 20742-4415, USA. EM: behaviour of Chlamydera maculata depends on bower architecture---A.K.T. {B318} {ROL #81}

{B312} Bremner, N. 1998. Episode of Great Gray Owls mating April 18, 1996, 6: 47 p.m., Highway # 211. Blue Jay 56: 207--208. (Box 331, Pinawa, MB R0E 1L0, Can.)---Female Strix nebulosa in tree was fed by male, then she plunged down onto snow in apparent effort to capture prey, whereupon male came and mounted her.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{B312} Bried, J., & P. Jouventin. 1999. Influence of breeding success on fidelity in long-lived birds: an experimental study. J. Avian Biol. 30: 392--398. (Ctr. Natl. Rech. Sci., Ctr. d’Études Biol. de Chizé, 79360 Beauvoir sur Niort, France; EM: study of Procellaria aequinoctialis showed no effect of breeding success and experience on mate fidelity after experimental removal of rats.---R.T.B. {ROL #81}

{B312} Burley, N. T., & R. Symanski. 1998. "A taste for the beautiful": latent aesthetic mate preferences for white crests in two species of Australian grassfinches. Am. Nat. 152: 792--802. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Univ. California, Irvine, CA 92697-2525, USA; EM: show powerful evidence for highly structured aesthetic mate preferences in the two estrildid finches, Taeniopygia guttata castanotis and Poephila acuticauda.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B312} Butchart, S. H. M., N. Seddon, & J. M. M. Ekstrom. 1999. Yelling for sex: harem males compete for female access in Bronze-winged Jacanas. Anim. Behav. 57: 637--646. (Dept. Zool., Downing St., Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. EM: Metopidius indicus. {ROL #81}

{B312} Freeberg, T. M. 1998. The cultural transmission of courtship patterns in Cowbirds, Molothrus ater. Anim. Behav. 56: 1063--1073. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Purdue Univ., IN 47907, USA. EM: {ROL #81}

{B312} Freeberg, T. M., et al. 1999. Cultural influences on female mate choice: an experimental test in Cowbirds, Molothrus ater. Anim. Behav. 57: 421--426. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. EM: {ROL #81}

{B312} Gil, D., et al. 1999. Male attractiveness and differential testosterone investment in Zebra Finch eggs. Science 286: 126--128. (Lab. de Psychophysiol. et d’Ethol, UPRESA-CNRS 7025 Univ. de Paris X, 92001 Nanterre, France; EM: T and 5Å-DHT in eggs when male Taeniopygia guttata had red color bands.---M.J.J. {ROL #81}

{B312} González-Solís, J., P. H. Becker, & H. Wendeln. 1999. Divorce and asynchronous arrival in Common Terns, Sterna hirundo. Anim. Behav. 58: 1123--1129. (Mar. Life. Sci. Div., Br. Antarctic Surv., High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. EM: is less likely in pairs that arrive on the breeding grounds at the same time---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B312} Hunter, F. M. 1998. Timing of pair and extra-pair copulations in the Northern Fulmar. Condor 100: 141--145. (Dept. Zool., Downing St., Univ. Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK; EM: in Fulmarus glacialis is believed to occur within a few days of laying, but extra-pair and pair copulations and paternity defense behaviors decline around 20 days before laying, and are minimal by 9 days before laying. This suggests a lag period resulting from a delay in ovulation similar to that of Diomedea melanophris and other seabirds.---S.N.L. {E120, sperm competition} {ROL #81}

{B312} Jouventin, P., B. Lequette, & F. S. Dobson. 1999. Age-related mate choice in the Wandering Albatross. Anim. Behav. 57: 1099--1106. (FSD: Dept. Zool. & Wildl. Sci., Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849, USA. EM: exulans. {ROL #81}

{B312} Leonard, M. L., & L. Zanette. 1998. Female mate choice and male behaviour in domestic fowl. Anim. Behav. 56: 1099--1105. (Dept. Biol., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1, Can. EM: of female Gallus gallus varies with wing flapping rate of male---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B312} Pandolfi, M., R. Pagliarani, & G. Olivetti. 1998. Intra- and extra-pair copulations and female refusal of mating in Montagu’s Harriers. J. Raptor Res. 32: 269--277. (Univ. Urbino, Inst. Sci. Morfologiche, Via M. Oddi, 21-61029 Urbino, Italy.)---Circus pygargus. {ROL #81}

{B312} Pizo, M. A., & A. Aleixo. 1998. Lek behavior of the Gray-hooded Flycatcher. Condor 100: 726--731. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Estadual Campinas, Caixa Postal 6109, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP, Brazil; EM: rufiventris. {Atlantic forest, Tyrannidae} {ROL #81}

{B312} Rintamäki, P. T., et al. 1999. Why do Black Grouse males perform on lek sites outside the breeding season? J. Avian Biol. 30: 359--366. (Evol. Biol. Ctr., Uppsala Univ., Norbyvägen 18 D, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden; EM: study of Tetrao tetrix in central Finland suggests autumn lek increases male copulation success and may provide females with opportunity to assess males before breeding season.---R.T.B. {ROL #81}

{B312} Robertson, G. J., et al. 1998. The timing of pair formation in Harlequin Ducks. Condor 100: 551--555. (Can. Wildl. Serv., 6 Bruce St., Mount Pearl, NF A1N 4T3, Can.; EM: histrionicus in southwestern British Columbia begin forming pair bonds in October and over half of females are paired by December. In all cases where both mates return to wintering grounds, they reunite in fall. New pair bonds with young birds are formed in spring.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B312} Sax, A., H. Hoi, & T. R. Birkhead. 1998. Copulation rate and sperm use by female Bearded Tits, Panurus biarmicus. Anim. Behav. 56: 1199--1204. (KLIVV, Savoyenstr. 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria. EM: {B712} {ROL #81}

{B312} Schleicher, B., H. Hoi, & F. Valera. 1996. Seasonal change in female mate choice criteria in Penduline Tits (Remiz pendulinus). Ardeola 43 (1): 19--29. (Konrad Lorenz Inst. für Vergleichende Verhaltensforschung, Savoyenstrasse 1a,. A-1160 Vienna, Austria.) {ROL #81}

{B312} Slagsvold, T., & H. Viljugrein. 1999. Mate choice copying versus preference for actively displaying males by female Pied Flycatchers. Anim. Behav. 57: 679--686. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Oslo, PO Box 1050, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway. EM: evidence of copying in Ficedula hypoleuca---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B312} Smith, C. M., et al. 2000. Long-term pair bonds in Harlequin Ducks. Condor 102: 201--205. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can., & Parks Canada, Banff Nat. Park, Banff, AB T0L 0C0, Can.; EM: histrionicus reunite at the wintering area and return together to the breeding stream as long as their mate is alive, regardless of breeding success of the previous season.---S.N.L. {C920, breeding site fidelity, pair reunion, pair fidelity} {ROL #81}

{B312} Waas, J. R., & A. F. Wordsworth. 1999. Female Zebra Finches prefer symmetrically banded males, but only during interactive mate choice tests. Anim. Behav. 57: 1113--1119. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. EM: guttata. {B318} {ROL #81}

{B312} White, D. J., & B. G. Galef, Jr. 1999. Mate choice copying and conspecific cueing in Japanese Quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Anim. Behav. 57: 465--473. (BGG: Dept. Psychol., McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Can. EM: {ROL #81}

{B312} White, D. J., & B. G. Galef, Jr. 1999. Affiliative preferences are stable and predict mate choices in both sexes of Japanese Quail, Coturnix japonica. Anim. Behav. 58: 865--871. (BGG: Dept. Psychol., McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Can. EM: {ROL #81}

{B314} Bahr, D. B., & M. Bekoff. 1999. Predicting flock vigilance from simple passerine interactions: modeling with cellular automata. Anim. Behav. 58: 831--839. (MB: Dept. Environ. Pop. & Organismal Biol., Univ. Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0334, USA. EM: {ROL #81}

{B314} Beauchamp, G., & B. Livoreil. 1997. The effect of group size on vigilance and feeding rate in Spice Finches (Lonchura punctulata). Can. J. Zool. 75: 1526--1531. (Fac. Vet. Med., Univ. Montreal, C.P. 5000, St.-Hyacinthe, PQ J2S 7C6, Can.) {D306} {ROL #81}

{B314} Deceuninck, B., et al. 1998. Temporal pattern and efficiency of escorting behaviour in the Spotless Starling (Sturnus unicolor). Ardeola 45 (2): 143--150. (Ligue Française pour la Prot. des Oiseaux/Birdlife France, La Corderie Royale, Bp 263, F-17305 Rochefort Cedex, France.) {ROL #81}

{B314} Gosler, A. G., & T. D. Carruthers. 1999. Body reserves and social dominance in the Great Tit Parus major in relation to winter weather in southwest Ireland. J. Avian Biol. 30: 447--459. (EGI, Dept. Zool., South Parks Rd., Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK; EM: relates condition and dominance among individuals. Under some circumstances, muscle may be better indicator of condition than fat.---R.T.B. {E118} {ROL #81}

{B314} Leonardi, G. 1999. Cooperative hunting of Jackdaws by the Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus). J. Raptor Res. 33: 123--127. (Avian Sci. Conserv. Ctr., Macdonald Campus of McGill Univ., 21,111 Lakeshore Rd., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ H9X 3V9, Can.)---Corvus monedula. {D306} {ROL #81}

{B314} Marler, P. 1996. Social cognition: Are primates smarter than birds? Curr. Ornithol. 13: 1--32. (Anim. Communic. Lab., Sec. Neurobiol., Physiol. & Behav., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.)---Reviews accomplishments of avian and primate species in social cognitive areas including social learning, tool use and its acquisition, cooperative hunting, and communicative behavior. There are significant similarities between primates and birds.---S.N.L. {B304} {ROL #81}

{B314} Martinez-Abrain, A. 1999. Patterns of association between duck species in a roosting area over the winter in Eastern Spain. Ardeola 46 (2): 163--169. (Biol. Dept., Univ. Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Nat. Bridge Rd., St. Louis; MO 63121-4499, USA; EM: {ROL #81}

{B314} Piper, W. H. 1997. Social dominance in birds: Early findings and new horizons. Curr. Ornithol. 14: 125--187. (Dept. Biol., George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA; EM: the historical development of the study of dominance, highlights significant findings, and suggests approaches, techniques and issues for future investigation. Topics include social contexts, unifying features of dominance interactions, determinants of dominating ability, spatial patterns, linearity in dominance hierarchies, and effects of dominance on fitness.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B314} Robichaud, D., L. Lefebvre, & L. Robidoux. 1996. Dominance affects resource partitioning in Pigeons, but pair bonds do not. Can. J. Zool. 74: 833--840. (LL: Dept. Biol., McGill Univ., Montreal, QC H3A 1B1, Can.)---Columba livia. {ROL #81}

{B314} Rolland, C., E. Danchin, & M. De Fraipont. 1998. The evolution of coloniality in birds in relation to food, habitat, predation, and life-history traits: a comparative analysis. Am. Nat. 151: 514--529. (Dept. Zool., South Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3PS, UK; EM: of 320 species shows coloniality to be a labile trait. Correlations with marine habitat conflict with many prior hypotheses to explain coloniality.---J.R.F. {B706} {ROL #81}

{B314} White, D. J., & B. G. Galef, Jr. 1999. Social effects on mate choices of male Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica. Anim. Behav. 57: 1005--1012. (Dept. Psychol., McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Can. EM: {B312} {ROL #81}

{B314} Wiley, R. H., et al. 1999. Social inertia in White-throated Sparrows results from recognition of opponents. Anim. Behav. 57: 453--463. (Dept. Biol., Univ. N. Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, USA. EM: albicollis. {ROL #81}

{B316} Bruni, A. 1996. Observations performed on a pairs of Buzzard [Buteo buteo] breeding in the Lepini Mountains (Latium) [Italy] about breeding and home-range. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 70--74. (Via Raffaello Sanzio, 33. I-00034 Collefero, Rome, Italy). {B700} {ROL #81}

{B316} Cuadrado, M. 1995. Territory characteristics and the attacks against intruders in migrant Robins, Erithacus rubecula, wintering in the Mediterranean area. Ardeola 42(2): 147--160. (Santiago 18, Alto, E-11100 S. Fernando, Càdiz, España) {C926} {ROL #81}

{B316} Herting, B. L., & J. R. Belthoff. 1997. Testosterone, aggression, and territoriality in male Western Screech-Owls (Otus kennicottii): Results from preliminary experiments. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 213--217. (Dept. Biol. & Raptor Res. Ctr., Boise State Univ., Boise, ID 83725, USA; EM (JRB): testosterone elicited more aggression at all times of the year.---J.M.S. {B302} {ROL #81}

{B316} Hodder, K. H., et al. 1998. Estimating core ranges: a comparison of techniques using the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo). J. Raptor Res. 32: 82--89. (Inst. Terrestrial Ecol., Furzebrook Res. Stn., Wareham, Dorset BH20 5AS, UK.) {E510} {ROL #81}

{B316} Jansen, A. 1999. Home ranges and group-territoriality in Chowchillas Orthonyx spaldingii. Emu 99: 280--290. (Dept. Zool., James Cook Univ., Townsville, Qld. 4811, Australia.)---Home ranges are larger than the area defended against other conspecific groups, with some overlap of neighbouring home ranges. Home ranges include favoured foraging areas, which change from season to season, and which rarely overlap with neighbouring home ranges.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{B316} Kurosawa, R. 2000. [A process of territory establishment by a pair of Jungle Crows Corvus macrorhynchos.] Strix 18: 131--135. (Res. Ctr., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2-35-2 Minamidaira, Hino, Tokyo 191-0041, Japan.) (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{B316} Putland, D. A., & Goldizen, A. W. 1998. Territorial behaviour in the Tasmanian Native Hen: group and individual performance. Anim. Behav. 56: 1455--1463. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. EM: mortierii. {ROL #81}

{B316} Tordoff, H. B., & P. T. Redig. 1999. Two fatal Peregrine Falcon territorial fights. Loon 71: 182--186. (Bell Museum, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---Falco peregrinus. {ROL #81}

{B316} Watson, R. T., & S. Razafindramanana. 1999. Nearest neighbor nest distances, home range, and territory area of the Madagascar Fish-Eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides). J. Raptor Res. 33: 335--338. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B318} Cuthill, I. C., et al. 1999. Plumage reflectance and the objective assessment of avian sexual dichromatism. Am. Nat. 153: 183--200. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Bristol, Woodland Rd., Bristol BS8 1UG, UK; EM: color patterns by techniques that avoid reliance on human perception shows that hidden sexual dichromatism is widespread and many species may be misclassified as being monomorphic.---J.R.F. {E116} {ROL #81}

{B318} Fitzpatrick, S. 1998. Birds’ tails as signaling devices: markings, shape, length, and feather quality. Am. Nat. 151: 157--173. (Sch. Appl. Biol. Chem Sci., Univ. Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, County Antrim BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland; EM: study of western Palearctic birds shows 80% of species have tail displays that could serve as multipurpose signals.---J.R.F. {E114} {ROL #81}

{B318} Jones, I. L., & F. M. Hunter. 1999. Experimental evidence for mutual inter- and intrasexual selection favouring a Crested Auklet ornament. Anim. Behav. 57: 521--528. (Dept. Biol., Memorial Univ. Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9, Can. EM: cristatella. {D105} {ROL #81}

{B318} Negro, J. J., et al. 1999. The function of cosmetic coloration of Bearded Vultures: when art imitates life. Anim. Behav. 58: F14--F17. (Dept. Appl. Biol., CSIC, Doñana Biol., Stn., Apdo 1056, Ave. Maria Luisa s/n, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain. EM: barbatus. {ROL #81}

{B318} Nero, R. W. 1994. Usual aerial display of Red-tailed hawk. Blue Jay 52: 29--30. (Box 24, 1495 St. James St., Winnipeg, MB R3H 0W9, Can.)---Buteo jamaicensis. {ROL #81}

{B318} Pearson, F. D., N. I. Mann, & P. J. B. Slater. 1999. Does leg-ring colour affect song tutor choice in Zebra Finches? Anim. Behav. 57: 173--180. (PJBS: Sch. Environ. Evol. Biol., Univ. St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9TS, UK. EM: in Taeniopygia guttata---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B318} Sheldon, B. C., & H. Ellegren. 1999. Sexual selection resulting from extrapair paternity in Collared Flycatchers. Anim. Behav. 57: 285--298. (Dept. Zool., Uppsala Univ., S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. EM: selection on forehead and wing patch sizes in Ficedula albicollis---A.K.T. {B312, B712} {ROL #81}

{B320} Alvarez, F. 1996. Variation in song rate during the breeding cycle of the Rufous Bush Chat, Cercotrichas galactotes. Ardeola 43(1): 49--56. (Estación Biol. Doñana-C.S.I.C., Apdo. 1056, E-41080 Sevilla, España.) {ROL #81}

{B320} Alvarez, F. 1997. The functions of song and the spatial pattern of song production in the Rufous Bush Chat (Cercotrichas galactotes). Doñana Acta Vert. 24 (1-2): 67--78. (Sth. Biol. Doñana, C.S.I.C., Apdo. 1056, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain). {ROL #81}

{B320} Beyers, B. E., & D. E. Kroodsma. 1999. They sang it their way: The deviant chickadees of Martha's Vineyard. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 4--11. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.)---Poecile atricapillus in this Massachusetts, USA locality have monotone songs, diverse song repertoire, and well developed dialects.---W.E.D. {ROL #81}

{B320} Braaten, R. F., & K. Reynolds. 1999. Auditory preference for conspecific song in isolation-reared Zebra Finches. Anim. Behav. 58: 105--111. (Dept. Psychol., Colgate Univ., Hamilton, NY 13346, USA. EM: guttata. {ROL #81}

{B320} Brown, T. J., & P. Handford. 2000. Sound design for vocalizations: Quality in the woods, consistency in the fields. Condor 102: 81--92. (Dept. Zool., B & G Bldg., Univ. Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7, Can.; EM: the acoustic adaptation hypothesis prediction that open habitat signals should be structured as rapid amplitude modulation trills; closed habitat signals should be structured as low-rate AM tonal whistles. Found whistles degrade less than trills in both habitats, while trills in open habitats tend to be received with more consistent quality than whistles.---S.N.L. {reverberation, transmission consistency} {ROL #81}

{B320} Buchanan, K. L., et al. 1999. Song as an indicator of parasitism in the Sedge Warbler. Anim. Behav. 57: 307--314. (Dept. Biol. Mol. Sci., Univ. Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK. EM: schoenobaenus. {B704} {ROL #81}

{B320} Chatwin, T. A. 1996. The influence of wind and time on calling rate of the Common Poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii): considerations for inventory. Brit. Columbia Birds 6: 3--6. (B.C. Ministry Environ., Lands & Parks, 2080 Labieux Rd., Nanaimo, BC V9T 6J9, Can.)---Contrary to previous findings, calling rates during six June nights in British Columbia were higher after twilight than during crepuscular periods. As expected, detection of calling rates at a given time was reduced during periods of high winds.---M.K.M. {E506} {ROL #81}

{B320} Collias, N. E. 2000. Vocal signals of the Village Weaver: A spectrographic key and the communication code. Condor 102: 60--80. (Dept. Organismic Biol., Ecol., & Evol., Univ. California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606, USA.)---Sound spectrograms were made of 21 of the 26 vocal signals of Ploceus cucullatus. Essential stimulus situations are described and calls are classified with reference to Darwin’s principle of antithesis.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B320} Collins, C. E., & A. M. Houtman. 1999. Tan and white color morphs of White-throated Sparrows differ in their non-song vocal responses to territorial intrusion. Condor 101: 842--845. (Dept. Psych., 301 Wilson Hall, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN 37240, USA; EM: morphs of Zonotrichia albicollis show more aggressive behavior than tan-striped. Tan-striped responded to playback simulating territorial intrusion with more low aggression calls. Production of high aggression calls did not differ, but rate of production may be related to stage of breeding cycle.---S.N.L. {B302, territory defense, vocalizations, plumage variants} {ROL #81}

{B320} Crafford, J. W. H. Ferguson, & A. C. Kemp. 1999. Why do Grass Owls (Tyto capensis) produce clicking calls? J. Raptor Res. 33: 134--142. (Dept. Zool. Entomol., Univ. Pretoria, 0002 Pretoria, South Africa.)---Presents evidence that clicks are involved in social communication between owls, rather than in echolocation or prey capture.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B320} Elekonich, M. M. 1998. Song Sparrow males use female-typical vocalizations in Fall. Condor 100: 145--148. (Dept. Entomol., Univ. Illinois, 320 Morrill, MC-118, 505 S. Goodwin, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; EM: of female chitter call by both sexes may allow adults to communicate about territories to juvenile males who cannot yet sing full adult male songs.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B320} Enriquez, P. L., & J. L. Rangel Salazar. 1997. Intra- and interspecific calling in a tropical owl community. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 525--532. (Col. Frontera Sur, Apdo. 63, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas 29290, México.)---Otus guatemalae, Lophostrix cristata, Ciccaba virgata, Pulsatrix perspicillata. Variable response rates in Costa Rica.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B320} Evans, C. S., & L. Evans. 1999. Chicken food calls are functionally referential. Anim. Behav. 58: 307--319. (Dept. Psychol., Macquarie Univ., Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. EM: Gallus domesticus respond to food calls by looking downwards---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B320} Gil, D., J. A. Graves, & P. J. B. Slater. 1999. Seasonal patterns of singing in the Willow Warbler: evidence against the fertility announcement hypothesis. Anim. Behav. 58: 995--1000. (Lab. Psychophysiol. Ethol., Univ. Paris X, 92001 Nanterre, France. EM: trochilus. {ROL #81}

{B320} Horn, A. G. 1996. Dawn song repertoires of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Can. J. Zool. 74: 1084--1091. (Dept. Biol., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Can.) {ROL #81}

{B320} Houx, B., & C. ten Cate. 1999. Song learning from playback in Zebra Finches: is there an effect of operant contingency? Anim. Behav. 57: 837--845. (Inst. Ecol. Evol. Sci., Univ. Leiden, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. EM: in Taeniopygia guttata.---A.K.T. {E522} {ROL #81}

{B320} Jouventin, P., T. Aubin, & T. Lengagne. 1999. Finding a parent in a King Penguin colony: the acoustic system of individual recognition. Anim. Behav. 57: 1175--1183. (CEFE-CNRS UPR 9056, 1919 Route de Mende, F-34213 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. EM: patagonicus. {B718} {ROL #81}

{B320} Kroodsma, D. E., et al. 1999. Sedentary life style of Neotropical Sedge Wrens promotes song imitation. Anim. Behav. 57: 855--863. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. EM: palustris. {ROL #81}

{B320} Kuntz, W. A., & P. B. Stacey. 1997. Preliminary investigation of vocal variation in the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida): Would vocal analysis of the four-note location call be a useful field tool for individual identification? USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 561--568. (Dept. Environ. Resour. Sci. & Prog. Ecol., Evol. Conserv. Biol., Univ. Nevada, Reno, NV 89512, USA.)---Probably not. Some individual variation overlaps other individuals.---J.M.S. {E506} {ROL #81}

{B320} Lambrechts, M. M., & A. A. Dhondt. 1995. Individual voice discrimination in birds. Curr. Ornithol. 12: 115--139. (CNRS-CEFE, B. P. 5051, 34000 Montpellier Cedex 1, France.)---Reviews and discusses hypotheses on vocal cues used to recognize individuals by song, with emphasis on hypothesis that all vocalizations of an individual may share distinctive features, as in human voice.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B320} Liu, W-C., & D. E. Kroodsma. 1999. Song development by Chipping Sparrows and Field Sparrows. Anim. Behav. 57: 1275--1286. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. EM: passerina, Spizella pusilla. {ROL #81}

{B320} Loghlen, A. L., & M. D. Beecher. 1999. Mate, neighbour and stranger song: a female Song Sparrow perspective. Anim. Behav. 58: 13--20. (Dept. Psychol., Univ. Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Email: Melospiza melodia respond most to mate, least to stranger song---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B320} Macdougall-Shackleton, S. A. 1997. Sexual selection and the evolution of song repertoires. Curr. Ornithol. 14: 81--124. (Dept. Ecol. & Evol. Biol., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.)---Reviews the distribution of song repertoires in passerines and hypotheses proposed to account for the evolution of song repertoires including quality-indicator, immunocompetence-handicap, different-messages, Beau Geste, anti-exhaustion, neighbor-matching, antihabituation and sensory exploitation hypotheses. (Includes appendix of estimated mean repertoire size for passerine species.)---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B320} MacDougall-Shackleton, E., & H. Harbison. 1998. Singing behavior of lekking Green Hermits. Condor 100: 149--152. (Dept. Ecol. & Evol. Biol., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544-1003, USA; EM: devoted to singing and number of songs produced by male Phaethornis guy may vary with location of territory, with males near the center of lek singing more than males on periphery.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B320} Melman, D. S., & W. A. Searcy. 1999. Microgeographic song discrimination in a nonterritorial passerine, the Boat-tailed Grackle. Condor 101: 845--848. (WAS: Dept. Biol., Univ. Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA.)---Male Quiscalus major responded more strongly to songs recorded at their own colony than to songs recorded at colonies 4-13 km distant.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B320} Miyasato, L. E., & M. C. Baker. 1999. Black-capped Chickadee call dialects along a continuous habitat corridor. Anim. Behav. 57: 1311--1318. (Sect. Neurobiol., Physiol. & Behav., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. EM: atricapillus. {ROL #81}

{B320} Nagle, L., M. L. Kreutzer, & E. M. Vallet. 1997. A chorus song style influences sexual responses in female canaries. Can. J. Zool. 75: 638--640. (MLK: Ctr. Natl. de la Recherche Sci., Unite de Recherche Associee no. 2214, Lab. de Psychophysiologie et d'Ethologie, Univ. Paris X, 200, ave. de la Republique, 92000 Nanterre, France.)---Serinus canaria. {ROL #81}

{B320} Naguib, M. 1999. Effects of song overlapping and alternating on nocturnally singing Nightingales. Anim. Behav. 58: 1061--1067. (Lehrstuhl f. Verhaltensforschung, Univ. Bielefeld, PO Box 10 01 31, D-33501 Bielefeld, Germany. EM: megarhynchos. {ROL #81}

{B320} Nelson, D. A. 1999. Ecological influences on vocal development in the White-crowned Sparrow. Anim. Behav. 58: 21--36. (Dept. Evol. Ecol. & Organismal Biol., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210-1293, USA. EM: leucophrys gambelii, with a short breeding season, has short sensitive phase for song learning---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B320} Nowicki, S., et al. 1999. The development of within-song type variation in Song Sparrows. Anim. Behav. 57: 1257--1264. (Dept. Zool., Duke Univ., Box 90325, Durham, NC 27708-0325, USA. EM: melodia. {ROL #81}

{B320} Ottvall, R. 1999. Female Corncrake (Crex crex) singing in the wild. J. f. Ornithol. 140: 453--456. (Dept. of Anim. Ecol., Univ. of Lund, Ecology Building, S-223 62 Lund, Sweden.) {ROL #81}

{B320} Podos, J., S. Nowicki, & S. Peters. 1999. Permissiveness in the learning and development of song syntax in Swamp Sparrows. Anim. Behav. 58: 93--103. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Univ. Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. EM: georgiana. {ROL #81}

{B320} Powys, V. 1999. Weebill vocalisations---an undescribed trill. Emu 99: 295--297. (‘Rocklands’, Glen Davis Rd., Capertee Valley, NSW 2846, Australia.)---Smicrornis brevirostris. {ROL #81}

{B320} Price, J. J. 1999. Recognition of family-specific calls in Stripe-backed Wrens. Anim. Behav. 57: 483--492. (Dept. Biol., Univ. N. Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, USA. EM: nuchalis. {ROL #81}

{B320} Rasmussen, P. C., & Farah Ishtiaq. 1999. Vocalisations and behaviour of the Forest Owlet Athene (Heteroglaux) blewitti. Forktail 15: 61--65. (Div. Birds, NHB Room 336, MRC 114, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C. 20560-0131, USA.)---Observation of a pair in NW Maharastra, India, during June and July 1998; first information on song.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{B320} Riebel, K., & P. J. B. Slater. 1998. Testing female Chaffinch song preferences by operant conditioning. Anim. Behav. 56: 1443--1453. (Inst. Evol. Ecol. Sci., Leiden Univ., PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. EM: coelebs. {ROL #81}

{B320} Riebel. K., & P. J. B. Slater. 1999. Song type switching in the Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs: timing or counting? Anim. Behav. 57: 655--661. (Inst. Ecol. Evol. Sci., Univ. Leiden, PO Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands. EM: {ROL #81}

{B320} Searcy, W. A., S. Nowicki, & S. Peters. 1999. Song types as fundamental units in vocal repertoires. Anim. Behav. 58: 37--44. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA. EM: melodia. {ROL #81}

{B320} Spector, D. A. 1992. Wood-warbler song systems: A review of paruline singing behaviors. Curr. Ornithol. 9: 199--238. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.)---Identifies and discusses two major song systems that occur in Parulinae genera.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B320} Stark, R. D., D. J. Dodenhoff, & E. V. Johnson. 1998. A quantitative analysis of woodpecker drumming. Condor 100: 350--356. (Dept. Zool., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210, USA; EM: of drumming patterns of 11 species of California woodpeckers found that drumming is not species-specific. However, further analysis of drum signal using syntopic species indicated signal specificity within their acoustical environment.---S.N.L. {discriminant analysis, song, Picoides nuttallii, Picoides albolarvatus, Picoides villosus, Picoides pubescens, Colaptes auratus, Dryocopus pileatus, Melanerpes formicivorus, Picoides arcticus, Sphyrapicus ruber, Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Picoides scalaris} {ROL #81}

{B320} Suthers, R. A., & F. Goller. 1997. Motor correlates of vocal diversity in songbirds. Curr. Ornithol. 14: 235--288. (Med. Sci. Prog., Prog. Neural Sci., Ctr. Integrative Study of Anim. Behav., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.)---Basic mechanisms of song production (structure for phonation, gating), motor strategies for increasing song tempo and duration, spectral and phonetic complexity, control of vocal intensity, and motor constraints on the evolution of song complexity.---S.N.L. {E122, syrinx} {ROL #81}

{B320} Tome, D. 1997. Timing of territorial vocal activity of the Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) in Slovenia. Ardeola 44 (2): 227--228. (Inst. Biol., Vecna 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.) {B316} {ROL #81}

{B320} Tubaro, P. L., & B. Mahler. 1998. Acoustic frequencies and body mass in New World doves. Condor 100: 54--61. (Lab. Biol. Comportamiento, Inst. Biol. Med. Exp., Obligado 2490, 1428-Buenos Aires, Argentina; EM: of songs of 44 species of New World doves found negative relationship among frequencies and body mass, irrespective of model of character evolution chosen.---S.N.L. {comparative analysis, song, habitat} {ROL #81}

{B320} Yamaguchi, A. 1998. A sexually dimorphic learned birdsong in the Northern Cardinal. Condor 100: 504--511. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Sherman Fairchild Ctr. Life Sci., Columbia Univ., New York, NY 10027, USA; EM: of Cardinalis cardinalis are sexually dimorphic in syllable stereotypy and amplitude of harmonics.---S.N.L. {bioacoustics, vocal learning} {ROL #81}

{B500} Brown, B. T., et al. 1999. The influence of weapons-testing noise on Bald Eagle behavior. J. Raptor Res. 33: 227--232. (SWCA, Inc., Environ. Consultants, 230 South 500 East, Suite 230, Salt Lake City, UT 84102, USA.)---Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {B908} {ROL #81}

{B500} Fletcher, R. J., Jr., S. T. Mckinney, & C. E. Bock. 1999. Effects of recreational trails on wintering diurnal raptors along riparian corridors in a Colorado grassland. J. Raptor Res. 33: 233--239. (Dept. Anim. Ecol., 124 Sci. Hall, Iowa St. Univ., Ames, IA 50011, USA.)---Phoenicopterus ruber. {B908} {ROL #81}

{B500} Galicia, E., & G. A. Baldassarre. 1997. Effects of motorized tourboats on the behavior of nonbreeding American flamingos in Yucatan, Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1159--1165. (State Univ. New York, Coll. Environ. Sci. & For. 1 For. Dr., Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.) {B908} {ROL #81}

{B500} Kenward, R. E. 1999. Solving raptor-human conflicts. J. Raptor Res. 33: 38. (Inst. Terrestrial Ecol., Furzebrook Res. Stn., Wareham, Dorset BH20 5AS, UK.)---Introductory note accompanying the succeeding 8 "expanded abstracts" (J. Raptor Res. 33: 39--75); abstracted from papers presented in a symposium at the 1993 European conference of the Raptor Research Foundation.--P.A.G. {B908} {ROL #81}

{B500} Kurosawa, R., et al. 2000. [The relationship between Jungle Crows Corvus macrorhynchos and garbage in Tokyo.] Strix 18: 71--78. (Res. Ctr., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2-35-2 Minamidaira, Hino, Tokyo 191-0041, Japan.)---Crows are most numerous in commercial areas in Tokyo. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{B500} Parker, J. W. 1999. Raptor attacks on people. J. Raptor Res. 33: 63--66. (Aerie East, RR 3, Box 3110, Farmington, ME 04938, USA.)---Reviews the causes and records of raptor attacks on people, and proposes management solutions.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B500} Wood, P. B. 1999. Bald Eagle response to boating activity in north-central Florida. J. Raptor Res. 33: 97--101. (West Virginia Coop. Fish & Wildl. Unit, BRD, USGS & WV Univ. Div. For., Morgantown, WV 26506-6125, USA.)---Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {B908} {ROL #81}

{B502} Bayle, P. 1999. Preventing birds of prey problems at transmission lines in western Europe. J. Raptor Res. 33: 43--48. (15 rue Bravet, 13005 Marseille, France.)---Electrocution and proposed solutions.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B502} Castaño L., J. P., & J. Guzmán P. 1993. [Reaping and other causes of mortality for Circus pygargus and Circus cyaneus in the SE of Ciudad Real {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 137--143. (No address given.) {C912} {ROL #81}

{B502} Fernández, J. M. 1998. Relationship between mortality on electric power lines and avian abundance in a locality of León [Spain]. Ardeola 45 (1): 63--67. (Inst. Alavès de la Nat.,c/Pedro de Asa ,2. E-01008 Vitoria, Alava, Spain) {C912} {ROL #81}

{B502} Guzmán, J. P. 1998. Raptor mortality by electrocution in power lines in eastern Sierra Morena and Campo de Montiel [Spain]. Ardeola 45 (2): 161--169. (Avda. 1. de Julio, 16. E-13300 Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real, Spain.) {C912} {ROL #81}

{B502} Guzmán P., J., & J. P. Castaño L. 1993. [Electrocution mortality of raptors in the S.E. of Ciudad Real {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 473--478. (José Antonio, 13-1º, E-13300 Valdepeñas, España.) {ROL #81}

{B502} Herron, J. 1997. Television transmission tower kills in Lewis County, West Virginia. Redstart 64: 110--117. (511 Ohio Ave., Fairmont, WV 26554, USA.)---Over a 9-year period 841 birds of 58 species were collected.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{B502} Janss, G. F. E., & M. Ferrer. 1999. Mitigation of raptor electrocution on steel power poles. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 263--273. (Dept. Appl. Biol., Estación Biológica de Doñana, Avda. de Maria Luisa s/n, Pabellón del Perú, 41013 Sevill, Spain.)---Of 12 possible modifications to power poles, insulation of crossarm braces was the most effective and practical means to reduce electrocution of raptors; Buteo buteo, Circaetus gallicus, Circus pygargus, Falco tinnunculus, Hieraaetus fasciatus, Milvus migrans, Neophron percnopterus, Strix aluco, Tyto alba.---W.P.J. {ROL #81}

{B502} Janss, G. F. E., A. Lazo, & M. Ferrer. 1999. Use of raptor models to reduce avian collisions with powerlines. J. Raptor Res. 33: 154--159. (Estación Biol. de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Invest. Cient., Dept. Appl. Biol., Avda. de Maria Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{B502} Kelly, T. A. 1999. Seasonal variation in birdstrike rate for two North American raptors: Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) and Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). J. Raptor Res. 33: 59--62. (507 Hwy. 2297, Panama City, FL 32404, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B502} Kochert, M. N., & R. R. Olendorff. 1999. Creating raptor benefits from powerline problems. J. Raptor Res. 33: 39--42. (USGS For. Range. Ecosystem Sci. Ctr., Snake R. Field Stn., 970 Lusk St., Boise, ID 83706, USA.)---Electrocutions and some proposed solutions.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B502} Ledger, J. A., & J. C. A. Hobbs. 1999. Raptor use and abuse of powerlines in Southern Africa. J. Raptor Res. 33: 49--52. (Endangered Wildl. Trust, Private Bag x 11, Parkview, 2122 South Africa.) {ROL #81}

{B502} Lorenzo, J. A. 1995. [First report on avian mortality by electric power lines in Fuerteventura Island {Canary Islands, Spain}.] Ecología 9: 403--407. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. La Laguna,. Tenerife, España.) {ROL #81}

{B502} Lovell, C. D., & R. A. Dolbeer. 1999. Validation of the United States Air Force Bird Avoidance Model. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 167--171. (USDA, Animal & Plant Health Inspection Serv., Wildl. Services, 126 Boardman-Poland Rd., Youngstown, OH 44512, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B502} Massemin, S., & T. Zorn. 1998. Highway mortality of Barn Owls in northeastern France. J. Raptor Res. 32: 229--232. (Ctr. d’Ecologie et Physiol. Energétiques, CNRS, 23 Rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, Cedex 2, France.)---Tyto alba. {C912} {ROL #81}

{B502} Oscar, F. 1999. Seasonal dynamics of traffic casualties on birds in central Spain: age and number of individuals and species richness and diversity. Ardeola 46 (1): 23--30. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Cienc.,Univ. Alcalá. 28871. Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; {C912} {ROL #81}

{B502} Thompson, M. M. 1999. Using a GIS to integrate seasonal raptor distributions into a bird avoidance model for aircraft. J. Raptor Res. 33: 53--58. (HQ AFCESA, 139 Barnes Drive, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL 32403, USA.) {E506} {ROL #81}

{B502} van der Ree, R. 1999. Barbed wire fencing as a hazard for wildlife. Vic. Nat. 116: 210--217. (Sch. Ecol. Environ., Deakin Univ., Rusden Campus, 662 Blackburn Rd., Clayton, Vic. 3168, Australia.)---Lists 41 bird species, identifies high risk areas and offers fencing alternatives.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B502} Yanagawa, H., & T. Shibuya. 2000. [Bird-window collisions at two elementary schools in Tokachi district, Hokkaido, Japan.] Strix 18: 79--87. (Lab. Wildl. Ecol., Obihiro Univ. Agric. & Vet. Med., Inada-cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan.)---Differences in the numbers of birds killed by window-collisions appear to be related to differences in the numbers of birds, especially Coccothraustes coccothraustes, breeding and feeding near the buildings. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{B504} Danko, S. 1997 [Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at the Senné-ponds National Nature Reserve and the adjacent Inacovce-Senné ponds area {Slovakia}.] Tichodroma 10: 7--35. (Zemplínske múzeum, 071 01 Michalovce, Slovakia.)---A large population increase in recent years is threatening the livelihood of fishermen. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {C914} {ROL #81}

{B504} Gandini, P. A., et al. 1999. Interaction between Magellanic Penguins and shrimp fisheries in Patagonia, Argentina. Condor 101: 783--789. (Ctr. Invest. Puerto Deseado, Univ. Nac. Patagonia Austral, Almirante Brown y Colón s/n (9050), Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz, Argentina; EM: effect of the shrimp fishery at Golfo San Jorge on Spheniscus magellanicus was analyzed from observations over 200 days and 3 austral summers in terms of: incidental penguin kill (mortality rate 0.33% of breeding population/summer) and overlap of penguin diet and fish by-catch by fishery. The fishery by-catch of anchovy and hake was found to be higher than estimated total daily intake by breeding penguins.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B504} Ishida, A., et al. 2000. [The population increase of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and its damaging effect on fisheries and trees in Japan---the present situation, the problems in each area and future measures.] Strix 18: 1--27. (Aichi For. Inst., Hourai, Minamishitara, Aichi 441-1622, Japan.)---Describe damage to fisheries and forestry industries and suggest future measures with reference to cases in other countries. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {E520} {ROL #81}

{B504} Kirk, D. A., M. D. Evenden, & P. Mineau. 1996. Past and current attempts to evaluate the role of birds as predators of insect pests in temperate agriculture. Curr. Ornithol. 13: 175--269. (Aquila Applied Ecologists, Wakefield, PQ J0X 3G0, Can.)---Examines evidence that birds may be important predators, discusses which bird species prey on insect pests and whether they congregate at high enough densities to have an impact on invertebrate populations, formulates a model to estimate consumption, and reviews ways to encourage bird species beneficial to agriculture.---S.N.L. {agroecosystem, economic ornithology} {ROL #81}

{B504} Leukona, J. M. 1998. Impact of Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus and Grey Heron Ardea cinerea on a fish farm in Navarra [Spain] during the winter season. Ardeola 45 (2): 171--182. (c/o Virgen de Puy, 5, 7D, E-31011 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; EM: {ROL #81}

{B504} Loker, C. A., D. J. Decker, & S. J. Schwager. 1999. Social acceptability of wildlife management actions in suburban areas: 3 cases from New York. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 152--159. (Alaska Dept. Fish Game, Div. Wildl. Conserv., Anchorage, AK 99518, USA.)---Branta canadensis. {E520} {ROL #81}

{B508} Drewien, R. C., et al. 1999. Detecting Trumpeter Swans harvested in Tundra Swan hunts. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 95--102. (Hornocker Wildl. Inst., Univ. Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843, USA.)---Bill measurements suggest 0.7% of 1,424 Cygnus columbianus taken in Utah from 1994-1996 were actually Cygnus buccinator, and 2.1% of those taken in Montana were actually trumpeter swans.---W.P.J. {D702} {ROL #81}

{B508} Heusmann, H. W. 1999. Special hunting seasons and resident Canada Goose populations. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 456--464. (Massachusetts Div. Fish. Wildl., Westborough, MA 01581, USA.)---The number of Branta canadensis harvested in seasons scheduled to target resident geese in Massachusetts was not enough to reduce the resident population, primarily because only a limited number of hunters participated in the special seasons.---W.P.J. {E520} {ROL #81}

{B508} Olsen, R. E., & A. D. Afton. 1999. Goose hunter opinion concerning proposed management actions to reduce the mid-continent population of lesser Snow Geese. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 109--114. (ADA: USGS, Louisiana Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.)---Chen caerulescens. {E520} {ROL #81}

{B508} Orsini, P. 1998. [Hunting of the Woodcock Scolopax rusticola in 1997-1998 in the Var département, southeast France.] Faune de Provence 19: 25--31. (Muséum Hist. Nat., 113 bd Maréchal Leclerc, F-83000 Toulon, France.)---81,000 birds shot in 1997-1998, 35,900 in 1974-1975 and 66,200 in 1983-1984. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{B508} Rothwell, R. 1993. Antelope, Sage Grouse, and Neotropical migrants. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 396--401. (Wyoming Game & Fish Dept., Cheyenne, WY 82009, USA.)---Suggests that management goals for game and non-game species are similar and compatible. Centrocercus urophasianus.---W.M.G. {B904, B910, B912, Partners in Flight} {ROL #81}

{B508} Yerkes, T., & T. Kowalchuk. 1999. Use of artificial nesting structures by redheads. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 91--94. (Ducks Unlimited, Inc., Inst. Wetlands Waterfowl Res., One Waterfowl Way, Memphis, TN 38120, USA.)---Over a 3-year period Aythya americana used 4% of 385 available nesting structures.---W.P.J. {ROL #81}

{B508} Zilinec, M. 1996 [Game birds in Sweden from 1939 to 1993.] Tichodroma 9: 185--197. (Ústav ekológie lesa SAV, Štúrova 2, 96052 Zvolen, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{B510} Carr, P. 1998. Notes on the trade of large waterbirds for food in Cambodia. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 49--50. (Public Relations, Headquarters Roy. Marines, Whale Island, Portsmouth, PO2 8DX, UK.)---Human pressure on large waterbirds throughout SE Asia has led to serious decline. Species and numbers being used for food listed.---I.C.R. {B904} {ROL #81}

{B510} Mikkola, H. 1997. World distribution of owlaholics. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 583. (Private Mail Bag Nr. 10, Banjul, The Gambia, West Africa.)---People who collect anything with owls on the object are mostly in U.S., Europe and Australia.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B700} Amat, J. A. 1998. Nesting biology of the Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava in southwestern Iberia. Ardeola 45 (1): 83--85. (Estación Biológica de Doñana, C.S.I.C., Apdo. 1056, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain; EM: {ROL #81}

{B700} Andrusiak, L. A., & K. M. Cheng. 1997. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the lower mainland of British Columbia. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 38--46. (Keystone Wildl. Res., 1480 Foster St. #52, White Rock, BC V4B 3X7, Can.)---Study at northern limit of species range in N. Amer.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B700} Arroyo, B. E., & V. Bretagnolle. 1999. Breeding biology of the Short Eared Owl (Asio flammeus) in agricultural habitats of southwestern France. J. Raptor Res. 33: 287--294. (CNRS-CEBC, 79360 Beauvoir sur Niort, France.) {ROL #81}

{B700} Bancroft, J. 1998. Ospreys nest successfully despite conflict with Bald Eagles. Blue Jay 56: 85--88. (306-200 Tuxedo Blvd., Winnipeg, MB R3P 0R3, Can.)---Pandion haliaetus, Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {ROL #81}

{B700} Barnes, C. P., E. E. Zillmann, & A. B. Rose. 1999. Breeding behaviour and diet of the Square-tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura in South-eastern Queensland [Australia]. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 133--152. (c/o Bundaberg Base Hospital, Bundaberg, Qld. 4670, Australia.)---Behaviour patterns, including previously undescribed sunning and sibling rivalry, sex roles, voice, and growth and development of young.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B700} Blahušiak, M. 1997 [Behaviour of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) during the breeding season.] Tichodroma 10: 85--88. (Švermova 1/22, 038 61 Vrútky, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{B700} Calderón, J., et al. 1991. [The Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) in Doñana {Spain}: Some breeding aspects.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 47--71. (Est. Biol. Doñana. Apdo. 1056. E-41080, Sevilla, España.) {ROL #81}

{B700} Ferlini, F & R. Ferlini. 1997. Status and breeding biology of Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus in Pavia province [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 70--81. (Via Cantore, 3 27040 Castelletto di Branduzzo, Pavia, Italy.) {C310} {ROL #81}

{B700} Fraga, R. M., & J. A. Amat. 1996. Breeding biology of a Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) population in an inland saline lake. Ardeola 43 (1): 69--85. (Estación Biol. Doñana, C.S.I.C., Apdo. 1056, E-41080 Sevilla, España.) {ROL #81}

{B700} Gámez, I., & C. Gutiérrez. 1995. Breeding of the Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus, in La Rioja [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 79--80. (Joaquín Michel 18, 1ºB, Murillo de Río Laza, España) {ROL #81}

{B700} Garnett, S. T., L. P. Pedler, & G. M. Crowley. 1999. The breeding biology of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Emu 99: 262--279. (Dept. Environ., Heritage & Aboriginal Affairs, P.O. Box 39, Kingscote, SA 5223, Australia.) {B702, B710, B716} {ROL #81}

{B700} Margalida, A., D. García, & J. A. Bertrán. 1997. A possible case of a polyandrous quartet in the Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Ardeola 44 (1): 109--111. (G.E.P.T. Apdo. 43, E-25520 El Pont de Suert, Lleida, España.) {ROL #81}

{B700} Mastronardi, D., & A. Lubrano L. 1997. First data on the Bee-eater Merops apiaster breeding in the region of Phlegrean Fields [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 49--53. (Assoc. Studi Ornitologici Italia Meridionale C.P. 253-80046 San Giorgo a Cremano, NA, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{B700} Mercey, P. de, & M. Théry. 1999. Breeding of the Gray-winged Trumpeter in French Guiana. Condor 101: 907--909. (MT: CNRS-UMR 8571, Lab. Ecol. Gen., Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., 4 Ave. du Petit Château, 91800 Brunoy, France; EM: crepitans. {clutch size, eggs, incubation, nesting} {ROL #81}

{B700} Mezquida, E. T., & L. Marone. 2000. Breeding biology of Gray-crowned Tyrannulet in the Monte Desert, Argentina. Condor 102: 205--210. (P. Alameda de Osuna 74 1 C, 28042 Madrid, Spain; EM: from 75 Serpophaga griseiceps nests: both parents participated in nest building, 98% of nests built in chañar, both adults shared 13-15 day incubation period and reared chicks during 13-14 day nestling period. Nest success: 26%. Predation may cause of nest failure.---S.N.L. {nest predation, reproductive biology} {ROL #81}

{B700} Moorman, C. E., D. L. Howell, & B. R. Chapman. 1999. Nesting ecology of Red-shouldered and Red-tailed hawks in Georgia [USA]. J. Raptor Res. 33: 248--251. (Extension For., N. Carolina St. Univ., Box 8003, Raleigh, NC 27695-8003, USA.)---Buteo lineatus, Buteo jamaicensis. {ROL #81}

{B700} Onofre, N. 1995. Breeding of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Castro Verde, Baixo Alentejo [Portugal]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 495--507. (Estaçao Florestal Nac. Posto Apícola. Tapada da Ajuda, P-1300 Lisboa, Portugal.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{B700} Orszaghova, Z., & P. Puchal. 1996 [Breeding of the Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) in Alder Fen Wood of Svatojursky Sur {Slovakia}.] Tichodroma 9: 115--126. (Katedra zoológie PriF UK, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia.)---Loss of fledglings was highest in third nesting attempts. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{B700} Peck, G. K., & R. D. James. 1998. Breeding birds of Ontario: nidiology and distribution. Volume 2: passerines (first revision---part C: tanagers to Old World sparrows). Ontario Birds 18: 111--127. (ONRS/Ornithology, CBCB, Roy. Ont. Mus., 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, ON L0C 1H0, Can.)---Summary of known nesting records of 47 species, with data on confirmed breeding distribution in Ontario, nesting habitat, nest sites, nest composition, nest dimensions, clutch size, rate of Molothrus ater parasitism, egg dates, incubation period and nesting proximity to other species. 3 species suspected of breeding in Ontario are also indicated, and data are included on Zonotrichia leucophrys nesting on an island in Nunavut.---M.K.M. {C318} {ROL #81}

{B700} Rizi, H., et al. 1999. Nesting and reproductive characteristics of coots Fulica atra breeding on two lakes in Algeria. Ardeola 46 (2): 179--186. ( Inst. Sci. Nat., Univ. Badji Mokhtar, B.P. 12, El-Hadjar, Annaba, Algeria.) {ROL #81}

{B700} Scott, D. M. 1998. Laying hours and other nesting data of Rose-breasted Grosbeaks. Ontario Birds 18: 88--93. (Dept. Zool., Univ. West. Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7, Can.)---Data from 3 nests of Pheucticus ludovicianus on nest site, egg laying times and intervals, nest building, incubation period, hatching asynchrony, attendance at nest by male, and duration of young in nest.---M.K.M. {B710, B716, B718, B720} {ROL #81}

{B700} Seavy, N. E. 2000. Observations at an Ayres’ Hawk-Eagle nest in Kibale National Park, Uganda. J. Raptor Res. 34: 59--60. (2223 Bartram Hall, P. O. Box 118525, Dept. Zool., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8525, USA.)---Nest site, breeding phenology, and behavior of a nesting pair of Hieraaetus ayresii.---P.A.G. {B702, B716, B718} {ROL #81}

{B700} Strautman, C. 1998. Bonaparte's Gull nest near Speers. Blue Jay 56: 242. (Box 70, Speers, SK S0M 2V0, Can.)---Larus philadelphia nested successfully in spruce tree 30 m from farmhouse; 2 downy chicks were led 500 m to a slough.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{B700} Ueta, M. 2000. [Regional differences in the distribution of Black-billed Magpies nesting in association with Steller's Sea Eagles in Kamchatka, Russia.] Strix 18: 65--69. (Res. Ctr., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2-35-2 Minamidaira, Hino, Tokyo 191-0041, Japan.)---Pica pica frequently nests in association with Haliaeetus pelagicus in an area where Corvus corone and Corvus corax, which are potential predators of magpie nests, are abundant. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{B700} Venkataswamappa, M., & M. R. Chaitra. 1999. Observations of nesting Yellow-throated Bulbuls. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 30: 32. (#109, 8th. Main Rd., 4th Stage, 4th Block, Basavseshwaranagar, Bangalore 560 079, India.)---Details of breeding in Pycnonotus xantholaemus, from nest-building to fledging by this little-known bulbul from S. India.---I.C.R. {B716, B718} {ROL #81}

{B700} Weir, J. 1997. The breeding biology of a British Columbia American Avocet colony. Brit. Columbia Birds 7: 3--7. (3048 Quail Cresc., Kelowna, BC V1V 2A1, Can.)---At least 39 adult Recurvirostra americana and 19 nests comprised the first breeding colony in British Columbia. The history of earlier nestings in the province is outlined and data given on 1997 population size, nest initiation dates, nest sites, nest construction, nest composition, clutch size (including "superclutches"), egg measurements, egg shape and color, nesting chronology, post hatching behavior, and breeding success.---M.K.M. {C318} {ROL #81}

{B700} Wijesinghe, M. 1999. Nesting of Green-billed Coucals Centropus chlororhynchus in Sinharaja, Sri Lanka. Forktail 15: 43--45. (Sinharaja, Kundawa, Veddagala, Sri Lanka.)---Observations of a scarcely known coucal: description of nest, feeding of incubating female by male, varied diet.---I.C.R. {B716, B718} {ROL #81}

{B700} Zilinec, M. 1996 [On the breeding biology of the Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus).] Tichodroma 9: 198--201. (Nitriansky Hrádok, Za kostolom 2, 942 01 Šurany, Slovakia.)---Breeding biology and behaviour. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{B702} Amat, J. A., R. M. Fraga, & G. M. Arroyo. 1999. Replacement clutches by Kentish Plovers. Condor 101: 746--751. (Est. Biol. Doñana, C.S.I.C., Apartado 1056, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain; EM: factors affecting renesting rates in Charadrius alexandrinus over 6 breeding seasons in Spain. Renesting was mainly constrained by time and partially compensated for initial clutch losses; success of replacement clutches moderate but potentially important to lifetime productivity.---S.N.L. {laying date, nesting cover, renesting} {ROL #81}

{B702} Avilés, J. M., A. Sánchez, & A. Muñoz. 1998. Influence of nest-box age and occurrence of other species on laying time of the Roller (Coracias garrulus, L.) in steppes of the Extremadura region [Spain]. Misc. Zool. 21 (1): 1--7. (Area Biol. Anim., Depto. Zool., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Extremadura, E-06071 Badajoz, Spain). {B716} {ROL #81}

{B702} Castaño, J. P. 1997. Phenology and reproductive parameters of a Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) population breeding in Campo de Montiel [Spain]. Ardeola 44 (1): 51--59. (C/ Alcarria, 92, 3º, E-28915 Leganés, Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B702} DeMary, J. E. 1998. Early nesting by the Carolina Wren in West Virginia. Redstart 65: 142. (Smithsonian Nat. Ctr., 741 Miller Dr. SE, Suite G2, Leesburg, VA 20177, USA.)---Nest of Thryothorus ludovicianus with 3 eggs abandoned on Feb. 14.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{B702} Fellows, S. D., & R. J. Gress. 1999. Breeding Mountain Plovers in Kansas. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 50(4): 29--35. (USFWS, Great Plains Nature Center, 6232 E. 29th St. N., Wichita, KS 67220, USA.)---37 instances of breeding and numerous possible others, by Charadrius montanus in 4 SW counties, 1993--99.---R.F.J. {B904, B908} {ROL #81}

{B702} Gil-Delgado, J. A., & P. Lacort. 1996. The breeding season of the Blackbird, Turdus merula, in orange groves: Breeding time and number of clutches. Ardeola 43 (1): 41--48. (Depto. Microbiol. & Ecol., Univ. Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia, España.) {C918} {ROL #81}

{B702} Hahn, T. P., et al. 1997. Temporal flexibility in avian reproduction: Patterns and mechanisms. Curr. Ornithol. 14: 39--80. (Dept. Ecol. & Evol. Biol., Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ 08544, USA; EM: with selected examples how mechanisms held in common among a variety of species may underlie diverse reproductive schedules. Flexible seasonal breeders: Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), Boat-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus major), Pinyon Jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), Band-tailed Pigeon (Columba fasciata); Opportunistic breeders, Crossbills (Loxia spp.), Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Seasonal tropical species: Seychelles Warbler (Acrocephalus seychellensis), Darwin’s Finches (Geospiza spp.).---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B702} Lekuona, J. M. 1998. Phenology and breeding parameters of a Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) colony in Guipuzcoa [Spain] (1984-1993). Misc. Zool. 21 (1): 53--59. (Depto. Zool. Ecol., Univ. Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain). {ROL #81}

{B702} Seki, S. 2000. [A record of the third clutch of Great Tit in southern Japan.] Strix 18: 145--148. (Wildl. Manage. Lab., Kyushu Res. Ctr., For. & For. Products Res. Inst., 4-11-16 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-0862, Japan.)---A pair of Parus major successfully raised three broods within a single season in an evergreen broad-leaved forest. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{B704} Alves, M. A. S., & D. M. Bryant. 1998. Brood parasitism in the Sand Martin, Riparia riparia: evidence for two parasitic strategies in a colonial passerine. Anim. Behav. 56: 1323--1331. (DMB: Dept. Biol. Molec. Sci., Univ. Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK.) {ROL #81}

{B704} Baltz, M. E., & Burhans, D. E. 1998. Rejection of artificial parasite eggs by Gray Kingbirds in the Bahamas. Condor 100: 566--568. (Div. Biol. Sci., Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA; EM: dominicensis ejected 85% of artificial Molothrus bonariensis eggs added to nests. Short time of contact in Bahamas (since 1993) suggests retention of behavior from ancestral populations.---S.N.L. {brood parasitism} {ROL #81}

{B704} Beauchamp, G. 1998. The relationship between intra- and interspecific brood amalgamation in waterfowl. Condor 100: 153--162. (Fac. Vet. Med., Univ. Montréal, CP 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, PQ J2S 7C6, Can.; EM: 163 species of waterfowl surveyed, interspecific brood amalgamation occurred at least infrequently in 18.5% of species. 106 of a total of 263 lineages carried the intraspecific state. Among the 20 lineages that carried the interspecific state, 18 (90%) also carried the intraspecific state.---S.N.L. {comparative ecology, phylogeny} {ROL #81}

{B704} Beisenhertz, W. 1998. Mountain Tailorbird as host of Rusty-breasted Cuckoo. Kukila 10: 159--160. (Fak. Biol., Univ. Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany.)---A recently fledged Cacomantis sepulcralis fed by 2 Orthotomus cucullatus; near Manado, N. Sulawesi, Indonesia; first reliable record?---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{B704} Brown, K. M. 1998. Proximate and ultimate causes of adoption in Ring-billed Gulls. Anim. Behav. 56: 1529--1543. (Dept. Nat. Res., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. EM: delawarensis. {ROL #81}

{B704} Clotfelter, E. D. , & K. Yasukawa. 1999. The effect of aggregated nesting on Red-winged Blackbird nest success and brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds. Condor 101: 729--736. (Dept. Biol. & Ctr. Integrative Stud. Anim. Behav., 402 N. Park Ave., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN 47405, USA; EM: the relationship between temporal and spatial nesting aggregations in a prairie-nesting population of Agelaius phoeniceus and patterns of brood parasitism by Molothrus ater. Results suggest that aggregations were not related to nest success or nest predation.---S.N.L. {nearest neighbor, synchrony} {ROL #81}

{B704} Davis, S. K., et al. 1999. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitizes Upland Sandpiper nest. Blue Jay 57: 73--74. (Sask. Wetland Cons. Corp., 202-2050 Cornwall St., Regina, SK S4P 2K5, Can.)---Molothrus ater, Bartramia longicauda. {ROL #81}

{B704} Dearborn, D. C., et al. 1998. Effects of Cowbird parasitism on parental provisioning and nestling food acquisition and growth. Condor 100: 326--334. (Div. Biol. Sci., 105 Tucker Hall, Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211-7400, USA; EM: cyanea nestlings in nests parasitized by Molothrus ater received less food, gained mass more slowly, and spent more time begging than buntings in unparasitized nests. Adults at parasitized nests brought food more often than those at unparasitized nests.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B704} Haas, C. A., & K. H. Hass. 1998. Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds on Brown Thrashers: Frequency and rates of rejection. Condor 100: 535--540. (Dept. Fish. Wildl. Sci. (0321), Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA; EM: rufum in south-central North Dakota rejected 58% of experimentally-placed Molothrus ater eggs. Rate was significantly lower than previously reported for this and other rejecter species.---S.N.L. {egg recognition, host behavior} {ROL #81}

{B704} Johnson, D. R. 1999. Ospreys incubate goose egg to hatching. J. Raptor Res. 33: 176. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.)---Pandion haliaetus incubated an egg of Branta canadensis in Idaho; other examples from the literature.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B704} Kilner, R. M., & N. B. Davies. 1999. How selfish is a Cuckoo chick? Anim. Behav. 58: 797--808. (Dept. Zool., Downing St., Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. EM: with Cuculus canorus chicks suggest they call rapidly to compensate for the smaller visual display of a single gape---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B704} Larison, B., et al. 1998. Song Sparrow vs. cowbird brood parasites: Impacts of forest structure and nest-site selection. Condor 100: 93--101. (Vert. Mus., Dept. Biol., San Francisco State Univ., San Francisco, CA 94123, USA; EM: melodia nests with abundant lateral cover at a height of <1 m were less likely to be parasitized by Molothrus ater than nests with abundant foliage cover at a height of 2--3 m. The higher cover may provide female cowbirds with perches from which they are able to watch host activities and find nests.---S.N.L. {habitat restoration} {ROL #81}

{B704} Lea, S. E. G., & G. H. Kattan. 1998. Reanalysis gives further support to the ‘shotgun’ model of Shiny Cowbird parasitism of House Wren nests. Anim. Behav. 56: 1571--1573. (Dept. Psychol., Univ. Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QG, UK. EM: bonariensis parasitizing Troglodytes aedon.---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B704} Leach, S. W. 1994. Mallard parasitizes Sharp-tailed Grouse nest. Blue Jay 52: 144--146. (RR 5, Site 28, Prince Albert, SK S7K 3E5, Can.)---Anas platyrhynchos, Tympanuchus phasianellus. {ROL #81}

{B704} Lichtenstein, G. 1998. Parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds of Rufous-bellied Thrushes. Condor 100: 680--687. (Int. Inst. Environ. & Dev.-AL, Gral Paz 1180, (1429) Buenos Aires, Argentina; EM: bonariensis parasitized 48.6% of Turdus rufiventris nests studied. Main damage inflicted was puncture of host eggs in 55.9% of parasitized nests. In 68.7% of experimentally-created broods, cowbird chicks starved. Rufous-bellied Thrush is a poor host because of large size and short incubation period.---S.N.L. {brood parasitism, host selection} {ROL #81}

{B704} Mariano G., L., & J. J. García-Herrera. 1993. [Experiment on the adoption of a fledged young Iberian Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti) in a familiar group.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 117--123. (ICONA, Gran Vía de S. Francisco, 4, E-28002 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B704} McMaster, D. G., & S. G. Sealy. 1998. Short incubation periods of Brown-headed Cowbirds: How do cowbird eggs hatch before Yellow Warbler eggs? Condor 100: 102--111. (141 3rd St., Morden, MB R6M 1C7, Can.; EM: ater embryos develop rapidly and may hatch before eggs of hosts such as Dendroica petechia by disrupting incubation of smaller eggs and possibly in response to stimuli from host eggs.---S.N.L. {brood parasitism, embryonic communication} {ROL #81}

{B704} Mermoz, M. E., & J. C. Reboreda. 1999. Egg-laying behaviour by Shiny Cowbirds parasitizing Brown-and-yellow Marshbirds. Anim. Behav. 58: 873--882. (Dept. Ecol. & Anim. Behav., Inst. Ecol., A.C. Apdo postal 63, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. EM: bonariensis, Pseudoleistes virescens. {ROL #81}

{B704} Pribil, S., & J. Picman. 1997. Parasitism of House Wren nests by Brown-headed Cowbirds: why is it so rare? Can. J. Zool. 75: 302--307. (Ottawa-Carleton Inst. of Biol., Dept. of Biol., 30 Marie Curie, Univ. of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Can.)---Troglodytes aedon, Molothrus ater. Entrances to wren nest sites are usually too small to admit the cowbirds.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{B704} Robert, M., et al. 1999. Retaliatory cuckoos and the evolution of host resistance to brood parasites. Anim. Behav. 58: 817--824. (Lab. Ecol., CNRS UMR 7625, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 7 Quai St Bernard, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, France. EM: a model based on Clamator glandarius/Pica pica system---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B704} Salt, J. R. 1997. MacGillivray's and Black-throated Gray warblers compete to feed fledgling cowbird. Brit. Columbia Birds 7: 15--16. (464 Nelson St., Victoria, BC V9A 6P4, Can.)---Male Dendroica nigrescens chased male Oporornis tolmiei from fledgling Molothrus ater. Both warblers subsequently fed cowbird.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B704} Sandell, M. I., & M. Diemer. 1999. Intraspecific brood parasitism: a strategy for floating females in the European Starling. Anim. Behav. 57: 197--202. (Dept. Psychol., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853-7601, USA. EM: vulgaris. {ROL #81}

{B704} Sealy, S. G., & J. C. Lorenzana. 1997. Feeding of nestling and fledgling brood parasites by individuals other than the foster parents: a review. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1739--1752. (Dept. Zool., Univ. MB, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Can.) {ROL #81}

{B704} Slagsvold, T. 1998. On the origin and rarity of interspecific nest parasitism in birds. Am. Nat. 152: 264--272. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Oslo, PO Box 1050 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway; EM: with Parus major, Parus caeruleus, and Parus ater showed compatibility of parental care not a constraint preventing parasitism. Intraspecific parasitism may not be a required state for evolution of interspecific parasitism.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B704} Soler, M., J. G. Martínez, & J. J. Soler. 1996. Effects of brood parasitism by the Great Spotted Cuckoo, Clamator glandarius, on the breeding success of the Magpie, Pica pica,: an experimental study. Ardeola 43 (1): 87--96. (Depto. Biol. Anim. & Ecol., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Granada, E-18071 Granada, España.) {C918} {ROL #81}

{B704} Takasu, F. 1998. Why do all host species not show defense against avian brood parasitism: evolutionary lag or equilibrium? Am. Nat. 151: 193--205. (Dept. Inf. Computer Sci., Nara Women’s Univ., Kita-Uoya Nishimachi, Nara 630, Japan; EM: model of host defense provides testable explanation for the existence of acceptor species of Molothrus ater.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B704} Teuschl, Y., B. Taborsky, & M. Taborsky. 1998. How do Cuckoos find their hosts? The role of habitat imprinting. Anim. Behav. 56: 1425--1433. (KLIVV, Savoyenstr. 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria. EM: canorus. {ROL #81}

{B704} Whitelaw, C. J. 1998. Killdeer incubates Common Snipe egg. Ontario Birds 18: 147--149. (4195 Frost Ave., Hanmer, ON P3P 1E3, Can.)---Pair of Charadrius vociferus incubating clutch of 3 of own eggs and 1 Gallinago gallinago egg.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B706} Bogliani, G., F. Sergio, & G. Tavecchia. 1999. Wood-Pigeons nesting in association with Hobby Falcons: advantages and choice rules. Anim. Behav. 57: 125--131. (Dept. Anim. Biol., Univ. Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy. EM: palumbus nesting near Falco subbuteo nests experienced less predation than others.---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B706} Conrad, K. F., et al. 1998. Paternity and the relatedness of helpers in the cooperatively breeding Bell Miner. Condor 100: 343--349. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK; EM: large contingents of male helpers attending individual Manorina melanophrys nests, only one instance of extra-pair paternity found in 24 nestlings. 67% of helpers were close relatives of at least one parent.---S.N.L. {communal breeding, DNA fingerprinting, helping behavior, honeyeaters, paternity analysis} {ROL #81}

{B706} Davis, J. A., & C. R. Brown. 1999. Costs of coloniality and the effect of colony size on reproductive success in Purple Martins. Condor 101: 737--745. (CRB: Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Tulsa, 600 S. College Ave., Tulsa, OK 74104, USA; EM:, mate-guarding, and ectoparasitism varied with colony size in Progne subis in Tulsa County, Oklahoma. However, reproductive success was not found to vary significantly with colony size, and groups likely form in response to limited nesting sites and resource availability.---S.N.L. {C918, aggression, ideal free distribution, social behavior} {ROL #81}

{B706} Gostomski, T. J., & S. W. Matteson. 1999. Bald Eagles nest in heron rookery in the Apostle Islands [Wisconsin]. Passenger Pigeon 61: 155--159. (Sigurd Olson Environ. Inst., Northland Coll., Ashland, WI 54806, USA.)---Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {ROL #81}

{B706} Harris, K. A. 1999. Communal breeding of Red-capped Plovers. Stilt 34: 30. (59 Strickland Dr., Wheelers Hill, Vic. 3150, Australia.)---5 Charadrius ruficapillus nested close to one another.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B706} Hersek, M. 1999. Selfish generosity: Cooperative breeding in birds. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 241--246. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlinton, MA 02476, USA.)---A review.---W.E.D. {ROL #81}

{B706} Hudson, K. 1999. Interspecific helping behavior: House Sparrows at Baltimore Oriole and Eastern Kingbird nests. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 247--249. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.)---Passer domesticus fed nestling Icterus galbula and fledgling Tyrannus tyrannus.---W.E.D. {ROL #81}

{B706} Johnstone, R. A., et al. 1999. Reproductive skew in multimember groups. Am. Nat. 153: 315--331. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Cambridge, Downing St., Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK; EM: three-member models of reproductive skew.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B706} Koenig, W. D., & J. R. Walters. 1999. Sex-ratio selection in species with helpers at the nest: the repayment model revisited. Am. Nat. 153: 124--130. (Hastings Reservation, Univ. California, Berkeley, Carmel Valley, CA 93924, USA; EM: data set from Picoides borealis does not bear out sex-ratio skew predicted by model.---J.R.F. {B714} {ROL #81}

{B706} Koenig, W. D., J. Haydock, & M. T. Stanback. 1998. Reproductive roles in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker: incest avoidance versus reproductive competition. Am. Nat. 151: 243--255. (Hastings Nat. Hist. Reserve, Univ. California, Berkeley, 38601 E. Carmel Valley Rd., Carmel Valley, CA 93924, USA; EM: factors important in determining reproductive roles in Melanerpes formicivorus, with apparent incest in only 5% of cases.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B706} Koenig, W. D., M. T. Stanback, & J. Haydock. 1999. Demographic consequences of incest avoidance in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker. Anim. Behav. 57: 1287--1293. (Hastings Reservation, 38601 E. Carmel Valley Rd., Carmel Valley, CA 93924, USA. EM: formicivorus. {D502} {ROL #81}

{B706} Mougin, J. L. 1999. The influence of colony characteristics on some breeding parameters in the Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis. Ardeola 46 (1): 45--51. (Mus. Natl. d’Hist. nat., Lab. Zool.(Mamm. et Oiseaux), 55 r. Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France.) {ROL #81}

{B706} Rowley, I. C. 1999. Co-operative breeding by Black-faced Woodswallows Artamus cinereus. Corella 23: 63--66. (53 Swan St., Guildford, WA 6055, Australia.)---All members of a group incubated, brooded, shaded and fed nestlings, and defended nest.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B706} Ueta, M. 1998. Azure-winged Magpies avoid nest predation by nesting near a Japanese Lesser Sparrowhawk’s nest. Condor 100: 400--402. (Res. Ctr., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2-35-2 Minamidaira, Hino, Tokyo 191-0041, Japan; EM: cyana prefers to nest close to Accipiter gularis nests, and such sites have higher breeding success.---S.N.L. {B716, C918, behavioral exploitation, nest site selection} {ROL #81}

{B706} Wright, J., & N. J. Dingemanse. 1999. Parents and helpers compensate for experimental changes in the provisioning effort of others in the Arabian Babbler. Anim. Behav. 58: 345--350. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK. EM: squamiceps. {ROL #81}

{B706} Young, E. C. 1998. Dispersal from natal territories and the origin of cooperatively polyandrous breeding groups in the Brown Skua. Condor 100: 335--342. (229A Redwood St., Blenheim, NZ; EM: age at first breeding of Catharacta lonnbergi was 8.03 years. Young birds joined established breeding units (53%) or formed new breeding units (47%). 77 began breeding in pairs compared with 24 in cooperative groups. Of 92 known-identity birds, only 6 settled on their natal territories when first breeding.---S.N.L. {Chatham Islands, philopatry} {ROL #81}

{B708} Antczak, J., B. Kotlarz, & M. Ziólkowski. 1999. [Changes in the numbers of the Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula and Little Tern Sterna albifrons breeding in the middle section of the Polish Baltic coast.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 40: 61--68. (Instytut Biologii Srodowiska WSP, Arciszewskiego 22b, 76-200 Slupsk, Poland)---Declined markedly in areas with heavy tourist disturbance. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{B708} Burger, J. 1998. Effects of motorboats and personal watercraft on flight behavior over a colony of Common Terns. Condor 100: 528--534. (Nelson Biol. Lab., Rutgers Univ., 604 Allison Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082, USA; EM: affecting the response of Sterna hirundo in a nesting colony in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey to motor boats and personal water craft included whether the boat was in an established channel, speed of the craft, distance from the colony. Personal water craft were more disruptive than motor boats.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B708} Castaño, J. P. 1995. Crop type, weather and harvesting activities: Their effects on the breeding success of Montagu's Harriers, Circus pygargus, in the Campo de Montiel (Ciudad Real) [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 357--362. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat. José Gutierrez Abascal, 2. Madrid, Spain.) {C906} {ROL #81}

{B708} Götmark, F. 1992. The effects of investigator disturbance on nesting birds. Curr. Ornithol. 9: 63--104. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Göteborg, S-400 31 Göteborg, Sweden.)---Reviews literature to examine effects of disturbance in different orders, reasons for reduced nesting success, relationship to stage of breeding, effects on breeding density, nest site selection, and behavior, and methods that mitigate disturbance effects.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B708} Hirai, M., et al. 2000. [Breeding of the Snowy Plover Charadrius alexandrinus on a natural seashore in central Mie Prefecture [Japan].] Strix 18: 45--53. (Mie Br., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2662-2 Obira-cho, Yokkaichi, Mie 512-0921, Japan.)---Human activity on the shore is the main cause of breeding failure in this area, but Carrion Crows (Corvus corone) may also disturb breeding. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. (B700} {ROL #81}

{B708} Saffer, V. M., et al. 2000. The effect of human activity on the growth rates of Short-tailed Shearwater, Puffinus tenuirostris, chicks. Emu 100: 49--53. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Murdoch Univ., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.)---Growth rates did not differ consistently between chicks in three groups subjected to "low", "medium" and "high" levels of handling.---W.K.S. {B720} {ROL #81}

{B708} Weston M. A. 1999. Effects of human disturbance on the breeding of the Hooded Plover. Stilt 35: 70. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.)---Disturbance of Thinornis rubricollis lowers nest attendance, which affects egg thermoregulation. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B710} Abraham, C. L., & R. M. Evans. 1999. Metabolic costs of heat solicitation calls in relation to thermal need in embryos of American White Pelicans. Anim. Behav. 57: 967--975. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Can. EM: erythrorhynchos. {E118} {ROL #81}

{B710} Arroyo, B., A. Leroux, & V. Bretagnolle. 1998. Patterns of egg and clutch size variation in the Montagu’s Harrier. J. Raptor Res. 32: 136--142. (Ctr. Natl. Rech. Sci., Ctr. d’Etudes Biol. de Chizé, Villiers en Bois, F-79360 France.)---Circus pygargus. {ROL #81}

{B710} Banbura, J., & P. Zielinski. 1998. An analysis of egg-size repeatability in Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica. Ardeola 45 (2): 183--192. (Dept. Ecol. Vert. Zool., Univ. Lodz, Poland; EM: {ROL #81}

{B710} Dinsmore, S. J., & F. L. Knopf. 1999. Six-egg clutches of the Mountain Plover, Charadrius montanus. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 516--517. (USGS/BRD, 4512 Mcmurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400, USA.)---Likely represent laying of second clutch in the nest by the same female.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{B710} Eichholz, M. W., & J. S. Sedinger. 1998. Factors affecting duration of incubation in Black Brant. Condor 100: 164--168. (Inst. Arctic Biol., Dept. Biol. & Wildl., Univ. Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-0180, USA; EM: of incubation of Branta bernicla varies with clutch size and decreases with later nest initiation. No relationship found between incubation period and ambient temperature, mean egg size, or nest attentiveness.---S.N.L. {first egg date} {ROL #81}

{B710} Grenier, J. L., & S. R. Beissinger. 1999. Variation in the onset of incubation in a Neotropical parrot. Condor 101: 752--761. (SRB: Dept. Environ. Sci., Policy & Manage., 151 Hilgard Hall #3110, Univ. California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3110, USA.)---Despite strong hatching asynchrony and consistent first-egg incubation in Forpus passerinus, 3 different patterns of incubation initiation were identified: slowly rising, rapidly rising, and pulsed. No serious fitness consequences of this variation were detected.---S.N.L. {Green-rumped Parrotlet, hatching asynchrony, hatching success, incubation patterns, incubation period} {ROL #81}

{B710} Hlôška, L. 1997 [Circadian rhythm of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) during the breeding season.] Tichodroma 10: 89--96. (Povazské múzeum Zilina, kaštiel’ Krasnany, 01303 Varin, Slovakia.)---Females incubate and feed young more than males (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {B718} {ROL #81}

{B710} Houston, C. S., E. T. Jones, & E. Pletz. 1998. Great Horned Owls with brood of five. Blue Jay 56: 123--124. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Bubo virginianus. {ROL #81}

{B710} Kanušcák, P. 1996 [Male and female River Warblers (Locustella fluviatilis) share in incubation during breeding.] Tichodroma 9: 96--107. (Ing. Vladimír Hrúz, Prachatická 35, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia.)---Females incubate for ¾ of the time. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{B710} MacKenzie, J. A. 1996. Delayed incubation in the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). Brit. Columbia Birds 6: 9--11. (15341-21 Ave., Surrey, BC V4A 6A8, Can.)---Incubation period of 17--20 days in seasonally late clutch, with unusual afternoon fledging.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B710} Mallory, M. L., et al. 1998. Risk-taking by incubating Common Goldeneyes and Hooded Mergansers. Condor 100: 694--701. (Can. Wildl. Ser. (Ontario Region), 49 Camelot Dr., Nepean, ON K1A 0H3, Can.; EM: defense risk-taking by female Bucephala clangula and Lophodytes cucullatus, as measured by proximity of observer before flushing, vocalizing, proximity of bird to nest post-flushing, and broken wing or distraction displays, increased as incubation proceeded and differed from patterns known for ground-nesting waterfowl.---S.N.L. {B708, cavity-nesting} {ROL #81}

{B710} Moreno, J., et al. 1996. Determination of clutch size in the Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus) in central Spain: Field experiment. Ardeola 43 (1): 9--17. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat.-C.S.I.C., José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B710} Muñoz de V., A., J. M. Sánchez, & J. C. Pulido. 1993. [Egg size of Passer montanus (L., 1758) in the lower basin of Guadiana {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 249--260. (Area Biol. Anim., UNEX, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz, España.) {ROL #81}

{B710} Peakall, D. B., & J. L. Lincer. 1996. Do PCBs cause eggshell thinning? Environ. Pollut. 91: 127--129. (Monitoring Assessment Cntr., King’s College, The Old Coach House, Campden Hill, London, W8 7AD, UK.)---Not at environmentally realistic doses.---R.J.D. {C902} {ROL #81}

{B710} Persson, I., & G. Göransson. 1999. Nest attendance during egg laying in pheasants. Anim. Behav. 58: 159--164. (Ecol. Bldg., Lund Univ., S-223 62 Lund, Sweden. EM: colchicus. {ROL #81}

{B710} Stoleson, S. H., & S. R. Beissinger. 1995. Hatching asynchrony and the onset of incubation in birds, revisited: When is the critical period? Curr. Ornithol. 12: 191--270. (Sch. For. & Environ. Stud., Yale Univ., New Haven, CT 06511, USA.)---Examines the causes and consequences of the onset of incubation and resulting hatching patterns and reviews 17 hypotheses for hatching asynchrony. Proposes a stochastic modeling approach to evaluate empirical data as a method to assess multiple hypotheses.---S.N.L. {E514, paradox of hatching asynchrony, brood reduction hypothesis} {ROL #81}

{B710} Thorstrom, R., & L. F. Kiff. 1999. Notes on eggs of the Bicolored Hawk Accipiter bicolor. J. Raptor Res. 33: 244--247. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 W. Flying Hawk Ln., Boise, ID 83709, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B710} Wiebe, K. L., & G. R. Bortolotti. 1996. The proximate effects of food supply on intraclutch egg-size variation in American Kestrels. Can. J. Zool. 74: 118--124. (Dept. For. Sci., Univ. British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Can.)---Female Falco sparverius with abundant food supply and in good condition did not lay eggs that were more uniform than control females.---D.E.F. {D302} {ROL #81}

{B710} Yerkes, T. 1998. The influence of female age, body mass, and ambient conditions on Redhead incubation constancy. Condor 100: 62--68. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada, & Delta Waterfowl Res. Stn., R.R. 1, Portage la Prairie, MB R1N 3A1, Canada; EM: Aythya americana have one of the lowest incubation constancy rates among ducks (82%). Constancy is highest for older females and females of lower body mass, and is lower on days with higher maximum daily temperatures.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B712} Bried, J., O. Duriez, & G. Juin. 1999. A first case of female--female pairing in the Black-faced Sheathbill Chionis minor. Emu 99: 292--295. (Ctr. Nat. Recherche Sci., Ctr. d’Etudes Biol. de Chizé, 79360 Beauvoir sur Niort, France.) {ROL #81}

{B712} Currie, D., et al. 1999. The effect of experimental male removals on extrapair paternity in the Wheatear, Oenanthe oenanthe. Anim. Behav. 57: 145--152. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. EM: {ROL #81}

{B712} Dunn, P. O., et al. 1999. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross’s and Lesser Snow Geese. Anim. Behav. 57: 1071--1081. (A. D. Afton: Louisiana Coop. Fish. Wildl. Res. Unit, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA. EM: rossi, Chen caerulescens caerulescens. {B312} {ROL #81}

{B712} Ewen, J., D. P. Armstrong, & D. M. Lambert. 1999. Floater males gain reproductive success through extrapair fertilizations in the Stitchbird. Anim. Behav. 58: 321--328. (Sch. Zool., La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. EM: cincta. {ROL #81}

{B712} Gavin, T. A., et al. 1998. Genetic evidence for low frequency of extra-pair fertilizations in Northern Goshawks. Condor 100: 556--560. (Dept. Nat. Resour., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; EM: 39 complete families of Accipiter gentilis atricapillus sampled, only 1 of 77 nestlings had a genotype not consistent with both parents.---S.N.L. {D502, allozyme, EPCs, EPFs} {ROL #81}

{B712} Leisler, B., et al. 2000. Variation in extra-pair paternity in the polygynous Great Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus). J. f. Ornithol. 141: 77--84. (Forschungsst. F. Ornithol. d. Max-Planck-Ges., Andechs u. Radolfzell, Vogelw. Radolfzell, Schloss Moeggingen, Schlossallee 2, D-78315 Radolfzell, FRG.) {ROL #81}

{B712} Marks, J. S., J. L. Dickinson, & J. Hay. 1999. Genetic monogamy in Long-eared Owls. Condor 101: 854--859. (Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: extra-pair fertilizations detected in 59 nestlings from 12 nests. Genetic monogamy may be related to potential cost to female of losing high rate of male parental effort, which is in turn related to male confidence in paternity.---S.N.L. {D502, DNA fingerprinting} {ROL #81}

{B712} Moller, A. P., et al. 1998. Paternity and multiple signaling: effects of a secondary sexual character and song on paternity in the Barn Swallow. Am. Nat. 151: 236--242. (Laboratoire d’Ecol., CNRS URA 258, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 7 quai St. Bernard, Case 237, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, France; EM: Hirundo rustica use both tail length (morphology) and song rate (behavior) in choosing mates, with less value put on the flexible behavioral trait.---J.R.F. {B312} {ROL #81}

{B712} van Kleef, H., & J. Bustamante. 1999. First recorded polygynous mating in the Red Kite (Milvus milvus). J. Raptor Res. 33: 254--257. (Dept. Appl. Biol., Estación Biol. de Doñana, CSIC, Avda. María Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{B712} Zharikov, Y., & E. Nol. 2000. Copulation behavior, mate guarding, and paternity in the Semipalmated Plover. Condor 102: 231--235. (EN: Biol. Dept., Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8, Can.; EM: of Charadrius semipalmatus occurred on average 6.2 days prior to clutch initiation. Mate guarding more pronounced in coastal neighborhoods than among solitary-nesting pairs. Extra-pair paternity rate: 4.7%.---S.N.L. {B312, breeding densities, multilocus DNA fingerprinting} {ROL #81}

{B714} Iwasa, Y., & Y. Harada. 1998. Female preference to maximize paternal care. II. Female competition leads to monogamy. Am. Nat. 151: 367--382. (Dept. Biol., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan; EM: game model is in accord with prevalence of social monogamy but genetic promiscuity.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B714} Manlove, C. A., & G. R. Hepp. 1998. Effects of mate removal on incubation behavior and reproductive success of female Wood Ducks. Condor 100: 688--693. (GRH: Dept. Zool. & Wildl. Sci., 331 Funchess Hall, Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL 36849-5414, USA; EM: and widowed female Aix sponsa did not differ in incubation constancy, incubation period, body mass, or nesting and hatching success. Paired females tended to produce second broods more often than widowed females.---S.N.L. {C918, pair-bonds} {ROL #81}

{B714} Parish, D. M. B., & J. C. Coulson. 1998. Parental investment, reproductive success and polygyny in the Lapwing, Vanellus vanellus. Anim. Behav. 56: 1161--1167. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK. EM: {C918} {ROL #81}

{B714} Pen, I., F. J. Weissing, & S. Daan. 1999. Seasonal sex ratio trend in the European Kestrel: an evolutionarily stable strategy analysis. Am. Nat. 153: 384--397. (Dept. Genetics, Univ. Groningen, PO Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands; EM: tinnunculus. {ROL #81}

{B714} Rintamäki, P. T., et al. 1998. Assortative mating and female clutch investment in Black Grouse. Anim. Behav. 56: 1399--1403. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Uppsala, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. EM: tetrix. {ROL #81}

{B716} Bancroft, J. 1994. Unusual nest site of Brown Thrasher. Blue Jay 52: 160--162. (306-200 Tuxendo Ave., Winnipeg, MB R3P 0R3, Can.)---Toxostoma rufum nested inside a depression in the top of a 1.5 m tall snag; apparently failed following cowbird parasitism.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{B716} Berezanski, D. J. 1999. Turkey Vulture nests in abandoned buildings in SW Manitoba. Blue Jay 57: 28--33. (Manitoba Natural Resources, Box 24, 200 Saulteaux Cr., Winnipeg, MB R3J 3W3, Can.)---Cathartes aura. {ROL #81}

{B716} Bosakowski, T., et al. 1999. Northern Goshawks nesting on a private industrial forest in western Washington. J. Raptor Res. 33: 240--244. (Beak Consultants, Inc., 12931 NE 126th Pl., Kirkland, WA 98034, USA.)---Accipiter gentilis. {ROL #81}

{B716} Brua, R. B. 1999. Ruddy Duck nesting success: Do nest characteristics deter nest predation? Condor 101: 867--870. (Prairie & North. Wildl. Res. Ctr., Can. Wildl. Serv., 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Can.; EM: of 233 Oxyura jamaicensis nests over 3 summers found Mayfield nesting success averaged 41%. Nesting success unpredictable; discriminant function analysis unable to segregate successful and destroyed nests.---S.N.L. {C916, C918, edge effects} {ROL #81}

{B716} Burhans, D. E., & F. R. Thompson III. 1998. Effects of time and nest-site characteristics on concealment of songbird nests. Condor 100: 663--672. (North Central Res. Stn., USDA For. Serv., 202 ABNR, Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211-7260, USA; EM: dburhans/ and minimum nest concealment did not explain occurrence of predation or brood parasitism for any of 3 bird species studied. Cardinalis cardinalis, Passerina cyanea, Spizella pusilla.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B716} Cavitt, J. F., A. T. Pearse, & T. A. Miller. 1999. Brown Thrasher nest reuse: A time saving resource, protection from search-strategy predators, or cues for nest-site selection? Condor 101: 859--862. (Dept. Zool., Weber State Univ., 2505 Univ. Circle, Ogden, UT 84408-2505, USA.)---Toxostoma rufum reuse nests at a low rate (4% of nests monitored). No significant relationships found among density of old nests, success of active nests, or nest-site selection. The only benefit of reusing old nests may be in reducing nest construction time.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B716} Compán, J., & J. M. Santiago. 1993. [Use of nesting boxes and breeding biology of a Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) population in Colmenar Viejo (Madrid) {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 151--158. (Aula de Ecol., Ayto. Colmenar Viejo, E-28770. Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Cooper, R. J., et al. 1999. Does nonrandom nest placement imply nonrandom nest predation?---A reply. Condor 101: 920--923. (Daniel B. Warnell Sch. For. Resour., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; EM: of data on selection of nest trees by Empidonax virescens indicates that the relationship between nest success and tree selectivity depends upon inclusion or exclusion of particular tree species, whether or not years are pooled, and the selectivity index used. Reply to Schmidt & Whelan (Condor 101: 916:920).---S.N.L. {C916, bottomland hardwood forest, forest management, nest mortality} {ROL #81}

{B716} Dziadyk, A. 1999. One hundred percent occupancy of 63 nest boxes. Blue Jay 57: 156--157. (1333 Arlington Ave., Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Y1, Can.)---Mostly Tachycineta bicolor. {ROL #81}

{B716} Ellis, D. H., & R. L. Bunn. 1998. Caribou antlers as nest materials for Golden Eagles in northwestern Alaska. J. Raptor Res. 32: 268. (USGS Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr., HCR 1 Box 4420, Oracle, AZ 85623, USA.)---Aquila chrysaetos. {ROL #81}

{B716} Espie, R. H. M., R. M. Brigham, & P. C. James. 1996. Habitat selection and clutch fate of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) breeding at Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1069--1075. (Dept. Vet. Anat., West. Coll. Vet. Med., Univ. Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Can.) {C918} {ROL #81}

{B716} Estades, C. F., S. A. Temple, & A. F. Gajardo. 1998. Unusual nesting of the Rufous-legged Owl? J. Raptor Res. 32: 183. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol., Univ. Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA, and Depto. Manejo de Recursos Forestales, Univ. Chile, Casilla 9206, Santiago, Chile.)---Two instances of ground-nesting by Strix rufipes.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B716} Evrard, J. O., & B. R. Bacon. 1998. Northern Harrier nest site characteristics in northwest Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 60: 305--312. (WDNR, P.O. Box 367, Grantsburg, WI 54840, USA.)---Circus cyaneus. {ROL #81}

{B716} Ferrero, J. J., & J. A. Román. 1991. [Studies on the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Extremadura {Spain} 2: Nidotopic and breeding habitat.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 19--45. (ADENEX. Cuba, 10. E-06800, Mérida, España.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{B716} Gil S., J. M. 1999. Nest-site overlap and coexistence between Bonelli’s Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in an area of sympatry. Ardeola 46 (1): 31--37. (P/Dr. Prados Picazo, 10, 4.--B.18230 Atarfe, Granada, Spain.) {C922} {ROL #81}

{B716} Gil, S., J. M., F. Molino G., & G. Valenzuela. 1996. Nest-site selection by the Bonelli's Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) in Granada [southeast Spain]. Ardeola 43 (2): 189--197. (Dr. Prados Picazo, 10, 4ºB, E-18230 Atarfe, Granada, España.) {ROL #81}

{B716} González, S., & A. Villarino. 1997. Nest site selection and present status of the Sand Martin, Riparia riparia (L. 1758), in the province of Ourense [Spain]. Ardeola 44 (1): 41--49. (S.G.H.N.-Ourense, Apdo. 212, E-32080 Ourense, España.) {C914} {ROL #81}

{B716} Graveland, J. 1999. Effects of reed cutting on density and breeding success of Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus. J. Avian Biol. 30: 469--482. (RIKZ, P.O. Box 8039, NL-4330 EA Middelburg, Netherlands; EM: reed is better than cut reed for nesting because it allows earlier nesting and hence possibility of more clutches per season, plus it reduces predation risk.---R.T.B. {B908} {ROL #81}

{B716} Hirano, T. 2000. [Use of wire hangers as nest material by Japanese Lesser Sparrowhawks.] Strix 18: 137--139. (c/o T. Tomuro, 2-3-15 Yoshino, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 320-0838, Japan.)---A pair of Accipiter gularis in a residential area used wire hangers as nest material. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{B716} Hjertaas, P. 1998. My experience in moving 2 nests of Piping Plovers. Blue Jay 56: 147--150. (15 Olson Pl., Regina, SK S4S 2J6, Can.)---Charadrius melodus. {B912, E510} {ROL #81}

{B716} Kobayashi, S. 2000. [Records of Black-crowned Night Heron, Little Egret and Grey Heron nesting on the ground.] Strix 18: 121--126. (948-24 Kuriya-sakata, Tokuyama-shi, Yamaguchi 745-0802, Japan.)---Nycticorax nycticorax, Egretta garzetta, Ardea cinerea. (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Kristensen, J., & K. J. Kristensen. 1998. Unusual nesting attempt by Barrow's Goldeneye. Alberta Nat. 28: 20. (23324 Township Rd., Sherwood Park, AB T8B 1L1, Can.)---Attempted, probably unsuccessful, nesting by Bucephala islandica in artificial nest tunnel over open, shallow (0.5 m deep) pond at site northeast of previously known Alberta breeding range.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B716} Londei, T. 1998. Evidence of Spotted Kestrel (Falco moluccensis) nesting in the roofs of Sumba’s traditional houses. J. Raptor Res. 32: 267. (Dipto. Biol., Univ. Milano, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Marini, M. A. 1997. Predation-mediated bird nest diversity: an experimental test. Can. J. Zool. 75: 317--323. (Dept. Biol. Geral, cp 486, ICB Univ. Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 30161-970, Brazil.)---An experiment testing whether many different species with different nesting characteristics reduces predation risk from that experienced by a few species in an area with similar nests.---D.E.F. {C916} {ROL #81}

{B716} Martìnez, C. 1998. Microhabitat selection by the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax during the breeding season. Ardeola 45 (1): 73--76. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., CSIC. C/José Gutierrez Abascal, 2. E-28006 Madrid, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Mazur, K. M., P. C. James, & S. D. Frith. 1997. Barred Owl (Strix varia) nest site characteristics in the boreal forest of Saskatchewan, Canada. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 267--271. (Grassland & For. Bird Proj., Box 24, 200 Saulteaux Cres., Winnipeg, MB R3J 3W3, Can.)---Large trees are used for nest sites; their availability appears to limit occupancy in habitats.---J.M.S. {C908} {ROL #81}

{B716} Meek, S. B., & M. R. Barclay. 1996. Settlement patterns and nest-site selection of Cliff Swallows, Hirundo pyrrhonota: males prefer to clump but females settle randomly. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1394--1401. (Ecol. Div., Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Can.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Monros, J. S., et al. 1999. Open nesting in Great Tits Parus major. Ardeola 46 (1): 89--91. (Unidad Ecol., Univ. Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain; {ROL #81}

{B716} Mossop, D. H. 1997. The importance of old growth refugia in the Yukon boreal forest to cavity-nesting owls. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 584--586. (Arts & Sci. Div., Yukon Coll., Box 2799, Whitehorse, YT Y1A 5K4, Can.)---Aegolius funereus used only 1% of nest boxes erected over a 5-yr period; natural sites seemed to be more abundant than was expected.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B716} Myers, S. D. 1999. An observation of a Banded Broadbill Eurylaimus javanicus nest in Pasoh Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. Forktail 15: 101. (17A Park St., Hawthorn, Vic. 3122, Australia.)---Describes conspicuous nest suspended from a branch that also carried a large active bee nest.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{B716} Ontiveros, D. 1999. Selection of nest cliffs by Bonelli’s Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) in southeastern Spain. J. Raptor Res. 33: 110--116. (Depto. Biol. Anim. Ecol., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Granada, E-18071, Granada, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Palmer, C., K. A. Christian, & A. Fisher. 2000. Mound characteristics and behaviour of the Orange-footed Scrubfowl in the seasonal tropics of Australia. Emu 100: 54--63. (Sch. Biol. Environ. Sci., NT Univ., Darwin, NT 0909, Australia.)---Megapodius reinwardt; mound-nest site selection and temperature maintenance.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{B716} Parejo, D., et al. 1999. Factors affecting the nest height of three heron species in heronries in the south-west of Spain. Ardeola 46 (2): 227--230. (Grupo Invest. Conserv. Area Biol. Anim. Fac. Cien., Univ. Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas, s/n. E-06071 Badajoz, Spain; EM: {ROL #81}

{B716} Postupalsky, S., J. M. Papp, & L. Scheller. 1997. Nest sites and reproductive success of Barred Owls (Strix varia) in Michigan. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 325--337. (1817 Simpson, Apt. 201, Madison, WI 53713, USA.)---Large trees and snags of critical importance to owls.---J.M.S. {C918} {ROL #81}

{B716} Preston, M. I., & G. M. Booth. 1999. Great Horned Owl nesting on a cliff and gas plant tower in Alberta. Blue Jay 57: 65--68. (Apt. 201, 3615 49th St. NW, Calgary, AB T3A 2LT, Can.)---Bubo virginianus. {ROL #81}

{B716} Preston, M. J. 1998. New nest site for Bonaparte's Gull in Alberta. Alberta Nat. 28: 5. (64 Whiteram Hill NE, Calgary, AB T1Y 5T2, Can.)---Another instance of ground nesting by Larus philadelphia.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B716} Ritchie, R. J., T. J. Doyle, & J. M. Wright. 1998. Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) nest in a quarry and on highway cutbanks in Alaska. J. Raptor Res. 32: 261--264. (ABR, Inc., Environ. Res. & Serv., P. O. Box 80410, Fairbanks, AK 99708, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Rosenfield, R. N., et al. 1998. Breeding distribution and nest-site habitat of Northern Goshawks in Wisconsin. J. Raptor Res. 32: 189--194. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA.)---Accipiter gentilis. {ROL #81}

{B716} Salt, J. R. 1998. Some aspects of the biology of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in the Alberta Rockies. II. Characteristics and flora of nest sites. Alberta Nat. 28: 81--83. (464 Nelson St., Victoria, BC V9A 6P4, Can.)---Detailed description of sites, presence/absence of feathers in nests, and vegetation used in nests vs. vegetation surrounding nest.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B716} Schmidt, K. A., & C. J. Whelan. 1999. Nest placement and mortality: Is nest predation a random event in space and time? Condor 101: 916--920. (Inst. Ecosystem Stud., Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545, USA; EM: of data on Empidonax virescens nest tree selection indicated that nest tree selectivity was greater for nest tree species with higher daily nest survival rates and nest predation may often be related to nest site characteristics.---S.N.L. {C916, behavioral games, nest mortality} {ROL #81}

{B716} Seymour, N., & W. Jackson. 1996. Habitat-related variation in movements and fledging success of American Black Duck broods in northeastern Nova Scotia. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1158--1164. (Dept. Biol., St. Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS B2G 2W5, Can.)---Anas rubripes. {C918} {ROL #81}

{B716} Soler, J. J., et al. 1998. Nest building is a sexually selected behaviour in the Barn Swallow. Anim. Behav. 56: 1435--1442. (Dept. Biol. Anim. Ecol., Univ. Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain. EM: rustica. {ROL #81}

{B716} Soler, M., & J. J Soler. 1991. [Materials used in nest construction by Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 99--119. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Granada, E-18001 Granada, España.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Soler, M., & J. J. Soler. 1991. [Breeding place selection by Jackdaw (Corvus monedula)]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 87--98. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Granada. E-18071, Granada, España.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Stepnisky, D. P. 1997. Landscape features and characteristics of Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) nests in fragmented landscapes in central Alberta. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 601--607. (18516-84 Avenue, Edmonton, AB T5T 1G5, Can.)---Amount of forested edge adjacent to the edge is equally important for the nesting of this species. All 17 nests found were in Populus spp.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B716} Ueta, M., & A. Antonov. 2000. Habitat preference of Eastern Curlews at breeding site. Emu 100: 72--74. (Res. Ctr., Wild Bird Soc. Japan, 2-35-2 Minamidaira, Hino, Tokyo 191-0041, Japan.)---Numenius madagascariensis apparently favours sphagnum bog as a foraging habitat but dry grassland as nesting habitat.---W.K.S. {C908} {ROL #81}

{B716} VanderWerf, E. A. 1998. Breeding biology and territoriality of the Hawaii Creeper. Condor 100: 541--545. (Univ. Hawaii, Dept. Zool., Edmondson, Hall, 2538 The Mall, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA; EM: mana. {B316, D308, kleptoparasitism, nest site variability} {ROL #81}

{B716} Verducci, D. 1998. Nesting of Bee-eaters Merops apiaster in the province of Lucca [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 23 (1-2): 32--33. (Via SS. Annunziata 1517/E, 55017 S. Pietro a Vico, LU, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{B716} Wiebe, K. L., & K. Martin. 1998. Costs and benefits of nest cover for Ptarmigan: changes within and between years. Anim. Behav. 56: 1137--1144. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2, Can. EM: leucurus. {ROL #81}

{B716} Wilson, J. K. 1999. Unusually high Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, nests. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 517--518. (USDA For. Serv., Southern Res. Sta., Stoneville, MS 38776, USA.)---Up to 27 m high.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{B716} Wilson, R. R., & R. J. Cooper. 1998. Acadian Flycatcher nest placement: Does placement influence reproductive success? Condor 100: 673--679. (USGS-Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr., 2524 South Frontage Rd., Vicksburg, MS 39180, USA; EM: 511 Empidonax virescens nests surveyed, successful nests were placed higher. No other attribute of nest placement differentiated successful nest sites.---S.N.L. {habitat selection} {ROL #81}

{B718} Bertram, D. F., C. V. J. Welham, & R. C. Ydenberg. 1996. Flexible effort in breeding seabirds: adjustment of provisioning according to nestling age and mass. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1876--1881. (Behav. Ecol. Res. Group, Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.)---Describes a fostering experiment with Cerorhinca monocerata.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{B718} Catry, P., & R. W. Furness. 1999. The influence of adult age on territorial attendance by breeding Great Skuas Catharacta skua: an experimental study. J. Avian Biol. 30: 399--406. (Rua de Campolide 215, 4 dto., 1070 Lisboa, Portugal; EM: birds are less likely than younger ones to leave chicks exposed to predation by conspecifics, the main cause of pre-fledging mortality.---R.T.B. {B316, C912} {ROL #81}

{B718} Davoren, G. K., & A. E. Burger. 1999. Differences in prey selection and behaviour during self-feeding and chick provisioning in Rhinoceros Auklets. Anim. Behav. 58: 853--863. (Dept. Psychol. & Biol., Memorial Univ. Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9, Can. EM: monocerata collect smaller fish for themselves than for chicks---A.K.T. {D302} {ROL #81}

{B718} Frith, C. B. 1999. Noisy Pittas Pitta versicolor feed leeches to their nestlings in tropical Queensland. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 127--128. (P.O. Box 581, Malanda, Qld. 4885, Australia.)---Photograph shows adult with 6 apparently dead tiger leeches in bill, adjacent to brood of 3 nestlings.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B718} Granadeiro, J. P., et al. 1998. Flexible foraging strategy of Cory’s Shearwater, Calonectris diomedea, during the chick-rearing period. Anim. Behav. 56: 1169--1176. (Inst. Nat. Conserv., Rua Filipe Folque 46, 1050 Lisbon, Portugal. EM: {ROL #81}

{B718} Hamer, K. C., A. S. Lynnes, & J. K. Hill. 1999. Parent-offspring interactions in food provisioning of Manx Shearwaters: implications for nestling obesity. Anim. Behav. 57: 627--631. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. EM: puffinus. {ROL #81}

{B718} Howell, D. L., & B. R. Chapman. 1998. Prey brought to Red-shouldered Hawk nests in the Georgia Piedmont. J. Raptor Res. 32: 257--260. (Daniel B. Warnell Sch. For. Res., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152, USA.)---Buteo lineatus. {ROL #81}

{B718} Jackman, R. E., et al. 1999. Prey of nesting Bald Eagles in northern California. J. Raptor Res. 33: 87--96. (Garcia & Assoc., P.O. Box 776, Fall River Mills, CA 96028, USA.)---Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {ROL #81}

{B718} Krebs, E. A., R. B. Cunningham, & C. F. Donnelly. 1999. Complex patterns of food allocation in asynchronously hatching broods of Crimson Rosellas. Anim. Behav. 57: 753--763. (Div. Bot. Zool., Australian National Univ., Canberra 0200, Australia. EM: elegans. {ROL #81}

{B718} Martin, T. E., & C. K. Ghalambor. 1999. Males feeding females during incubation. I. Required by microclimate or constrained by nest predation? Am. Nat. 153: 131--139. (MT Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: incubation feeding rates are greater in cavity nesting than open nesting species and highly correlated with predation in open nesting species, such feeding may be constrained.---J.R.F. {B710, B312, C916} {ROL #81}

{B718} Monrós, J. S., et al. 1997. Nestling diet of Coal Tits (Parus ater) and Great Tits (Parus major) in a pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) of eastern Spain. Ardeola 44 (2): 239--241. (Depto. Microbiol. & Ecol., Univ. Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Bujassot, Valencia, España.) {ROL #81}

{B718} Morbey, Y. E., et al. 1999. Parental provisioning, nestling departure decisions and prefledging mass recession in Cassin’s Auklets. Anim. Behav. 57: 873--881. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can. EM: aleuticus. {B720} {ROL #81}

{B718} Nagai, A. 2000. [Frequent use of foraging sites outside the territory during the nestling period observed in a pair of Great Tit Parus major.] Strix 18: 115--119. (2-88 Hoko, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 921-8052, Japan.)---Tits did 88% of foraging outside their territory. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{B718} Ogden, L. J. E., & B. J. M. Stutchbury. 1997. Fledgling care and male parental effort in the Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina). Can. J. Zool. 75: 576--581. (Dept. Biol., York Univ., 4700 Keele St. North York, ON M3J 1P3, Can.) {ROL #81}

{B718} Ponz, A., J. A. Gil-Delgado, & E. Barba. 1999. Factors affecting prey preparation by adult magpies feeding nestlings. Condor 101: 818--823. (EB: Inst. "Cavanilles" Biodiv. y Biol. Evol., Univ. Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain; EM: by Pica pica increases as difference between clutch size and brood size increases and as prey size increases; it decreases as nestlings grow older and season progresses. The degree of preparation represents a trade-off between benefits to nestlings and costs to parents.---S.N.L. {E509, diet, Spain} {ROL #81}

{B718} Shealer, D. A. 1998. Differences in diet and chick provisioning between adult Roseate and Sandwich terns in Puerto Rico. Condor 100: 131--140. (Dept. Biol., Colgate Univ., Hamilton, NY 13346, USA; EM: Sterna dougallii feed primarily on dwarf herrings and anchovies, and feed chicks mostly dwarf herrings and sardines. Adult Sterna sandvicensis feed primarily on silversides and sardines, and feed chicks mostly sardines and dwarf herrings. Although both terns feed primarily on the same few species of fish, they do so in different proportions.---S.N.L. {prey selection} {ROL #81}

{B718} Székely, T., et al. 1996. An evolutionary approach to offspring desertion in birds. Curr. Ornithol. 13: 271--330. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK.)---Examines existing models of desertion, uniparental and biparental desertion, benefits of parental care and benefits of desertion, timing of desertion, sex of deserter, the process of desertion, hormonal mechanisms, and future research recommendations.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B718} Takahashi, A., et al. 1999. Parental food provisioning is unrelated to manipulated offspring food demand in a nocturnal single-provisioning alcid, the Rhinoceros Auklet. J. Avian Biol. 30: 486--490. (Y. Watanuki: Lab. Appl. Zool., Fac. Agric., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo 060-8589, Japan; EM: monocerata. {ROL #81}

{B718} Tome, D. 1998. Activity of incubating female Long-eared Owls as measured by fluctuations in nest temperatures. J. Raptor Res. 32: 170--174. (Inst. Biol., Vecna 111, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.)---Asio otus. {ROL #81}

{B718} Trémont, S., & H. A. Ford. 2000. Partitioning of parental care in the Leaden Flycatcher. Emu 100: 1--11. (Div. Zool., Univ. New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.)---Parental care by Myiagra rubecula differs little between sexes, although females do slightly more incubation/brooding than males. Similar parental investment by both sexes may result because low breeding success means the benefits to males of seeking extra-pair copulations will be lower than investing in the few nests which reach a late stage.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{B718} Wright, J., P. G. Parker, & K. J. Lundy. 1999. Relatedness and chick feeding effort in the cooperatively breeding Arabian Babbler. Anim. Behav. 58: 779--785. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK. EM: had no effect on amount of food brought to chicks in Turdoides squamiceps---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{B720} Anders, A. D., et al. 1997. Juvenile survival in a population of Neotropical migrant birds. Conserv. Biol. 11: 698--707. (Div. Biol. Sci., 105 Tucker Hall, Univ. Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.)---Hylocichla mustelina. {C918} {ROL #81}

{B720} Avilès, J. M., & A. Sanchez. 1998. Growth of nestling Rollers (Coracias garrulus) in steppes of Extremadura [Spain]: effect of rainfall. Misc. Zool. 21 (2): 1--7. (Grupo Invest. Conserv., Area Biol. Anim., Univ. Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n. 06071 Badajoz, Spain.) {C906} {ROL #81}

{B720} Cotton, P. A., J. Wright, & A. Kacelnik. 1999. Chick begging strategies in relation to brood hierarchies and hatching asynchrony. Am. Nat. 153: 412--420. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK; EM: of hatching asynchrony in Sturnus vulgaris suggest that fundamental aspects of parent-offspring communication are not yet understood.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B720} Eadie, J. McA., & B. E. Lyon. 1998. Cooperation, conflict, and creching behavior in goldeneye ducks. Am. Nat. 151: 397--408. (Dept. Wildl., Fish. Conserv. Biol., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616-8751 USA; EM: may involve both brood adoption and brood desertion. Bucephala islandica desert small broods, which may be adopted with no costs or benefits to adoptive parents.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B720} Fernández, V., A., Muñoz d. V., & A. Botello. 1993. [Evolution of growth rate during the postnatal development of Passer montanus (L., 1758) and Passer domesticus (L., 1758).] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 261--266. (Avda. de Colón, 10-1ºG, E-06005 Badajoz, España.) {ROL #81}

{B720} Gebczynski, A., J. R. E. Taylor, & M. Konarzewski. 1996. Growth of Dovekie (Alle alle) chicks under conditions of increased food demand at the nest: two field experiments. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1076--1083. (Inst. Biol., Univ. Warsaw, P.O. Box 109, Swierkowa 20 B, 15--950 Bialystok, Poland.) {ROL #81}

{B720} Kristan, D. M., R. J. Gutierrez, & A. B. Franklin. 1996. Adaptive significance of growth patterns in juvenile Spotted Owls. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1882--1886. (Dept. Biol., Univ. California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.)---Strix occidentalis. {ROL #81}

{B720} Lesage, L., & G. Gauthier. 1998. Effect of hatching date on body and organ development in Greater Snow Goose goslings. Condor 100: 316--325. (Dépt. biol. & Ctr. études nordiques, Univ. Laval, Ste-Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Can.)---Growth rate in Chen caerulescens atlantica is sensitive to feeding conditions during brood-rearing period; late-hatched goslings grow more slowly than early-hatched ones. Poor feeding conditions encountered by late-hatched goslings disproportionately affected late-developing organs compared to early-developing ones, and males compared to females.---S.N.L. {breast muscle, atlantica, digestive tract, sexual dimorphism} {ROL #81}

{B720} Nisbet, I. C. T., et al. 1998. Variations in growth of Roseate Tern chicks: II. Early growth as an index of parental quality. Condor 100: 305--315. (I.C.T. Nisbet & Co., Inc., 150 Alder Lane, North Falmouth, MA 02556, USA; EM: on mass at hatching, linear growth, and quadratic growth of Sterna dougallii chicks during the first 3--4 days of life show first chicks in each brood exceed second chicks in all 3 parameters and 1st chicks of 2 grow faster in first 3 days than single chicks. Subsequent growth and survival of chicks are predicted by all 3 parameters of early growth.---S.N.L. {age, Falkner Is.} {ROL #81}

{B720} Pulido, J. C. 1996. Osseous growth of the limbs in the House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (L., 1758). Misc. Zool. 19(2): 35--42. (Olmo 1, Esc. B4ºI., E-06400 Don Benito, Badajoz, España.) {E126} {ROL #81}

{B720} Saffer, V. M., et al. 2000. Patterns of growth in nestling Short-tailed Shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris. Emu 100: 42--48. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Murdoch Univ., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.)---Differential patterns of growth of several body parts.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{B720} Tordoff, H. B., & P. T. Redig. 1998. Apparent siblicide in Peregrine Falcons. J. Raptor Res. 32: 184. (Bell Mus. Nat. Hist. & Dept. Ecol., Evol., & Behav., Univ. Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---Falco peregrinus. {ROL #81}

{B900} Bierregaard, R. O., Jr. 1998. Conservation status of birds of prey in the South American tropics. J. Raptor Res. 32: 19--27. (Dept. Biol., Univ. North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223-9201, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B900} Bildstein, K. L., et al. 1998. Conservation status of tropical raptors. J. Raptor Res. 32: 3--18. (Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, 1700 Hawk Mountain Road, Kempton, PA 19529, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B900} Fernández-Cruz, M., G. Fernández-Alcázar, & F. Campos. 1993. [Principal conservation problems of the Family Ardeidae in Spain.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 453--460. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B900} Jacobs, M. D., & J. S. Walker. 1999. Density estimates of birds inhabiting fragments of cloud forest in southern Ecuador. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 73--89. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Oxford Road, Manchester M1 5GD, UK.)---Bird species assemblages and population densities, and the significant numbers of individuals of 4 Red Data Book species (Red-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops, Bearded Guan Penelope barbata, Golden-plumed Parakeet Leptosittaca branickii, Grey-breasted Mountain-Toucan Andigena hypoglauca) found in 3 unprotected montane cloud forest fragments threatened with habitat destruction (Selvaeco Alegre, El Sauce, and Chilla) indicate these and similar sites are of major conservation importance.---K.J.E. {B910, C914, C922} {ROL #81}

{B900} Russell, G. J., et al. 1998. Present and future taxonomic selectivity in bird and mammal extinctions. Conserv. Biol. 12: 1365--1376. (Natl. Ctr. Ecol. Analysis Synthesis, 735 State St., Suite 300, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B900} Thiollay, J.-M. 1998. Current status and conservation of Falconiformes in tropical Asia. J. Raptor Res. 32: 40--55. (Lab. d’Ecologie, E. N. S., 46 rue d’Ulm, 75230 Paris, Cedex 05, France.) {ROL #81}

{B900} Watson, R. T. 1998. Conservation and ecology of raptors in the tropics. J. Raptor Res. 32: 1--2. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 W. Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709, USA.)---Preface to a succeeding series of papers (collected in J. Raptor Res., 32: 3--73) originally presented in a symposium as part of the joint RRF and AOU meetings in Boise, ID in 1996.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B902} McKeever, K. 1997. Remaining choices. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 6--10. (The Owl Found., 4117 21st St., R.R. 1, Vineland Station, ON L0R 2E0, Can.)---Summarizes the rehabilitation, captive care and breeding, and release to the wild for some 3,600 injured owls representing more than 13 species.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B904} Aguilera, X. G., et al. 1999. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 97--112. (Empresa Nacional para la Conservacion de la Flora y la Fauna, Ministerio de la Agricultura, La Habana, Cuba; EM (JW Wiley): awareness, education, and involvement campaigns for the protected endemics Amazona leucocephala palmarum and Grus canadensis nesiotes coordinated by authors, included population and distribution surveys by residents of island.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{B904} Alvarez, J. A., et al. 1993. [Post-nuptial, winter, and spring status of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Extremadura {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 51--64. (A.M.A. Junta de Extremadura, E. Díez Canedo, s/n. E-06800 Mérida, España.) {C310} {ROL #81}

{B904} Arroyo, B., J. Pinilla & L. Palomares. 1995. Preliminary data on the effects of clustered distribution of nests on the breeding of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the NE of the Community of Madrid [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 373--380. (O'Donnell, 16, E-28009, Madrid, Spain.) {B716} {ROL #81}

{B904} Arroyo, B., L. Palomares, & J. Pinilla. 1995. Status and conservation problems of Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, and Hen Harriers, Circus cyaneus, in the Community of Madrid [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 365--371. (O'Donnell, 16. E-28009 Madrid, España.) {B912} {ROL #81}

{B904} Azuma, D. L., J. A. Baldwin, & B. R. Noon. 1990. Estimating the occupancy of Spotted Owl habitat areas by sampling and adjusting for bias. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-124. (Pacific SW Res. Stn.: P.O. Box 245, Berkeley, CA 94701-0245, USA.)---Strix occidentalis. {B906, C914, E506} {ROL #81}

{B904} Barroso, J. L., & J. Parra. 1995. Census of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the province of Huelva [Spain] (1993-1994). Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 449--452. (Soc. Ornitol. LARUS. Apdo. 1251, Huelva, España.) {C914} {ROL #81}

{B904} Benítez, J. R., & D. Cardona. 1995. A report on the status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the province of Cádiz [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 473--474. (No address given.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Bort, J., & M. Agueras. 1995. A study of the conservation problems of Montagu's Harriers, Circus pygargus, in the province of Castellón [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 317--337. (G.E.R. Obispo Rocamora 37-2º A. E-12540, Villa Real, Castellón, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Bort, J. 1995. The Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, population in the province of Castellón [Spain] (1980-1994). Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 275--286. (G.E.R. Obispo Rocamora 37-2º A. E-12540, Villa Real, Castellón, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Bort, J., et al. 1995. Present status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the Community of Valencia [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 269--274. (G.E.R. Obispo Rocamora 37-2º A. E-12540. Villa Real, Castellón, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Bucher, E. H. 1992. The causes of extinction of the Passenger Pigeon. Curr. Ornithol. 9: 1--36. (Ctr. Appl. Zool., Univ. Córdoba, Córdoba 5000, Argentina.)---Reconsiders life history and extinction of Ectopistes migratorius in light of advances in knowledge of ecology of colonially breeding pigeons.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{B904} Bühlmann, J., & S. Bolli. 1995. A study on the breeding of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in La Serena and Llanos de Cáceres (Extremadura) [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 419--424. (Blüemlisalpstrasse 76. 8006, Zurich, Switzerland) {B700} {ROL #81}

{B904} Burton, F. J., et al. 1999. Status of Red-footed Boobies Sula sula on Little Cayman, British West Indies. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 227--233. (Natl. Trust for Cayman Islands, P.O. Box 31116 SMB, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands.)---Aerial photography, ground transects, and quadrat sampling indicate 16.5-ha Ramsar site supports ~4839 breeding pairs, 30% of Caribbean population. Unless habitat buffer is established, economic development, spurred by tourism, may quickly extend to colony's borders.---K.J.E. {B912, C914} {ROL #81}

{B904} Calderón, M., et al. 1995. Present status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Extremadura [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 409--417. (Sec. Ornitol. ADENEX. Cuba, 10. E-06800, Mérida, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Choudhury, A. 1998. Status and conservation of the White-winged Duck in eastern Assam, India. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 28: 14--17. (Rhino Found. for Nature in NE India, c/o The Assam Co. Ltd., G. Bordoloi Pk., Bamunimaidam, Guwahati 781 021, Assam, India.)---Cairina scutulata, one of the rarest wildfowl, largely confined to E. Assam.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{B904} Clayton, K. M., & J. K. Schmutz. 1999. Is the decline of Burrowing Owls Speotyto cunicularia in prairie Canada linked to changes in Great Plains ecosystems? Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 163--185. (Powder River Eagle Stud., P.O. Box 2411, Gillette, Wyoming 82717, USA; EM:, dispersal, and habitat use of radio-tagged and untagged adult and juvenile birds investigated; conservation strategies proposed for this locally endangered species.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{B904} Corbacho, C., A. López, & E. Costillo. 1995. Factors influencing mortality of nestlings of Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Extremadura [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 433--439. (Area Biol. Anim. Univ. Extremadura. Avda. de Elvas s/n. E-06071, Badajoz, España.) {C912} {ROL #81}

{B904} Corbacho, C., A. López, & E. Costillo. 1995. Qualitative analysis of breeding failure in colonies of Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Extremadura [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 425--431. (Area Biol. Anim. Univ. Extremadura. Avda. de Elvas s/n. E-06071. Badajoz, España.) {C912} {ROL #81}

{B904} Crocker-Bedford, D. C. 1998. The value of demographic and habitat studies in determining the status of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) with special reference to Crocker-Bedford (1990) and Kennedy (1997). J. Raptor Res. 32: 329--336. (243 Wood Rd., Ketchikan, AK 99901, USA.)---Review and commentary on a pair of earlier papers, Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18: 262--269 (1990); and J. Raptor Res. 31: 95--106 (1997).---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B904} De Smet, K. D. 1997. Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) monitoring and management activities in Manitoba, 1987--1996. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 123--130. (Wildl. Br., Manitoba Nat. Resour., Box 520, Melita, MB R0M 1L0, Can.)---Population declined from 34 known pairs of Athene cunicularia to 1 during study period.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B904} DeStefano, S. 1998. Determining the status of Northern Goshawks in the West: is our conceptual model correct?. J. Raptor Res. 32: 342--348. (USGS, AZ Coop. Fish Wildl. Res. Unit, 104 Biol. Sci. East, Univ. Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.)---Accipiter gentilis. {E506} {ROL #81}

{B904} Dickson, R. D., & G. W. Beyersbergen. 1998. North America’s largest shorebird---have you seen it? Blue Jay 56: 82--84. (303, 9510-79 St. NW, Edmonton, AB T6C 2R9, Can.)---Review of data for Numenius americanus and plea for observations.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{B904} E. Valderas, et al. 1995. A report on the status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the province of Málaga [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 475--476. (SILVEMA. Mariblanca, 21-Bajo izdo. E-29012 Málaga, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Fernandes, C., D. Leitsao, & H. Costa. 1995. Present status of the Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus, populations in Portugal. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 93--100. (R. Aviaçsao Naval, 4, 1º Dtº. P-3800, Aveiro, Portugal.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Fernández-Parreño, F. 1995. A report on the status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the province of Sevilla [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 471--472. (Hombre de Piedra, 3. E-41002, Sevilla, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Ferrero, J. J. 1995. The Iberian [Spain] population of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 539--560. (ADENEX. Cuba, 10. E-06800. Mérida, Extremadura, España.) {C914} {ROL #81}

{B904} Finch, D. M., & P. W. Stangel, Eds. 1993. Status and management of Neotropical migratory birds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229. (Rocky Mtn. For. & Range Exp. Stn., USDA, Fort Collins, CO 80524, USA.)---Forty six major papers, plus several briefer summaries and reports, presented at symposium.---W.M.G. {ROL #81}

{B904} Foster, T. 1999. Update on the Vanuatu Megapode Megapodius layardi on Ambrym, Vanuatu. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 63--71. (5B Winterwell Rd., Brixton, London SW2 5JB, UK.)---Overexploitation of eggs has added to concerns about the welfare of this endemic, already threatened by habitat fragmentation and loss that exacerbate the impacts of natural disasters. Proposes research, education, restrictions on egg harvesting, and establishment of protected areas.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{B904} Gil, J. M. 1995. Notes on the population status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the province of Granada [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 477--480. (FALCO. Dr. Prados Picazo, 10-4º B. E-18230 Atarfe, Granada, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Gompper, M. E., P. B. Stace, & J. Berger. 1997. Conservation implications of the natural loss of lineages in wild mammals and birds. Conserv. Biol. 11: 857--867. (Prog. Ecol., Evol., & Conserv. Biol., Univ. Nevada, 1000 Valley Rd., Reno, NV 89512, USA.) {D500} {ROL #81}

{B904} Hernández, M. A., & M. Fernández. 1995. A report on the conservation and management campaigns of the Montagu's, Hen, and Marsh Harriers (Circus pygargus, Circus cyaneus and Circus aeruginosus) populations in the Community of Madrid [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 381--407. (Francisco Vivancos, 11, E-28002, Madrid, Spain.) {B912} {ROL #81}

{B904} Holroyd, G. L., & T. I. Wellicome. 1997. Workshop: Report on the Western Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) conservation workshop. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 612--615. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Environ. Can., Rm. 200, 4999-98 Avenue, Edmonton, AB T6B 2X3, Can.; EM:, future conservation, and needed studies discussed for Athene cunicularia hypugaea on a continental basis.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B904} Houston, C. S. 1998. Missed opportunities, 1944--1953: Whooping Crane nests in Wood Buffalo Park. Blue Jay 56: 28--30. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Grus americana observations by J.C. Nesbitt that were overlooked.---R.W.N. {C318} {ROL #81}

{B904} Houston, C. S. 1999. Decline in Upland Sandpiper populations: history and interpretations. Blue Jay 57: 136--142. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Reviews historic and present status of Bartramia longicauda across North American grasslands.---R.W.N. {C914} {ROL #81}

{B904} Hughes, A. L. 1999. Differential human impact on the survival of genetically distinct avian lineages. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 147--154. (Dept. Bio. and Ins. Mol. Evol. Genetics, Pennsylvania St. Univ., Univ. Pk., PA 16802; EM: extinction and endangerment of birds is higher for those of monotypic genera; implications for targeting of conservation efforts.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{B904} Jiménez, J., & M. Surroca. 1995. Population trends and breeding of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the province of Castellón [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 287--296. (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Castellón, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Johns, B. 1998. 1997---year of the crane. Alberta Nat. 28: 3--4. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Environ. Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Can.)---Whooping Cranes, Grus americana, had a record 51 pairs nesting in Wood Buffalo National Park, NWT-Alberta and vicinity in 1997, resulting in a record 182 wintering in Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Texas.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{B904} Johns, B. 1998. Whooping Cranes nesting in Alberta. Blue Jay 56: 31--33. (C.W.S., 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Can.)---Grus americana records 1977--1994.---R.W.N. {C318} {ROL #81}

{B904} Jubete, F. 1995. Present status of Circus pygargus, Circus cyaneus and Circus aeruginosus in the province of Palencia [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 169--194. (Apdo. 621. E-34080, Palencia, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Kalivodová, E. 1997 [Birds of the dispersed rustic settlement in western Slovakia.] Tichodroma 10: 97--102. (Ústav krajinnej ekólgie SAV, Štefánikova, 814 999 Bratislava, Slovakia.)---13 nationally threatened species occur here (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {C310} {ROL #81}

{B904} Kennedy, P. L. 1998. Evaluating Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) population status: a reply to Smallwood and Crocker-Bedford. J. Raptor Res. 32: 336--342. (Dept. Fish Wildl. Biol. & Graduate Degree Prog. in Ecol., CO State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO 80523, USA.)---Response to J. Raptor Res. 32: 323--329 (1998); and J. Raptor Res. 32: 329--336 (1998).---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B904} Lane, B., & D. I. Rogers. 1999. Painted Snipe---a cause for concern? Stilt 35: 63--64. (12.217 Barley Ave., Burnley, Vic. 3121, Australia.)---Australian Rostratula benghalensis are distinct from Old World counterparts and should be ranked as Endangered. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B904} Legendre, S., et al. 1999. Demographic stochasticity and social mating system in the process of extinction of small populations: the case of passerines introduced to New Zealand. Am. Nat. 153: 449--463. (Laboratoire d’Ecologie, Ecole Normale Superieure, 46 rue d’Ulm, F-75230 Paris Cedex 05, France; EM: extinction probabilities from models to real data found that monogamous mating leads to higher extinction risk.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{B904} Martínez, R. 1995. A report on the present status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the province of Albacete [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 363--364. (Soc. Albacetense Ornitol. Apdo. 18. E-02080, Albacete, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} McKenzie, S., & J. Blyth. 1999. Saving the Malleefowl. Landscope 15 (2): 17--22. (WWF, P.O. Box 4010, Wembley, WA 6014, Australia.)---Monitoring the survival of Leipoa ocellata in Western Australia.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{B904} Meartikainen, P., L. Kaila, & Y. Haila. 1998. Threatened beetles in White-backed Woodpecker habitats. Conserv. Biol. 12: 293--301. (Univ. Joensuu, Faculty For., P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland.)---Dendrocopos leucotos. {ROL #81}

{B904} Moreno, J. D., et al. 1995. Status, distribution and conservation of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Aragón [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 241--252. (Avda. Clavé, 27, 2º A. E-50004. Zaragoza, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Onofre, N., & R. Rufino. 1995. Present status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Portugal. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 481--494. (Estaçao Florestal Nac. Posto Apícola. Tapada da Ajuda, P-1300 Lisboa, Portugal.)---900--1200 pairs. Distribution map.---L.J.A. {ROL #81}

{B904} Rahmani, A. R. 1998 A possible decline of vultures in India. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 28: 40--41. (Director, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., Hornbill Ho., Shaheed Bhagat Singh Rd., Mumbai 400 023, India.)---Apparent decline currently unexplained, since few people eat vultures (unclean) and food is still plentiful with deaths of large number of unproductive livestock (cows being sacred in India).---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{B904} Ratcliffe, N., L. R. Monteiro, & J. Hazevoet. 1999. Status of Raso Lark Alauda razae with notes on threats and foraging behavior. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 43--46. (Royal Soc. Prot. Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Beds. SG19, 2DL, UK.)---Single, small, fluctuating population limited to <10 sq km Raso islet of Cape Verde, supporting reclassification of this endemic to critically endangered.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{B904} Robbins, C. S., J. R. Sauer, & F. G. Peterjohn. 1993. Population trends and management opportunities for Neotropical migrants. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 17--23. (Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr., 11410 American Holly Dr., Laurel, MD 20708-4015, USA.)---Reviews some trends determined by Breeding Bird Survey, and suggests 12 approaches for managing nesting habitat.---W.M.G. {B910, B912} {ROL #81}

{B904} Robinson, S. K., et al. 1993. Management implications of cowbird parasitism on Neotropical migrant songbirds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 93--102. (Illinois Nat. Hist. Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, IL 61820, USA.)---Considers strategies for managing both acutely threatened and more common hosts.---W.M.G. {endangered species, B704, B912, C914} {ROL #81}

{B904} Rodríguez, A. F., & R. Arambarri. 1995. The Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the Basque Community [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 201--211. (Txirula Nº 11, 1º A. E-01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, España.) {ROL #81}

{B904} Sheffield, S. R. 1997. Current status, distribution, and conservation of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) in midwestern and western North America. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 399--407. (Inst. Wildl. Environ. Toxicol., Dept. Environ. Toxicol., Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC 29670, USA.)---Athene cunicularia continues to decline over most of its range.---J.M.S. {C318} {ROL #81}

{B904} Smallwood, K. S. 1998. On the evidence needed for listing Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) under the Endangered Species Act: a reply to Kennedy. J. Raptor Res. 32: 323--329. (Consulting in the Public Interest, 109 Luz Place, Davis, CA 95616 USA.)---Reply to J. Raptor Res. 31: 95--106 (1997).---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B904} Smith, C. R., D. M. Pence, & R. J. O’Connor. 1993. Status of Neotropical migratory birds in the northeast: a preliminary assessment. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 172--188. (Dept. of Nat. Res., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853-3001, USA.)---Assesses breeding, wintering, and migratory status of each species.---W.M.G. {Partners in Flight, B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B904} Thompson, F. R., et al. 1993. Status of Neotropical migrant landbirds in the Midwest: identifying species of management concern. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 145--158. (N. Central For. Exp. Sta., Univ. of Missouri, 1-26 Agric. Bldg., Columbia, MO 65211, USA.)---Rankings based on seven criteria; results indicate which breeding habitats of most concern.---W.M.G. {Partners in Flight, B910, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Bradshaw, D. 1993. Virginia’s monitoring goals and programs: an eastern state perspective. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 272--274. (Dept. of Game and Inland Fish., P.O. Box 11104, Richmond, VA 23230, USA.)---Efforts in east depend more on state and private cooperation than on federal involvement.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, Partners in Flight, B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Butcher, G. S., B. Peterjohn, & C. J. Ralph. 1993. Overview of national bird population monitoring programs and databases. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 192--203. (Amer. Birding Assoc., P.O. Box 6599, Colorado Springs, CO 80934-6599, USA.) {Neotropical migrants, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Carter, M. F., & K. Barker. 1993. An interactive database for setting conservation priorities for western Neotropical migrants. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 120--144. (Colorado Bird Obs., 13401 Piccadilly Rd., Brighton, CO 80601, USA.)---Ranking system based on a complexity of impacts affecting species.---W.M.G. {Partners in Flight, B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Clarke, H. 1999. International species protection agreements: migratory shorebirds in the East Asian-Australasian flyway. Stilt 35: 18--24. (Dept. Econ. Finance, La Trobe Univ., Bundoora, Vic. 3083, Australia.)---Economic theory argues that developed countries should fund conservation initiatives in poorer countries where there is less conservation interest because this advances developed countries’ conservation preferences.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B906} Cyr, A., & J. Larivee. 1993. A checklist approach for monitoring Neotropical migrant birds: twenty-year trends in birds of Quebec using EPOQ. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 229--236. (Dept. De Biol., Univ. De Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Can.)---Most detected trends similar to those found by the BBS.---W.M.G. {B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} DeSante, D. F., O. E. Williams, & K. M. Burton. 1993. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program: overview and progress. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 208--222. (The Inst. for Bird Popul., P.O. Box 1346, Pt. Reyes Stn., CA 94956-1346, USA.)---Program designed to provide long-term demographic information based on breeding success and winter survival data.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, B904, C910, C914, C918} {ROL #81}

{B906} Droege, S. 1993. Monitoring Neotropical migrants on managed lands: when, where, why. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 189--191. (Natl. Biol. Serv., 12100 Beech Forest Rd., Laurel, MD, USA.)---Outlines a decision making process for developing appropriate programs.---W.M.G. {C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Edwards, P. J. E. 1998. Conservation in Cambodia. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 29--33. (Xenus Ecology, 1 The Court, Lanwades Business Pk., Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7PN, UK.)---Reviews recent developments.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{B906} Enriquez, P. L., & H. Mikkola. 1997. Comparative study of general public owl knowledge in Costa Rica, Central America and Malawi, Africa. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 160--166. (Colegio Frontera Sur, Apdo. 63, 29290 San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico.)---Strong negative superstitions in Africa contribute to unnecessary killing by public, but many owls are also killed in Costa Rica.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B906} Finch, D. M, & M. Patton-Mallory. 1993. Closing the gap between research and management. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 12--16. (For. Sci. Lab., 2205 Columbia SE, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA.)---Suggests Partners in Flight program can facilitate communication.---W.M.G. {Partners in Flight, Neotropical migrants, B910} {ROL #81}

{B906} Freemark, K. E., et al. 1993. Adding a landscape ecology perspective to conservation and management planning. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 346--352. (Canadian Wildl. Serv., c/o U.S. Environ. Prot. Agency, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333, USA.)---Application of concept to Neotropical migrants.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, B904, B908, B910, C908} {ROL #81}

{B906} Garnett, S. 1999. Still many miles from Babylon: a response to Harry Recher. Aust. Zool. 31: 28--29. (11 Templeton St., Gordonvale, Qld. 4685, Australia.)---The outlook for the continued survival of many threatened Australian bird species is "chronic" rather than "acute." Evidence of encouraging contemporary changes in attitude among communities gives hope that threatening processes may be managed successfully.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{B906} Geupel, G. R., & N. Nur. 1993. Monitoring bird populations: the role of bird observatories and nongovernmental organizations. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 175--279. (Pt. Reyes Bird Obs., 4990 Shoreline Highway, Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA.)---Private organizations play a unique and vital role, particularly in conducting long-term studies. Programs ideally consider both population trends and demographic parameters.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, Partners in Flight, B904, C910, C914, C918} {ROL #81}

{B906} Groves, C. R., & J. W. Unsworth. 1993. Wapiti and warblers: integrating game and nongame management in Idaho. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 408--417. (The Nat. Conserv., Box 5721, Boise, ID 83705, USA.)---Some current management practices benefitting elk may be detrimental to migrant birds.---W.M.G. {B904, B910, C908, Neotropical migrants} {ROL #81}

{B906} Hayden, T. J., & D. J. Tazik. 1993. Integrated natural resource monitoring on Army lands and its application to conservation of Neotropical birds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 258--264. (U.S. Army Construction Engineering Res. Labs, Nat. Resour. Manage. Team, PO Box 9005, Champaign, IL 61826, USA.) {Neotropical migrants, B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Howe, F. 1993. A western state perspective on monitoring and managing Neotropical migratory birds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 269--271. (Utah Div. of Wildl. Resour., 1596 W. N. Temple, Salt Lake City, UT 84116-3195, USA.)---Emphasizes that monitoring can pro-actively prevent species from becoming threatened.---W.M.G. {B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Hunter, W. C., et al. 1993. The Partners in Flight species prioritization scheme. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 109--119. (5363 Milieo Pl., Lilburn, GA 30247, USA.)---On several geographic scales, describes methodology for ranking Neotropical migrant species needing protection.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Hunter, W. C., et al. 1993. Neotropical migratory landbird species and their habitats of special concern within the southeast region. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 159--171. (5363 Milieo Pl., Lilburn, GA 30247, USA.)---Preliminary priorities for action during the breeding season set in each of 24 physiographic areas.---W.M.G. {Partners in Flight, B904, B910, B912, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Johnson, T. W. 1993. Involving the private sector in Georgia’s conservation initiatives for Neotropical birds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 45--46. (Georgia Dept. of Nat. Resour., Game & Fish Div., Nongame-Endangered Wildl. Prog., Forsyth, GA 31029, USA.)---Discusses means for enlisting volunteer assistance in programs, including providing liability insurance.---W.M.G. {Partners in Flight} {ROL #81}

{B906} Kerlinger, P. 1993. Birding economics and birder demographics studies as conservation tools. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 32--38. (Cape May Bird Obs., New Jersey Audubon, P.O. Box 3, Cape May Point, NJ 08212, USA.)---Birders are primary "user group" of Neotropical migrants, and potentially are a large, dependable source of revenue for non-game programs.---W.M.G. {B510} {ROL #81}

{B906} Manley, P. 1993. USDA Forest Service goals and programs for monitoring Neotropical migratory birds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 252--257. (U.S. For. Serv., 630 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94111, USA.)---Three levels of complexity allow implementation based on funding and resources available.---W.M.G. {Partners in Flight, B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Niles, L. J. 1993. Protection of Neotropical migrants as a major focus of wildlife management. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 392--395. (New Jersey Div. Fish, Game, & Wildl., CN 400, Trenton, NJ 08625, USA.)---Suggests ways to integrate goals of conservation biology and wildlife management.---W.M.G. {B904} {ROL #81}

{B906} Pfannmuller, L. A., et al. 1993. Integration of Neotropical migrant bird conservation into other resource management activities in the Midwest. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 418--420. (Minnesota Dept. Nat. Resour., Box 25, DNR Bldg., 500 Lafayette Rd., St. Paul, MN 55155, USA.) {B904, B910, C908} {ROL #81}

{B906} Recher, H. F. 1999. The state of Australia’s avifauna: a personal opinion and prediction for the new millennium. Aust. Zool. 31: 11--27. (Sch. Nat. Sci., Edith Cowan Univ., Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia.)---The survival of many bird species in the 21st Century is threatened, with population declines in 30--90% of species across southern Australia. Actions required to prevent extinctions are suggested.---W.K.S. {B900, C308} {ROL #81}

{B906} Safford, R. J., & C. G. Jones. 1998. Strategies for land-bird conservation on Mauritius. Conserv. Biol. 12: 169--176. (Mauritian Wildl. Found., Tamarin, Mauritius & Durrell Institute Conserv. Ecol., Univ. Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NZ, UK.) {ROL #81}

{B906} Sauer, J. R. 1993. Monitoring goals and programs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 245--251. (Natl. Biol. Survey, Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr., 11510 American Holly Dr., Laurel, MD 20708-4017, USA.)---Reviews several surveys, including the N.A. Breeding Bird Survey, coordinated by the U.S.F.W.S.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{B906} Scotney, T. 1999. International frameworks for conservation of migratory waterbirds. Stilt 35: 65. (Wetlands Unit, Biodiversity Group, Environ. Aust., GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; EM: Migratory Waterbird Conservation Strategy 1996--2000 has produced 3 Action Plans. Work is underway to develop a post-2000 strategy. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B906} Thompson, F. R., III, J. R. Probst, & M. F. Raphael. 1993. Silviculture options for Neotropical migratory birds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 353--362. (Central For. Exp. Sta., 202 Nat. Resour. Bldg., Univ. Missouri, Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.)---The best way to integrate requirements of migrant birds with need for other forest resources is through top-down approach encompassing several scales of management.---W.M.G. {B904, B908, B910, C908} {ROL #81}

{B906} Tobias. J., & P. Davidson. 1998. Nakai-Nam Theun: can development save one of South-east Asia's last wildernesses? Oriental Bird Club Bull. 28: 24--29. (BirdLife Int., Wellbrook Ct., Girton Rd., Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK.)---A proposed dam in Laos to provide hydro-electric power to Thailand will impact on 3445 sq km of pristine wilderness, a biodiversity conservation area in which 405 species of bird recorded (11 threatened and 27 near-threatened, listed).---I.C.R. {B910} {ROL #81}

{B906} Watkins, F. D., & M. Barter. 1999. Shorebird conservation in the East Asian--Australasian flyway. Stilt 35: 69--70. (Wetlands Int.--Oceania, GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia; EM: development process and priority actions. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B906} Wilson, M. J. 1997. Workshop: "Mission Possible: Owls in education." USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 620--632. (P.O. Box 220, Dunstable, MA 01827-0220, USA.)---Discussion on how owls can be used to educate the public.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B906} Winker, K. 1998. Recent geographic trends in Neotropical avian research. Condor 100: 764--768. (Univ. Alaska Mus., 907 Yukon Dr., Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA; EM: of research publications from 1979--1995, and land and human population characteristics, finds research efforts at a gross level are not correlated with factors driving conservation needs. Collaboration and cooperation facilitating foreign research in understudied Neotropical countries is imperative.---S.N.L. {biodiversity, C702} {ROL #81}

{B906} Wright, V., S. J. Hejl, & R. L. Hutto. 1997. Conservation implications of a multi-scale study of Flammulated Owl (Otus flammeolus) habitat use in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 506--516. (USGS/BRD, Sci. Ctr., Glacier Natl. Park, West Glacier, MT 59936, USA.)---Conservation measures should be based on the results of landscape-level, as well as microhabitat studies.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B908} Bock, C. E., et al. 1993. Effects of livestock grazing on Neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 296--309. (Dept. E.P.O. Biology, Univ. Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.)---Literature review indicates that response to grazing differs among plains and riparian species, with twice as many riparian species declining as increasing. Most declining species depend on lush ground cover for nesting or foraging.---W.M.G. {B904, B910, C908, C914} {ROL #81}

{B908} Bolger, D. T., T. A. Scott & J. T. Rotenberry. 1997. Breeding bird abundance in an urbanizing landscape in coastal Southern California. Conservation Biology 11: 406--421. (Environ. Stud. Program, Dartmouth Coll., HB 6182, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.) {C922} {ROL #81}

{B908} Brown, B. T., L. E. Stevens, & T. A. Yates. 1998. Influences of fluctuating river flows on Bald Eagle foraging behavior. Condor 100: 745--748. (SWCA, Inc., Environ. Consultants, 56 West 400 South, Suite 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84101-2108, USA.)---Study of effect of hourly fluctuations of Colorado River flow from Glen Canyon Dam on wintering Haliaeetus leucocephalus found that low river flows exerted neutral or positive influences on habitat use and prey capture; high river flows reduced foraging habitat diversity and success in river habitat.---S.N.L. {D306, human impact} {ROL #81}

{B908} Dickson, J. G., et al. 1993. Effects of silviculture on Neotropical migratory birds in central and southeastern oak pine forests. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 374--385. (U.S. For. Serv., South. For. Exp. Sta., Nacogdoches, TX 75961, USA.) {B904, B910, C908} {ROL #81}

{B908} Dobkin, D. S., A. C. Rich, & W. H. Pyle. 1998. Habitat and avifaunal recovery from livestock grazing in a riparian meadow system of the Northwestern Great Basin. Conserv. Biol. 12: 209--221. (High Desert Ecol. Res. Inst., 15 SW Colorado Ave., Suite 300, Bend, OR 97702, USA.) {C908} {ROL #81}

{B908} Faaborg, J., et al. 1993. Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone: a perspective for managers. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 331--338. (Div. Biol. Sci., Univ. Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.)---Effects vary among species. Large, intact tracts must be preserved to mitigate effects on "area sensitive" species.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, B904, B910, C908, C914} {ROL #81}

{B908} Fargallo, J. A., G. Blanco, & E. Soto-Largo. 1998. Forest management effects on nesting habitat selected by Eurasian Black Vultures (Aegypius monachus) in central Spain. J. Raptor Res. 32: 202--207. (Depto. Ecol. Evol., Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat. (CSIC), J. Guitiérrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{B908} Gard, N. W., M. J. Hooper, & R. S. Bennett. 1993. Effects of pesticides and contaminants on Neotropical migrants. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 310--314. (Dept. Environ. Toxicol., Clemson Univ., P.O. Box 709, Pendleton, SC 29670, USA.) {B904, B914, C902} {ROL #81}

{B908} Gutzwiller, K. J. 1998. Bird tolerance to human intrusion in Wyoming montane forests. Condor 100: 519--527. (Dept. Biol. & Dept. Environ. Stud., Baylor Univ., Waco, TX 76798, USA; EM: tolerance was lower when fewer conspecifics were nearby. More-conspicuous species and species that are active close to the ground were less tolerant of approach.---S.N.L. {bird disturbance, B708} {ROL #81}

{B908} Haig, S. M., D. W. .Mehlman, & L. W. Oring. 1998. Avian movements and wetland connectivity in landscape conservation. Conserv. Biol. 12: 749--758. (USGS For. Range. Ecosystem Sci. Ctr., 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B908} Hobson, K. A., & M.-A. Villard. 1998. Forest fragmentation affects the behavioral response of American Redstarts to the threat of cowbird parasitism. Condor 100: 389--394. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Environment Canada, 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Can.; EM: Setophaga ruticilla reacted more intensely or aggressively to a Molothrus ater model in fragmented landscapes than in contiguous forest.---S.N.L. {B704, coevolution, host-parasite interactions, nest defense} {ROL #81}

{B908} Hutto, R. L., et al. 1993. Effects of silviculture treatments on forest birds in the Rocky Mountains: implications and management recommendations. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 386--391. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.) {B904, B910, C908, Neotropical migrants} {ROL #81}

{B908} Krueper, D. J. 1993. Effects of land use practices on western riparian ecosystems. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 321--330. (7174 Y Lightning Ranch Rd., Hereford, AZ 85615, USA.) {Neotropical migrants, B904, B910, C908, C914} {ROL #81}

{B908} Madden, E. M., A. J. Hansen, & R. K. Murphy. 1999. Influence of prescribed fire history on habitat and abundance of passerine birds in northern mixed-grass prairie. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 627--640. (Medicine Lake NWR, Medicine Lake, MT 59247, USA.) {C908} {ROL #81}

{B908} Marsden, S. J. 1998. Changes in bird abundance following selective logging on Seram, Indonesia. Conserv. Biol. 12: 605--611. (Conserv. Res. Group, Dept. Biol. Sci., Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Chester St., Manchester M1 5GD, UK.) {ROL #81}

{B908} Merrill, S. B., F. J. Cuthbert, & G. Oehlert. 1998. Residual patches and their contribution to forest-bird diversity on Northern Minnesota aspen clearcuts. Conserv. Biol. 12: 190--199. (Training Site Environ. Off., Camp Ripley Military Reservation, P.O. Box 150, Little Falls, MN 56345, USA.) {ROL #81}

{B908} Murphy, M. J. 1999. The conservation value of small woodland remnants on the New South Wales south-western slopes: a case study from Wagga Wagga [Australia]. Aust. Zool. 31: 71--81. (NSW Natl. Pks. Wildl. Serv., Northern Zone, Locked bag 914, Coffs Harbour, NSW 2450, Australia.)---Surveys detected 91 native and 3 introduced bird species. Results highlight importance of remnant habitat for conserving biodiversity.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{B908} Pashley, D. N., & W. C. Barrow. 1993. Effects of land use practices on Neotropical migratory birds in bottomland hardwood forests. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 315--320. (Am. Bird Conserv., P.O. Box 249, The Plains, VA 20198, USA.) {B904, B910, C908, C914} {ROL #81}

{B908} Perkins, J. P., et al. 1997. Landscape patterns around Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) nest sites in Oregon's central Coast Ranges. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 314. (Oregon Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, 104 Nash Hall, Dept. Fish. Wildl., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.)---Amount of habitat appears to be more important than pattern of habitat mosaic.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B908} Petit, D. R., et al. 1993. Management and conservation of migratory landbirds overwintering in the Neotropics. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 70--92. (USFWS, 1849 C. St. NW, MS 634 ARLSQ-OMEM, Washington, DC 20240, USA.)---Assesses current and projected impact of deforestation.---W.M.G. {B910, C908, C926, tropical deforestation} {ROL #81}

{B908} Rodenhouse, N. L., et al. 1993. Effects of temperate agriculture on Neotropical migrant landbirds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 280--295. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Wellesley Coll., Wellesley, MA 02181, USA.) {B904, B910, 912, C908, C914} {ROL #81}

{B908} Santos, T., & J. L. Tellería. 1997. Effects of fragmentation on forest insectivorous passerines in two European woodlands. Ardeola 44 (1): 113--117. (Depto. Biol. Anim. 1, Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B908} Sergio, F., & G. Bogliani. 1999. Eurasian Hobby density, nest area occupancy, diet, and productivity in relation to intensive agriculture. Condor 101: 806--817. (Edward Grey Inst. Field Ornith., Dept. Zool., South Parks Rd., OX1 3PS, Oxford, UK; EM: study of a Falco subbuteo population of 13--18 breeding pairs in an intensively managed agroforesty system in northern Italy found birds have adapted fairly well, with density and productivity comparable to that in less cultivated areas. Success may be due to timing of breeding, and to tolerance of habitat fragmentation, human activity near nest, proximity to neighbors, type of diet, and absence of predators.---S.N.L. {B708, adaptation to intensive farming, nest dispersion} {ROL #81}

{B908} Steiner, H. 2000. [Forest fragmentation, competition and climatic dependence in the Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus).] J. f. Ornithol. 141: 68--76. (Diepersdorf 30, A-4552 Wartberg, Austria.) (Germany, English summ.) {C906, C922} {ROL #81}

{B908} Taylor, I. R., & A. Bester. 1999. The response of foraging waders to human recreation disturbance at Rhyll, Phillip Island, Victoria [Australia]. Stilt 35: 67. (Johnstone Ctr., Sch. Environ. Info. Sci., Charles Sturt Univ., P.O. Box 789, Albury, NSW 2640, Australia.)---Mean distance at which birds stopped feeding and took flight positively correlated with body size, tolerating closer approach than in European studies. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B908} Taylor, I. R. 1999. The effect of a clam Katelysia harvesting industry in Tasmania on a population of Pied Oystercatchers Haematopus longirostris. Stilt 35: 67--68. (Johnstone Ctr., Sch. Environ. Info. Sci., Charles Sturt Univ., P.O. Box 789, Albury, NSW 2640, Australia.)---Population declined as a result of human harvesting and low recruitment of clams. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B908} Tella, J. L., et al. 1998. Conflicts between Lesser Kestrel conservation and European agricultural policies as identified by habitat use analyses. Conserv. Biol. 12: 593--604. (Estacion Biol. Doñana, C.S.I.C. Avda M Luisa s.n., 41013 Sevilla, Spain.)---Falco naumanni. {ROL #81}

{B908} Warnock, R. G., & P. C. James. 1997. Habitat fragmentation and Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia) in Saskatchewan. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 477--486. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Saskatchewan, 112 Science Pl., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Can.)---For Athene cunicularia, habitat continuity and patch dimensions were more important than isolation with core of population.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B908} Whitacre, D. F., et al. 1993. Migrant songbirds, habitat change, and conservation prospects in northern Petén, Guatemala: some initial results. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 339--345. (The Peregrine Fund, Inc., 5666 Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709, USA.)---Studies in 5.5 million acres of contiguous, protected forest in southern Yucatan aimed at determining effects of variable land use, monitoring populations, and investigating winter ecology.---W.M.G. {B904, B910, C908, C914, Neotropical migrants} {ROL #81}

{B908} Whitfield, M. B., & M. Gaffney. 1997. Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) breeding habitat use within altered forest landscapes. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 498--505. (North. Rockies Conserv. Coop., P.O. Box 241, Tetonia, ID 83422, USA.)---Owls tolerated clear-cutting of 17--26% only.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B908} Wilson, C. J., et al. 1997. Effects of land-use and tsetse fly control on bird species richness in southwestern Ethiopia. Conserv. Biol. 11: 435--447. (Int. Livestock Res. Inst., P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya Africa)---Effects of habitat fragmentation on species richness as land is converted from wooded grassland into crop land.---G.C.L. {C922} {ROL #81}

{B908} Yahner, R. H., & R. W. Rohrbaugh, Jr. 1998. A comparison of raptor use of reclaimed surface mines and agricultural habitats in Pennsylvania. J. Raptor Res. 32: 178--180. (Sch. For. Res., The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA 16802, USA.) {C908} {ROL #81}

{B910} Bentley, J. M., & C. P. Catterall. 1997. The use of bushland, corridors, and linear remnants by birds in southeastern Queensland, Australia. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1173--1189. (Faculty Environ. Sci., Griffith Univ., Nathan, Queensland, 4111, Australia.) {C908} {ROL #81}

{B910} Borbón B., M. N., & C. B. Barros F. 1993. [Notes on the conservation of a grassland area in Extremadura: La Serena {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 497--505. (Atenea, 2 Urb. Pinar del Plantío, E-20020 Majadahonda, España.) {ROL #81}

{B910} Briggs, S. V., & S. A. Thornton. 1999. Management of water regimes in River Red Gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis wetlands for waterbird breeding. Aust. Zool. 31: 187--197. (Natl. Pks. Wildl. Serv., c/o CSIRO Wildl. Ecol., GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.)---Relationship between duration of inundation in New South Wales, Australian wetlands and waterbird breeding activity and success.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{B910} DeGraaf, R. M., M. Yamasaki, & W. B. Leak. 1993. Management of New England northern hardwoods, spruce-fir, and eastern white pine for Neotropical migratory birds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 363--373. (U.S. For. Serv., Holdsworth Hall, Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.)---Processes for enhancing habitat diversity.---W.M.G. {B904, B910, B912, C908} {ROL #81}

{B910} Driscoll, P. 1999. How should we view the Gulf of Carpentaria [Australia] for waders? results from an ongoing survey. Stilt 35: 62. (Fahey Rd., Mt. Glorious, Qld. 4520, Australia; EM: bird movements are more complex than elsewhere along Australian coastline. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B910} Mañosa, S. 1993. [Breeding habitat selection in the Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Suggestions for its management.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 125--136. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{B910} Maurer, B. A. 1993. Biological diversity, ecological integrity, and Neotropical migrants: new perspectives for wildlife management. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 24--31. (Dept. Zool., Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT 84602, USA.)---Suggests need for "top-down" approaches, based on expanded geographic scale perspectives; Neotropical migrants are good indicators of relative success.---W.M.G. {B906, C904, C908, C922} {ROL #81}

{B910} Mc Carrick, B. 1999. An artificial wetland---Cheetham Wetland, Victoria, Australia. Stilt 35: 64--65. (Point Cook Coastal Pk., P.O. Box 224, Laverton, Vic. 3028, Australia; EM: of water flow, salinity and prohibition of destructive influences is crucial to sustainability of ecosystems. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B910} McConnell, W. V. 1999. Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity excavation in seedtree-shelterwood stands in the Wakulla (Apalachicola National Forest, Florida) sub-population. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 509--513. (1023 San Luis Rd., Tallahassee, FL 32304, USA.)---Picoides borealis. {ROL #81}

{B910} Moore, F. R., et al. 1993. Stopover habitat: management implications and guidelines. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 58--69. (Dept. of Biol. Sci., Univ. of South. Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA.) {Neotropical migrants, C908, B912} {ROL #81}

{B910} Rotenberry, J. T., et al. 1993. Incorporating effects of natural disturbances in managed ecosystems. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 103--108. (Dept. of Biol., Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92507, USA.)---Effects are difficult to mitigate because they occur over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Management units should be large enough to assure some habitat patches in recovered state.---W.M.G. {C908, B906, Neotropical migrants} {ROL #81}

{B910} Saari, L., J. Aberg, & J. E. Swenson. 1998. Factors influencing the dynamics of occurrence of the Hazel Grouse in a fine-grained managed landscape. Conserv. Biol. 12: 586--592. (Varrio Subarctic Res. Stn. & Dept. Appl. Zool., P.O. Box 27 (Viiki C) FIN-00014 Uiv. Helsinki, Finland.)---Bonasa bonasia. {C914} {ROL #81}

{B910} Sánchez, J. M., et al. 1993. [A new area of possible international importance for waterfowl: The Canchales Dam (Badajoz, Spain).] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 299--306. (Depto. Cienc. Morfol. & Biol. Anim., Fac. Cienc. UNEX. Avda. de Elvas, s/n. E-06071 Badajoz. España.) {ROL #81}

{B910} Sherry, T. W., & R. T. Holmes. 1993. Are populations of Neotropical migrant birds limited in summer or winter? Implications for management. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 47--57. (Dept. of Ecol., Evol, & Organismal Biol., Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA 70118, USA.)---Limitations during both seasons, and perhaps during migration, suggest need for complex, international efforts.---W.M.G. {C914} {ROL #81}

{B910} Sparks, J. C., et al. 1999. Influence of fire season and fire behavior on woody plants in Red-cockaded Woodpecker clusters. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 124--133. (Texas Parks Wildl. Dept., 11942 FM 848, Tyler, TX 75707, USA.)---Picoides borealis. {ROL #81}

{B910} Straw, P. 1999. Habitat remediation---a last resort? Stilt 35: 66. (Avifauna Stud., 15 Kings Rd., Brighton-le-Sands, NSW 2216, Australia.)---Sufficient lead-time must be allowed for habitat construction and establishment of invertebrate populations if birds are to relocate from degraded sites. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B910} Tella, J. L., et al. 1993. [Importance of conserving old buildings for the birds in Monegros {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 335--349. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{B910} Therres, G. D. 1993. Integrating management of forest interior migratory birds with game in the northeast. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 402--407. (Maryland Dept. Nat. Resour., 580 Taylor Ave., E-1, Annapolis, MD 21401, USA.)---Habitat management can benefit both.---W.M.G. {B904, Neotropical migrants} {ROL #81}

{B910} Weber, T. P., A. I. Houston, & B. J. Ens. 1999. Consequences of habitat loss at migratory stopover sites: a theoretical investigation. J. Avian Biol. 30: 416--426. (Dept. Anim. Ecol., Lund Univ., Ecol. Bldg., S-223 62 Lund, Sweden; EM: {ROL #81}

{B910} Wigley, T. B., & J. M. Sweeney. 1993. Cooperative partnerships and the role of private landowners. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 39--44. (NCASI/Dept. of Aquaculture, Fish., & Wildl., Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC 29634-0362, USA.)---Private landowners should be included in Partners in Flight programs.---W.M.G. {B906, Neotropical migrants} {ROL #81}

{B912} Almeida, J. 1996. Situation and conservation perspectives of the Common Crane in Portugal. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 99--104. (I.C.N., R. Filipe Folque, 46-3º, P-1000 Lisboa, Portugal.)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Baird, B., & P. Dann. 1999. Breeding biology of Hooded Plovers on Phillip Island [Victoria, Australia] and methods of increasing breeding success. Stilt 35: 59--60. (Phillip Island Nat. Pk., P.O. Box 97, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Fencing, enforcement of dog regulations and volunteer guards improve breeding success of Thinornis rubricollis. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B912} Barroso, J. L., & J. Parra. 1995. A report on the management campaign of the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) population in the province of Huelva [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 453--469. (Soc. ornitol. LARUS. Apdo. 1251, Huelva, España.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{B912} Barroso, J. L., & J. Parra. 1995. A report on the management campaign of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in the province of Huelva [Spain] (1993-1994). Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 449--452. (Soc. Ornitol. LARUS. Apdo. 1251, Huelva, España.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{B912} Carter, I., et al. 1999. The Red Kite (Milvus milvus) reintroduction project: modeling the impact of translocating kite young within England. J. Raptor Res. 33: 251--254. (English Nat., Northminster House, Peterborough PE1 1UA, UK.) {ROL #81}

{B912} Corbacho, C., J. M. Sánchez, & A. Sánchez. 1999. Effectiveness of conservation measures on Montagu’s Harriers in agricultural areas of Spain. J. Raptor Res. 33: 117--122. (Grupo Invest. Conserv., Área Biol. Anim., Univ. de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071, Badajoz, Spain.)---Circus pygargus. {B908} {ROL #81}

{B912} Crowley, G., S. Garnett, & L. Pedler. 1999. Assessment of the role of captive breeding and translocation in the recovery of the South Australian subspecies of the Glossy Black-Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus. Birds Aust. Rpt. Ser. 5: 35 pp. (Dept. Environ., Heritage & Aboriginal Affairs, P.O. Box 39, Kingscote, SA 5223, Australia.) {ROL #81}

{B912} Dowling, B., & M. A. Weston. 1999. Managing a breeding population of the Hooded Plover Thinornis rubricollis in a high-use recreational environment. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 255--270. (Parks Victoria, Mornington Peninsula National Park, PO Box 117, Sorrento, Vic., 3493, Australia.)---Breeding success under various management regimes investigated from 1991--98.---K.J.E. {C918} {ROL #81}

{B912} Dowling, B. 1999. Managing a breeding population of Hooded Plovers Thinornis rubricollis in a high use National Park. Stilt 35: 61. (Mornington Peninsula Natl. Pk., P.O. Box 400, Rosebud, Vic. 3939, Australia). Track and beach closure, monitoring by volunteers, and community awareness programme increased breeding success. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {B906} {ROL #81}

{B912} Estrada, J., et al. 1995. Reintroduction to the wild of young Marsh Harriers, Circus aeruginosus, by hacking in the Ebro Delta [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 81--91. (Parc Nat. del Delta de l'Ebre, Pl. 20 de Mayo nº 2, E-43580 Deltebre, España.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{B912} Fintha, I. 1996. Situation of the Common Crane in Hungary from the last turn of the century with special regard to the latest years. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 59--76. (Hortobágyi Nemzeti Park, P.O. Box: 216 H, H-4024 Debrecen, Hungary.)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Gromadzki, M. 1996. Conservation prospects of the Crane in Poland. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 50--58. (Inst. Ecol., Polish Acad. Sci., 80-680 Gdansk, Poland.)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Harding, J., S. Harding, & P. Driscoll. 1999. Empire Point Roost: a purpose built roost for waders. Stilt 34: 46--50. (87 Wadeville St., Doolandella, Qld. 4077, Australia.)---Bird numbers have increased at a moat-protected island.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{B912} Hell, P., & J. Slamecka. 1996 [Measures to restore Grey Partridge Perdix perdix populations in new ecological conditions on agricultural land, in southern Slovakia.] Tichodroma 9: 108--114. (Vyskumny ustav zivocisnej vyroby, Hloohovska 2, Slovakia.)---Populations have declined 96% because of intense agriculture; farming practices must be changed if reintroduction is to succeed. (Slovak, Germ. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{B912} Keskpaik,J., & A. Avotins. 1996. The Common Crane in the Eastern Baltic: status and projects. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 37--45. (Estonian Acad. Sci., Inst. Zool. & Bot., Vanemuise St. 21, EE-2400 Tartu, Estonia.)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Larraz, D. S. 1999. Dumps for dead livestock and the conservation of wintering Red Kites (Milvus milvus). J. Raptor Res. 33: 338--340. (Dept. Appl. Biol., Estac. Biol. Doñana, Pabellón del Perú, Avenida de María Luisa s/n, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.) {D302} {ROL #81}

{B912} Lunding, G. 1996. Strategies for the conservation of the crane in Sweden. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 24--33. (Swedish Crane Working Group, Gustav Adolfsgatán, S-54145 Skövde, Sweden.)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Marshall, E., R. Haight, & F. R. Homans. 1998. Incorporating environmental uncertainty into species management decisions: Kirtland’s Warbler habitat management as a case study. Conserv. Biol. 12: 975--985. (Dept. Appl. Econ., Univ. Minnesota, 316e Classroom Bldg., 1994 Buford Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---Dendroica kirtlandii. {ROL #81}

{B912} Martín G.-S., L. J., & I. Martín G.-S. 1993. [Bird conservation in the dry agricultural flats in the area of Madrigal-Peñaranda {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 479--495. (Pl. del Arrabal 32, E-05200 Arévalo, España.) {ROL #81}

{B912} Martínez O., F., & J. Cobo A. 1993. [Present management of raptors in Montejo de La Vega (Segovia) by A.D.E.N.A./W.W.F. {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 507--521. (A.D.E.N.A./W.W.F. España, Sta. Engracia 6, E-28010 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{B912} Maxwell, J. M., & I. G. Jamieson. 1997. Survival and recruitment of captive-reared and wild-reared Takahe in Fiordland, New Zealand. Conserv. Biol. 11: 683--691. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Otago, P.O. Box 56, Denedin, New Zealand.)---Porphyrio mantelli. {B902} {ROL #81}

{B912} Petersen, J.-E., & J. J. Ferrero. 1996. Notes on the situation of the Common Crane in Extremadura [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 89--98. (Sch. Environ. Sci., Univ. East Anglia. Norwich. NR4 7TJ, UK.)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Pomarol, M., X. Parellada, & R. Fortiá. 1995. The Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Catalonia [Spain]: History of 10 years of management. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 253--268. (Dirección Gen. Medio Nat. Córsega 329, 5. E-08037, Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{B912} Prange, H. 1996. Occurrence of cranes in Europe. Evolution, protective measures and future tasks. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 7--23. (European Crane Working Group, Dornbluthweg 7, D-07743 Jena, Germany.) {B906} {ROL #81}

{B912} Rinne, J. 1996. The protection of the Common Crane in Finland. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 34--36. (Finish Working Group on Cranes, Meteorologian laitos PL4, Hallituskatu 11, 00014 Helsingin Yliopisto, Finland.)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Salvi, A., P. Petit, & C. Riols. 1996. Programmes for the protection of the Crane on its migratory route through France. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 77--88. (Conserv. Sites Lorrains, 7. Place Albert Scheweitzer, F-57930 Fénétrange, France)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Sánchez G., A., et al. 1993. [Proposed plan for conservation of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Extremadura {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 461--471. (Avs. Agencia Medio Ambiente, C.O.P.U.M.A., Junta Extremadura, Enrique Díez Cavedo s/n, E-06871 Mérida, España.) {ROL #81}

{B912} Sanz, V., & A. Grajal. 1998. Successful reintroduction of captive-raised Yellow-shouldered Amazon Parrots on Margarita Island, Venezuela. Conserv. Biol. 12: 430--441. (PROVITA, Apartado 47552, Caracas, 1041-A, Venezuela.)---Amazona barbadensis. {ROL #81}

{B912} Sládek, J. 1997 [Supplementary notes on the history of owl protection in Slovakia.] Tichodroma 10: 143--154. (Lesnícka fakulta Technickej univerzity, Masarykova 20ova, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Germ. summ.) {ROL #81}

{B912} Snyder, J. W., E. C. Pelren, & J. A. Crawford. 1999. Translocation histories of prairie grouse in the United States. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 428--432. (Dept. Fish. Wildl., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331-3803, USA.)---Tympanuchus phasianellus, Tympanuchus cupido, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Tellerìa, J. L. 1999. Conservation biology: balance and perspectives. Ardeola 46 (2): 239--248. (Depto. Biol. Anim. I. (Zool. Vert.), Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense Madrid, E-28040. Madrid, Spain; EM: {ROL #81}

{B912} Trulio, L. A. 1997. Strategies for protecting Western Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea) from human activities. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 461--465. (Dept. Environ. Stud., One Washington Sq., San Jose State Univ., CA 95192-0115, USA.)---Examines various techniques to manage Athene cunicularia around their nest burrows.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B912} Vaverins, G., & A. Avotins. 1996. Common Crane research and conservation in Latvia. Alytes R.E.C.N. 8: 46--49. (AA: Nat. Reserve Teichi, Laudona, LV-4862, Latvia.)---Grus grus. {ROL #81}

{B912} Vlachos, C. G., D. E. Bakaloudis, & G. I. Halloway. 1999. Population trends of Black Vulture Aegypius monachus in Dadia Forest, north-eastern Greece following the establishment of a feeding station. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 113--118. (GJH: Div. Zool., School Anim. & Microb. Sci., Univ. Reading, Whiteknights, P.O. Box 228, Reading RG6 6AJ, UK; EM: in population size and breeding success of locally endangered and globally near-threatened Aegypius monachus coincides with establishment of feeding station in 1987.---K.J.E. {B904} {ROL #81}

{B912} Wellicome, T. I., et al. 1997. The effects of predator exclusion and food supplementation on Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) population change in Saskatchewan. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 487--497. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Can.)---Population decline rate cut in half by intensive productivity enhancement of Athene cunicularia.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{B914} Ahmed, A. 1998. Some observations of the Green Avadavat in the Indian bird trade. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 21--25. (WWF--India Secretariat, 172 B--Lodi Estate, New Delhi 1100003, India.)---Describes trapping and trade of Amandava formosa, included in CITES Appendix II at Zimbabwe 1997 conference.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{B914} Barton, N. W. H. 2000. Trapping estimates for Saker and Peregrine Falcons used for falconry in the United Arab Emirates. J. Raptor Res. 34: 53--55. (Dubai Falcon Hospital, P. O. Box 23919, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.)---Reports on veterinary hospital records of captive Falco cherrug and Falco peregrinus and considers changes in these numbers and the implications for assessing population trends and trapping pressure on wild populations.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{B914} Franklin, D. C., A. H. Burbidge, & P. L. Dostine. 1999. The harvest of wild birds for aviculture: an historical perspective on finch trapping in the Kimberley [Western Australia] with special emphasis on the Gouldian Finch. Aust. Zool. 31: 92--109. (Conserv. Manage., Pks. Wildl. Comm. NT, P.O. Box 496, Palmerston, NT 0831, Australia.)---Erythrura gouldiae. {ROL #81}

{B914} Valladares A., M. A. 1993. [Role of Spain in the international trade of species.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 523--531. (Sta. Engracia, 6, E-28010 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{C102} Anderson, J. F., et al. 1999. Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper’s Hawk in Connecticut. Science 286: 2331--2333. (Dept. Entomol., Connecticut Agric. Exp. Stn., P.O. Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA; EM: brains of encephalitic Corvus brachyrhynchos, Accipiter cooperii.---M.J.J. {ROL #81}

{C102} Bosch, M., & M. Muniesa. 1996. Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus cachinnans) from the Medes Islands [Spain] colony as possible transmitting agents of microbial contamination. Doñana Acta Vert. 23(1): 75--81. (Depto. Ecol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{C102} Charlton, K. G. 2000. Antibodies to selected disease agents in translocated Wild Turkeys in California. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 161--164. (Calif. Dept. Fish Game, Wildl. Investigations Lab., 1701 Nimbus Rd. Suite D, Rancho Cordova, CA 95670, USA; EM: prevalence to Mycoplasma synoviae was 8-10% in Meleagris gallopavo, and 0-4% for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella typhimurium, Newcastle disease virus and avian influenza virus.---J.R.P. {avian influenza, serosurvey} {ROL #81}

{C102} Gruwell, J. A., et al. 2000. Role of peridomestic birds in the transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus in southern California. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 13--34. (C. L. Fogarty, Orange Co. Vector Control Dist., 13001 Garden Grove Blvd., Garden Grove, CA 92843, USA; EM: percent of Carpodacus mexicanus and Passer domesticus were positive for SLE virus; 3.6% of Columba livia were SLE positive and .4% were positive for western encephalitis virus.---J.R.P. {arbovirus surveillance, epidemiology, mosquitoes, overwintering, recrudescence, virus foci} {ROL #81}

{C102} Lanciotti, R. S., et al. 1999. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the Northeastern United States. Science 286: 2333--2337. (Div. of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Natl. Ctr. for Infectious Diseases, Ctrs. for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA; EM: causing outbreak of human encephalitis also found in Corvus brachyrhynchos, Corvus ossifragus, Phoenicopterus chilensis, and several exotic birds housed in Bronx Zoo.---M.J.J. {ROL #81}

{C102} Leighton, T. 1999. Trouble in the swamp: an essay on avian botulism. Blue Jay 57: 131--135. (328 Saskatchewan Cr. W, Saskatoon, SK S7M 0A4, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C102} Lewis, L. A., & S. A. Schweitzer. 2000. Lead poisoning in a Northern Bobwhite in Georgia. J. Wildl. Dis. 36:180--183. (Southeast. Coop. Wildl. Dis. Study, Coll. Vet. Med., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA; EM: virginianus. {C902, dove fields, lead shot, lead toxicosis} {ROL #81}

{C102} Marmasse, A. 1998. [Treatment of contamination by Trichomonas gallinae in young Bonelli’s Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus.] Faune de Provence 19: 35--41. (607 ch. De Grivoton, F-13100 Aix-en-Provence, France.) (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{C102} Martinez, R., & G. Wobeser. 1999. Immunization of ducks for type C botulism. J. Wildl. Dis. 35: 710--715. (Dept. Vet. Pathol., W. Coll. Vet. Med., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Can. S7N 5B4; EM: platyrhynchos, Anas acuta. {Mallard, Northern Pintail, treatment, vaccine, waterfowl} {ROL #81}

{C102} Mörner, T., & L Petersson. 1999. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden. J. Wildl. Dis. 35: 763--765. (Dept. Wildl., Natl. Vet. Inst., P. O. Box 7073, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden; EM: canus, Dendrocopos leucotos. {C902} {ROL #81}

{C102} Ochiai, K., et al. 1999. Lead poisoning in wild waterfowl in Japan. J. Wildl. Dis. 35: 766--769. (Lab. Comp. Pathol., Grad. Sch. Vet. Med., Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo 060-0818, Japan; EM: sp., Aythya sp., Cygnus sp. {C902, ducks, geese, ingested lead shot, survey, swans} {ROL #81}

{C102} Real, J., S. Manosa, & E. Munoz. 2000. Trichomoniasis in a Bonelli's Eagle population in Spain. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 64--70. (Dept. Biol. Anim. (Vert.), Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, Diagonal, 645, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; EM: gallinae was found in 36% of 39 Hieraaetus fasciatus nestlings and accounted for 22% of total chick mortality and accounted for 22% of total chick mortality from 1980-1997.---J.R.P. {C912} {ROL #81}

{C104} Boal, C. W., et al. 1998. Hematology and hematozoa of adult and nestling Cooper’s Hawks in Arizona. J. Raptor Res. 32: 281--285. (Sch. Renew. Resour., Univ. Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.)---Accipiter cooperii. {E102} {ROL #81}

{C104} Dawson, R. D., & G. R. Bortolotti. 1997. Ecology of parasitism of nestling American kestrels by Carnus hemapterus (Diptera: Carnidae). Can. J. Zool. 75: 2021--2026. (Dept. Biol., Univ. SK, 112 Science Pl., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Can.)---Falco sparverius. {ROL #81}

{C104} Dawson, R. D., T. L. Whitworth, & G. R. Bortolotti. 1999. Bird blow flies, Protocalliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in cavity nests of birds in the boreal forest of Saskatchewan. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 503--506. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Saskatchewan, 112 Science Pl., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Can.)---Not found in Aegolius funereus and virtually absent in Falco sparverius nests, but present in Tachycineta bicolor and Troglodytes aedon nests.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{C104} Fain, A., A. V. Bochkov, & S. V. Mironov. 2000. A contribution to the systematics of the mite family Harpyrhynchidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea). Acarologia 40: 37--54. (Inst. roy. Sci. Nat. Belgique, B-1000 Bruxelles, Belgium)---Six new species are described, with keys to two genera, of skin mites from Galerida cristata, Rhodopechys obsoleta, Passer domesticus, Emberiza calandra, Emberiza impetuani, Corvus monedula, Alectoris rufa, Tiaris canora, and Lonchura cucullata.---J.R.P. {ROL #81}

{C104} Fedynich, A. M., D. B. Pence, & J. F. Bergan. 1996. Helminth community structure and pattern in sympatric populations of Black-bellied and Fulvous Whistling-Ducks. Can. J. Zool. 74:2219--2225. (Dept. Pathol., Texas Tech Univ. Health Sci. Ctr., 3601 4th St., Lubbock, TX 79430, USA.)---Dendrocygna autumnalis, Dendrocygna bicolor. {ROL #81}

{C104} Fedynich, A. M., et al. 1996. Helminth community structure and pattern in two allopatric populations of a nonmigratory waterfowl species (Anas fulvigula). Can. J. Zool. 74: 1253--1259. (DBP: Dept. Pathol., Texas Tech Univ. Health Sci. Ctr., 3601 4th St., Lubbock, TX 77428, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C104} Foster, G. W., et al. 1998. Haemoproteus tinnunculi in Crested Caracaras (Caracara plancus audubonii) from southcentral Florida. J. Raptor Res. 32: 159--162. (Dept. Pathobiology, Coll. Vet. Med., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C104} Gwiazdowicz, D. J., T. Mizera, & M. Skorupski. 1999. Mites in Greater Spotted Eagle nests. J. Raptor Res. 33: 257--260. (Akad. Rolnicza, Katedra Ochrony Lasu, and Zoologii Srodowiska Przyrodniczego, ul. Wojska Polskíego 71c, PL 60-625 Poznan, Poland.)---Aquila clanga {ROL #81}

{C104} Harper, D. G. C. 1999. Feather mites, pectoral muscle condition, wing length and plumage coloration of passerines. Anim. Behav. 58: 553--562. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK. EM: studied in Troglodytes troglodytes, Prunella modularis, Erithacus rubecula, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Fringilla coelebs, Carduelis chloris, Carduelis cannabina, and Emberiza citrinella. Birds with mites grew duller plumage, shorter wings, and had poorer muscle condition---A.K.T. {E114} {ROL #81}

{C104} Hollmén, T. E., et al. 1998. Leucocytozoon simondi in Emperor Geese from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in Alaska. Condor 100: 402--404. (J.C.Franson: U.S. Geol. Survey, Biol. Resour. Div., Nat. Wildl. Health Ctr., 6006 Schroeder Rd., Madison, WI 53711, USA; EM: of 134 Chen canagica adults and goslings tested harbored Leucocytozoon simondi, representing a new host record for this parasite.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{C104} Janiga, M. 1997 Seasonal occurrence of roost mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in the nests of feral pigeons. Tichodroma 10: 175--179. (Tatra National Park, Res. centre, 05960 Tatranská Lomnica, Slovakia.)---Mites most abundant in spring and autumn nests of Columba livia.---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{C104} Johnsen, T. S., & M. Zuk. 1998. Parasites, morphology, and blood characters in male Red Jungle Fowl during development. Condor 100: 749--752. (Dept. Biol., Univ. California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; EM: Gallus gallus with the intestinal nematode Ascaridia galli in their intestine differ from those free of the parasite in their morphology and blood characters, but not in plasma levels of testosterone.---S.N.L. {hematocrit, immunocompetence, ornaments} {ROL #81}

{C104} Literák, I., & J. Sitko. 1997 [First evidence of subcutaneous trematodes Collyriclum faba in birds from Slovakia.] Tichodroma 10: 185--189. (Bezrucova, 751 52 Prerov, Ceská republika, Slovakia) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C104} Miller, C. K., & J. M. Fair. 1997. Effects of blow fly (Protocalliphora spatulata: Diptera: Calliphoridae) parasitism on the growth of nestling Savannah Sparrows in Alaska. Can. J. Zool. 75: 641--644. (JMF: EES-15 Environ. Sci. Group, M5 J495, Los Alamos Natl. Lab., Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA.)---Passerculus sandwichensis. {B720} {ROL #81}

{C104} Morbey, Y. E. 1996. The abundance and effects of ticks (Ixodes uriae) on nestling Cassin's Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) at Triangle Island, British Columbia. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1585--1589. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C104} Pérez, J. M., I. Ruíz-Martínez, & J. E. Cooper. 1996. Occurrence of chewing lice on Spanish raptors. Ardeola 43 (2): 129--138. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Veg. & Ecol., Fac. Cienc. Exp., Apdo. 63. Univ. Jaén, Paraje Las Lagunillas s/n, E-23071 Jaén, España.) {ROL #81}

{C104} Raidal, S. R., S. M. Jaensch, & J. Ende. 1999. Preliminary report of a parasitic infection of the brain and eyes of a Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus and Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides in Western Australia. Emu 99: 291--292. (Div. Vet. & Biomed. Sci., Murdoch Univ., South St., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.)---Apicomplexan protozoan infection suspected.---W.K.S. {C912} {ROL #81}

{C104} Rendell, W. B., & N. A. M. Verbeek. 1996. Are avian ectoparasites more numerous in nest boxes with old nest material? Can. J. Zool. 74: 1819--1825. (Dept. Biol., Queen's Univ., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Can.)---Records parasites in nests of Tachycineta bicolor.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{C104} Roca, V., & E. Carbonell. 1999. Helminth communities in Audouin's Gulls Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (Western Mediterranean). J. Parasitol. 85: 984--986. (Dept. Biol. Anim., Fac. Cienc. Biol., Univ. Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain)---58 gulls hosted a community of 4 genera of trematode gull generalists, one trematode genus of Audouin's gull specialist, 2 genera of cestodes and 2 genera of nematode waterfowl generalists.---J.R.P. {ROL #81}

{C104} Shaw, M. 1999. Mites and ticks from Wedge-tailed Shearwater (Puffinus pacificus) burrows on Masthead Island [Queensland, Australia]. Queensland Nat. 37: 43--47. (Dept. Zool. Entomol., Univ. Qld., Brisbane, Qld. 4072, Australia; EM: {ROL #81}

{C104} Solt, S. 1998. Lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) of raptors in Hungarian zoos and rehabilitation centers. J. Raptor Res. 32: 264--266. (H-9083 Écs, Petöfi u. 60., Hungary.) {ROL #81}

{C104} Tella, J. L., R. Rodríguez-Estrella, & G. Blanco. 2000. Louse flies on birds of Baja California. J. Wildl. Dis. 36: 154--156. (Dept. Appl. Biol., Estacion Biol. Doñana, C. S. I. C., Avda. Ma Luisa s/n, E-41013 Sevilla, Spain; EM: pusilla occurred on 4 of 164 Columbina passerina examined, while 237 birds of 31 other species were fly-free.---J.R.P. {Hippoboscidae, new host record survey} {ROL #81}

{C104} Van Schleik, W. J. 1994. Burrowing mites that pester birds. Blue Jay 52: 204--205. (Canadian Union Coll., College Heights, AB T0C 0Z0, Can.)---"Scaly-leg" in Hesperiphona vespertina.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C104} Wong, P. L., & R. C. Anderson. 1996. Erratum: Host and geographic distribution of Skrjabinoclava spp. (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) in Nearctic shorebirds (Aves: Charadriiformes),and evidence for transmission in staging and wintering areas. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1378. (RCA: Dept. Zool., Coll. Biol. Sci., Univ. Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C308} Baker-Gabb, D. J., & W. K. Steele. 1999. The relative abundance, distribution and seasonal movements of Australian Falconiformes, 1986--90. Birds Aust. Rpt. Ser. 6: 100 pp. (Birds Aust., 415 Riversdale Rd., Hawthorn E., Vic. 3123, Australia.)---Results of 5-year study using road-transect censuses from motor vehicles.---W.K.S. {C914, E506} {ROL #81}

{C308} Carter, M., & R. Shaw. 1999. Blue Rock-Thrush Monticola solitarius: first record for Australia. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 101--105. (30 Canadian Bay Rd., Mt. Eliza, Vic. 3930, Australia.)---Male in first winter feathering, with vent, belly and flank plumage consistent with intermediate between phillipensis and pandoo races.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C308} Chatto, R. 1999. Seabird Islands No. 224: Low Rock, south-west Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Territory [Australia]. Corella 23: 72--74. (Pks. Wildl. Comm. NT, P.O. Box 496, Palmerston, NT 0830, Australia.)---Description of island, access limitations, ornithological history, breeding seabirds, and factors affecting their status.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C308} Milton, D. 1999. Occasional Count No. 2: Ashmore Reef, Northwestern Australia. Stilt 34: 35. (336 Prout Rd., Burbank, Qld. 4156, Australia.)---Over 2500 waders of 13 species, internationally significant for Heteroscelus brevipes.---I.D.E. {B910} {ROL #81}

{C308} Myers, S. D., & S. G. Dashper. 1999. A survey of the vertebrate fauna of the Rushworth State Forest [Victoria, Australia]. Vic. Nat. 116: 131--141. (17A Park St., Hawthorn, Vic. 3122, Australia.)---Incidental observations of 118 species during 4-yr mammal survey, with comments on declining species.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C308} Totterman, B., G. Clancy, & R. Moffatt. 1999. First record of a South Island Pied Oystercatcher in Australia. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 153--159. (Empire Vale, via Ballina, NSW 2478, Australia.)---Haematopus finschi confirmed on central NSW coast.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C308} Walter, J., & R. Walter. 1999. The birds of Masthead Island [Queensland, Australia]. Queensland Nat. 37: 34--39. (P.O. Box 180, Pittsworth, Qld. 4356, Australia.)---41 species listed.---J.M.P. {ROL #81}

{C310} Adamski, A., et al. 1999. [Distribution and numbers of rare birds of prey in Poland at the end of the 20th century.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 40: 1--22. (Zaklad Ekologii Ptaków, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wroclaw, Poland; EM: Haliaeetus albicilla (430-500 pairs), Pandion haliaetus (70-75), Milvus milvus (650-700). Stable: Aquila chrysaetos (30-35), Aquila clanga (15-20), Aquila pomarina (1700-1900). Declining: Milvus migrans (300-400). (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {B904} {ROL #81}

{C310} Aguilera C., R. A. 1993. [Distribution and population size of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) in northeastern Salamanca {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 187--197. (No address given.) {C914} {ROL #81}

{C310} Arambarri B., R., & A. F. Rodríguez. 1996. Distribution and population of Middle Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius) in Alava [Spain]. Ardeola 43 (2): 221--223. (Herminio Madinabeitia 14, 5º izda, E-01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, España.) {C914} {ROL #81}

{C310} Arambarri, R., A. F. Rodríguez, & G. Artíguez. 1995. The Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, in the Basque Community [Spain]: breeding distribution and status, and wintering areas. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 101--127. (H. Madinabeitia 14-5º I, E-01006. Vitoria-Gasteiz, España.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Arcos F., & J. Mouriño. 1993. [Status and conservation of the Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) in Galicia { Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 29--38. (Grupo ERVA, Apdo. 317. E-36200 Vigo,. España.) {B912} {ROL #81}

{C310} Avilès, J. M. 1999. Distribution of nesting Rollers Coracias garrulus in Spain. Ardeola 46 (2): 223--226. (Grupo Invest. Conserv. Area Biol. Anim. y Celular, Univ. Extremadura. E-06071, Badajoz, Spain) {ROL #81}

{C310} Bencivenga, L., et al. 1996. An up-to-date report concerning waterfowl's presence in the Colfiorito's tablelands [Umbria, Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 60--69. (Strada Lacugnana, 25-06100 Perugia, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Benito, J. L., et al. 1993. [Status, problems and conservation of Shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) on the Asturian {Spain} coast.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 11--21. (Sagrada Familia, 23-10º, E-09006 Burgos, España.) {B912} {ROL #81}

{C310} Benito, J. L., et al. 1993. [Status, problems and conservation of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Asturias {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 105--115. (Sagrada Familia, 23-10º, E-09006 Burgos, España.) {B912} {ROL #81}

{C310} Bonaccorsi, G. 1999. [Great Black-headed Gull, a new species for France.] Ornithos 6: 95--96. (immeuble Azalée, chemin de Biancarello, F-20090 Ajaccio, France.)---Second winter Larus ichthyaetus, 3 November 1997, near Ajaccio, South Corsica. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Bury, C., & D. Huin. 1998. [Status of the Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica in the Var département, southeast France.] Faune de Provence 19: 61--64. (200 bd Félix Martin, F-83700 Saint-Raphaël, France.)---17 pairs in 1998. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Cascianelli, D., F. Cordi, & L. Corsetti. 1996. Check-list of the birds of Latina provinces [Latium, Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 39--59. (Grupo Pontino Ricerche Ornithol. c/ o Via Ticino, 12/A. I-04100 Latina, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Castaño, J. P. 1995. Distribution of the Montagu's and Hen Harriers, Circus pygargus and Circus cyaneus, in Toledo [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 349--355. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat. José Gutierrez Abascal, 2. Madrid, Spain) {ROL #81}

{C310} Castaño, J. P., et al. 1995. Breeding range of the Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, in Central Spain. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 129--133. (Alcarria, 92 3º. E-28915, Leganés, España.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Combrisson, D. 1999. [First breeding of Goldeneye in France.] Ornithos 6: 138--140. (Centre des Typhas, F-55210 Heudicourt, France.)---Bucephala clangula; June 1999 in Lorraine. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} De Juana, E., & C. Martínez. 1996. Distribution and conservation status of the Little Bustard, Tetrax tetrax, in the Iberian Peninsula. Ardeola 43 (2): 157--167. (Depto. Biol. Anim. 1, Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, España.) {B912} {ROL #81}

{C310} Faber, M. 1998. [Ring-Billed Gull Larus delawarensis at Vistula River in Kraków {Poland}.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 180--181. (J. Przybosia 5, 91-170 Lódz, Poland; EM: bird, January 1998, first inland record. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{C310} Ferlini, F. 1997. Ornithological observations on the Cycladic Islands [Greece]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 65--69. (V. Cantore, 3 27040 Castelleto di Branduzzo, PV, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Frémont, J. Y. 1999. [First autumn record of Blyth’s Pipit in France.] Ornithos 6: 137--138. (58 rue Laugier, F-75017 Paris, France.)---Second record in France for Anthus godlewskii, 17 October 1998. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Gazzoni, G. 1997. Interesting observations on the ponds of Maccarese, Fiumicino [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 63--64. (Via Ombrone, 14 00198 Rome, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Giustino, S., & A. Nappi. 1996. A first list of birds observed in a private area in Naples [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 21--27. (Gruppo Inanellamento Limicoli (Gli), Piazza Mercato 45, I-80133 Napoli, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Grussu, M & M. Azzolini. 1997. Winter presence of Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus in Sardinia [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 45--48. (Gruppo Ornitologico Sardo Via Cilea 79-09045 Quartu Sant'Elene Cagliari, Italy.) {C926} {ROL #81}

{C310} Guérin, S. 1999. [Cory’s Shearwater in the northern Bay of Biscay.] Ornithos 6: 115--118. (Moulin de Kerdéhel, F-56150 Baud, France.)---Calonectris diomedea; seasonal status. Distribution varies year to year. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Gutiérrez, R., & J. Figuerola. 1995. Wintering distribution of the Balearic Shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan mauretanicus Lowe, 1921) off the northeastern coast of Spain. Ardeola 42(2): 161--166. (Reserva Nat. Delta del Llobregat, Direcc. Gral. Medio Nat., Gran Vía de les Corts Catalanes, 612-614 2n, E-08007 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Harvancík, S., & L. Šnírer. 1997 [First documented occurrence of Blue Rock Thrush (Monticola solitarius) in Slovakia.] Tichodroma 10: 164--167. (Tríbecské múzeum, 955 01 Topol’cany, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Jakubiec, Z., & R. Guziak. 1998. [White Stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland in 1995: distribution, numbers, and conservation problems.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 195--209. (Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN, Dolnoslaska Stacja Terenowa, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wroclaw, Poland)---Increased 30% in 20 years; ca 41,000 breeding pairs; high nest productivity; more breeding on electric pylons. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {C914, C918} {ROL #81}

{C310} Jiguet, F. 1999. [Blyth’s Pipit, a species new for France.] Ornithos 6: 135--137. (CEBC-CNRS, F-79360 Villiers-en-Bois, France.)---Anthus godlewskii. 15 January to 25 February 1998, Crau, France. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Jiménez, J., & J. Carda. 1997. Wintering of the Audouin's Gull, Larus audouinii, in the Columbretes Islands [Spain]. Ardeola 44 (2): 183--189. (Reserva Nat. Islas Columbretes, Consejería Medio Ambiente, C/ Herrero, 23, E-12071 Castellón, España.) {C926} {ROL #81}

{C310} Komisja Faunistyczna. 1998. [Avifaunistic Commission Communiqué No 12.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 255--260. (Komisja Faunistyczna SO PTZool., Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wroclaw, Poland)---Polish Rarities’ Committee, 25th anniversary, over 5500 decisions taken, new operation rules. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{C310} Komisja Faunistyczna. 1998. [Rare birds recorded in Poland in 1997.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 151--174. (Komisja Faunistyczna SO PTZool., Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wroclaw, Poland)---Records accepted by the Polish Rarities Committee: Oceanites oceanicus, Oenanthe deserti, and Lanius meridionalis new to Poland; first breeding Somateria mollissima. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{C310} Kuban, V. 1996 [Occurrence of Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea) at Piefšany town.] Tichodroma 9: 206--207. (Veterná 3, 921 01 Piešt’any, Slovakia.)---Second Slovak record. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{C310} Kubán, V., B. Matoušek & S. Šiška. 1997 [First breeding record of Mediterranean Gull (Larus melanocephalus) for Slovakia.] Tichodroma 10: 168--170. (Veterná 3, 921 01 Piešt’any, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Laurenti, S., & T. Taglioni. 1996. Pygmy Cormorant, Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, at Ripasottile Lake, Rieti [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 86. (Ctr. Stud. Nat. Molise "G. Attobello"-Via Gerione 9-86035, CD, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Laurenti, S., & T. Taglioni. 1996. Slavonian Grebe, Podiceps auritus, at Ripasottile Lake, Riete [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 86. (Via della Palazzeta,6. I-05020 Montoro, TR, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Laurenti, S. 1998. Wintering records on the province of Terni [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 23 (1-2): 12--13. (Via della Palazzetta, 6 05020 Montoro, TR, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Laurenti S., A. M. Paci, & L. Starnini. 1995. [Check-list of birds of Umbria {Italy}.] Gli Uccelli d’Italia 20 (1): 3--20. (No address given.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Lefranc, N. 1999. [Breeding shrikes in France: distribution and status.] Ornithos 6: 58--82. (7 chemin du Bois Basselin, F-88100 Saint-Dié, France.)---Lanius collurio (at least 155,000 pairs), Lanius minor (about 50), Lanius excubitor (a few thousand), Lanius meridionalis (2,000) and Lanius senator (10,000 pairs). (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Leiva, A., et al. 1993. [Avifauna and problems in the Guadalquivir river in Cordova. {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 307--315. (Ctr. Cordobés Std. Ecol., GODESA, Sto. Cristo 4, E-14009 Córdoba, España.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Lichard, M., B. Matoušek & A. Psota. 1997 [Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata)---a new species of the bird fauna in Slovakia.] Tichodroma 10: 162--163. (Cierna voda 7, 021 01 Galanta, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Lope, F. de, A. Fernández, & C. de la Cruz. 1991. [Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) status in Extremadura {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 121--131. (Depto. Cienc. Morfol. Biol. Cel. Anim., Univ. Extremadura, E-06071 Badajoz, España.) {ROL #81}

{C310} López, A., et al. 1993. [Status of the breeding waterfowl fauna in the Dam of Orellana {Spain}, (spring-summer, 1990).] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 269--277. (Hernán Cortés, 50 prpal., Villanueva de La Serena, Badajoz, España.) {C922} {ROL #81}

{C310} Malthieux, L., & B. Eliotout. 1999. [First breeding of the Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus in the Cévennes {France}.] Ornithos 6: 50--52. (P.N. des Cévennes, Roquedols, F-48150 Meyrueis, France.)---Four young reared. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Martín, A., et al. 1997. Distribution, status and conservation of the Houbara Bustard, Chlamydotis undulata fuertaventurae, Rothschild & Hartet, 1894, in the Canary Islands, November-December 1994. Ardeola 44 (1): 61--69. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Islas Canarias, España.) {B904, B912} {ROL #81}

{C310} Martinez, F., & A. Ortega. 1995. First notes on the wintering of the Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus, in Central Spain. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 37--47. (Puerto de Canfranc, 22-3ºC, E-28038, Madrid, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Martìnez, C., et al. 1998. Distribution and abundance of the Pin-tailed Sandgrouse Pterocles alchata and the Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis in Spain. Ardeola 45 (1): 11--20. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., CSIC. c/Josè Gutierrez Abascal, 2. E-28006 Madrid, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Mascara, R. 1997. Ornithological observations in Greece. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 82--87. (Via Popolo, 6 93015 Niscemi, CL, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Mascara, R. 1998. Birds in the town of Gela [Sicily, Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 23 (1-2):19--24. (Via Popolo 6 93015 Niscemi, Caltanissetta, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Meissner, W., et al. 1997. Second record of Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea in Italy. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1):16--17. (Grupa Badawcza Plakow Wodnich Kuling, Al. Leainow 9, 80-441, Gdansk, Poland.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Moschetti, G., et al. 1996. Update status and distribution of the Crag Martin, Ptyonoprogne rupestris, in Campania [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 21--27. (Gruppo Inanellamento Limicoli (Gli), Piazza Mercato 45, I-80133 Napoli, Italy).---Hirundo rupestris. {ROL #81}

{C310} Nicolle, S., & C. H. N. The. 1999. [Status of Eleonora’s Falcon in France.] Ornithos 6: 119--121. (la Garrigue, F-34210 La Caunette, France.)---Falco eleonorae. 289 records analysed. Peak in second and third weeks of August. More along the Mediterranean coast. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Olea, P. P., et al. 1999. Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus range expansion: population size and reproductive parameters of a recently established population in north-western Spain. Ardeola 46 (1):81--88. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. León. Campus Vegazana. E-24071, León, Spain.) {B700, C914} {ROL #81}

{C310} Olioso, G. 1998. [Status of waders in Vaucluse, southeast France.] Faune de Provence 19: 51--58. (le Mail, F-26230 Grignan, France.)---33 species. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Onofre, N., et al. 1995. Present status of the Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, in Portugal. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 151--159. (Estaçsao Florestal Nacional. Posto Apícola, Tapada Da Ajuda. P-1300 Lisboa, Portugal.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Paci, A. M., A. Gaggi, & L. Starnini. 1996. A male of Columba guinea in the country surrounding Perugia [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 82--83. (Vía Badia 284, I-06019 Umbertide, PG, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Paci, A. M., A. Gaggi, & L. Starnini. 1995. [Interesting nesting at Alto Tevere Umbro {Italy}.] Gli Uccelli d’Italia 20 (1): 40--42. (No address given.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Paci, A. M., L. Starnini, & A. Gaggi. 1996. Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, in Northern Umbría [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 79--82. (Via Badia 284, I-06019 Umbertide, PG, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Paci, A. M., L. Starnini, & A. Gaggi. 1996. Little Bunting, Emberiza pusilla, in Umbría Region [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 78. (Via Badia 284, I-06019 Umbertide, PG, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Papa, P. 1996. Accidental and irregular birds recovered in Abruzzo [Italy] in 1993/94. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 77--78. (Ufficio Amministrazione ex A.S.F.D., Viale Riviera, 299-Pescara, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Paracuellos, M., & J. C. Nevado. 1995. Larids breeding in Almería province [Spain]. Doñana Acta Vert. 22 (1-2): 102--106. (Consejería Medio Ambiente, Junta Andalucía, Centro Res. Oliveros, E-04071 Almería, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Pulido, R., R. Tamajón, & F. Fernández. 1993. [Status and conservation of the Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) in the province of Cordova {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 23--28. (Ctr. Cordobés de Estudios Ecol., Sto. Cristo, 4. E-14009 Córdoba, España.) {B912} {ROL #81}

{C310} Rico, L., et al. 1999. Recent trends in the status of Golden (Aquila chrysaetos) and Bonelli’s Eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) in Valencia [Spain]. Ardeola 46 (2): 235--238. (C. Belando 13. Atico B. 03004. Alicante, Spain.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{C310} Roma, S., & M. Rossetti. 1998. The birds of Lago di Canterno [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 23 (1-2): 34--38. (Via Madonna delle Grazie, 30 03023 Ceccano, FR, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Roma, S., & M. Rossetti. 1997. Monte Cairo's district [Italy] and its avifauna. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 57--62. (Via Madonna delle Grazie, 30 03023 Ceccano, FR, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Russo, D. 1997. First data on the avian community of the protected area "Torre di Mare" [Italy]: ecological and faunistic appearances. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1):18--25. (Diparto. Structure, Funzioni e Tecnologia Biologiche. Sezione Biol. Anim. Fac. Med. Vet. Univ. degli Studi di Napole. Federico II Via Veterinaria, 1 I-80137 Naples, Italy) {C922} {ROL #81}

{C310} Salvati, L. 1996. Check-list of the birds of villa Borghese, Rome, [Italy] in the period 1989--1994. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 87--89. (Piazza P. Morosini, 12-00136 Roma, Italy). {ROL #81}

{C310} Sánchez, J. M. 1993. [Status of the wader population nesting in the middle Guadiana basin {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 279--298. (Area Biol. Anim., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz, España.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Sériot, J. 1999. [Rare and endangered breeding birds in France in 1997.] Ornithos 6: 1--19. (LPO, Corderie Royale, B.P. 263, F-17305 Rochefort Cedex, France.)---Oenanthe leucura extirpated; first breeding in Alps for Gypaetus barbatus. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Sertel, P., & J.-G. Robillard. 1998. [First breeding of the Spotless Starling Sturnus unicolor in Provence {France}.] Faune de Provence 19: 65--67. (193 av. de Toulon, F-83260 La Crau, France.) (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Sikora, A. 1998. [First record of White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis in Poland.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 263--265. (Stacja Ornitologiczna IE PAN, Nadwislanska 108, 80-680 Gdansk 40, Poland)---One bird, Polish Baltic Coast, May 1998. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}


{C310} Sikora, A., W. Póltorak., & K. Kopiec. 1998. [Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti a new species for Poland.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 177--180. (Stacja Ornitologiczna IE PAN, Nadwislanska 108, 80-680 Gdansk 40, Poland)---Single immature males at two places on Polish Baltic coast, October 1997. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{C310} Štollman, A. 1996 [Fieldfare observations in the Danube area during breeding season.] Tichodroma 9: 213--214. (Krivá 3, 947 01 Hurbanovo, Slovakia.)---Turdus pilaris continues range expansion in the southern part of the Danube area. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{C310} Traverso, J. M., C. Galán, & M. Gómez-Calzado. 1995. Breeding and wintering of the Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus, in central-eastern Extremadura [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 67--72. (C/ Jardines 18. E-28610, Villamanta, Madrid, Spain.) {B110} {ROL #81}

{C310} Trinka, R. 1996 [Avifauna of mosses in Orava {Slovakia}---Forestless mosses (Part 1).] Tichodroma 9: 40--50. (SAZP-str. Námestovo, Bernolákova 408, 029 01 Námestovo, Slovakia.)---41 species nest here, but this area is generally of low value. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {C908} {ROL #81}

{C310} Trnka, A. 1996 [The second report of the Slovak Rarities Committee.] Tichodroma 9: 202--205. (Trnavská univerzita, Pedagogická fakulta-katedra biológie, Hornopotocná 23, 918 43 Trnava, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Vázquez, X. 1995. Preliminary notes on the present status of the breeding populations of Circus spp. in the province of Lugo [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 161--167. (Pascual Veiga, 2-5º. E-27002, Lugo, España.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{C310} Verduci, D. 1997. First breeding of Sand Martin Riparia riparia in the province of Lucca [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 54--56. (Via SS. Annunziata 1517/E 550175. Pietro a Vico, Lu, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C310} Veyrunes, F. 1999. [Common Nighthawk, a species new for France.] Ornithos 6: 134--135. (28 rue Edouard Orliac, F-34090 Montpellier, France.)---Chordeiles minor; adult female, 17-28 September 1998, Ouessant Island. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Wlodarczak, A. 1999. [Distribution and numbers of the Polish population of the Dunlin Calidris alpina shinzii.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 40: 45--49. (Akacjowa 14/3, 72-100 Goleniów, Poland)---About 30 pairs in 1996-97, 60% decline in 20 years. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {C914} {ROL #81}

{C310} Zammit, A. 1998. [Wintering of the Scops Owl Otus scops in Port-Cros, Var, France.] Faune de Provence 19: 33--34. (Fortin de la Vigie, Ile de Port-Cros, F-83400 Hyères, France)---Winters regularly. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{C310} Zielinski, P., & M. Piotrowski. 1998. [First record of Ross’s Gull Rhodostethia rosea in Poland.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 261--262. (Stacja Ornitologiczna IE PAN, Nadwislanska 108, 80-680 Gdansk 40, Poland)---One adult, central Poland, January 1994. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{C310} Zielinski, P., & M. Piotrowski. 1999. [A record of the Levant Sparrowhawk Accipiter brevipes in Kujawy region.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 40: 89--90. (Stacja Ornitologiczna IE PAN, Nadwislanska 108, 80-680 Gdansk, Poland)---Single male, October 1993, second record for Poland. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{C312} Amador, E., & R. Mendoza-Salgado. 1999. Records of the Swainson’s Hawk in the Cape Region, Baja California Sur, Mexico. J. Raptor Res. 33: 344--345. (Ctr. Invest. Biol. Noroeste, S. C., P. O. Box 128, La Paz, Baja California Sur 23000, Mexico.)---Reports the second record in the last 20 years of Buteo swainsoni in the region, based on observations in Jan 1998, and again in Oct--early Dec 1998, presumed by the authors to be the same bird.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C312} Contreras B., A. J., & F. Montiel de La Garza. 1999. Swainson’s Hawks in Nuevo León, Mexico. J. Raptor Res. 33: 176--177. (Lab. Ornitol., Fac. Cienc. Biol., Univ. Autonoma Nuevo León, Apdo. Postal 425, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66450 Mex.)---Breeding Buteo swainsoni increase the number of species known to breed in the state while extending the southeastern-most boundary of the breeding range by 360 km.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C318} Bannon, P. 1999. Ancient Murrelet at Chambly, Québec. Birders Journal 8: 44--45. (1517 Leprohon St., Montréal, PQ H4E 1P1, Can.)---Description of sighting of Synthliboramphus antiquus on 25 Oct 1998. Second report for Québec and easternmost report for Canada.---A.L.L. {ROL #81}

{C318} Bardon, K. 1999. An influx of Summer Tanagers [Minnesota]. Loon 71: 216--220. (13073 Hastings St. NE, Blaine, MN 55449, USA.)---At least 19 Piranga rubra in spring 1999, nearly 20% of the total state records.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{C318} Bjorklund, C. 1999. Possible first Saskatchewan sighting of Fork-tailed Flycatcher. Blue Jay 57: 158--159. (102-1833 Coteau Ave., Weyburn, SK S4H 2X3, Can.)---Tyrannus savana, 27 May 1999, near Weyburn in SE SK.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Brewer, D., et al. 1998. First occurrence of Greater Shearwater in Ontario. Ontario Birds 18: 128--131. (R.R. 1, Puslinch, ON N0B 2J0, Can.)---Exhausted Puffinus gravis found 20 Aug 1997 on N. shore of L. Ontario, near Toronto, now specimen in Royal Ontario Museum; not apparently associated with any storm event. Includes brief review of North American occurrences.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Buckelew, A. R., Jr. 1991. Recent Northern Goshawk breeding records from the West Virginia highlands. Redstart 58: 74--75. (Dept. Biol., Bethany Coll., Bethany, WV 26023, USA.)---3 nests of Accipiter gentilis in 1989--1990 significantly increase known nestings for the state.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{C318} Buckelew, A. R., Jr. 1998. Summering Winter Wrens in Hancock County, West Virginia. Redstart 65: 65--66. (Dept. Biol., Bethany Coll., Bethany, WV 26032, USA.)---Troglodytes troglodytes at 240 m and far out of known range.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{C318} Burgiel, J., et al. 1999. New Jersey Bird Records Committee Annual Report. Rec. N. J. Birds 25: 54--63. (331 Alpine Ct., Stanhope, NJ 07874, USA.)---First records of Egretta rufescens, Elanus leucurus and Larus crassirostris.---E.I.S. {ROL #81}

{C318} Burgiel, J., et al. 1999. Reddish Egret---A first New Jersey record. Rec. N. J. Birds 25: 64--66. (331 Alpine Ct., Stanhope, NJ 07874, USA.)---First record of Egretta rufescens, photographed at Brigantine (Forsythe) NWR; 24 Aug 98.---E.I.S. {ROL #81}

{C318} Chubbs, T. E., et al. 2000. First confirmed breeding records and other incidental sightings of Northern Harriers in Labrador. J. Raptor Res. 34: 56--57. (Dept. Natl. Defence, 5 Wing Goose Bay, Box 7002, Postal Station A, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador, NF A0P 1S0 Canada.)---Reports on northeasterly range expansion of Circus cyaneus.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C318} Crossley, R. 1999. Whiskered Tern in Cape May---Again! Rec. N. J. Birds 25: 67--68. (432 Third Ave., West Cape May, NJ 08204, USA.)---Chlidonias hybridus, 2nd record in New Jersey; 8 Aug 98.---E.I.S. {ROL #81}

{C318} Dasey, W. 1999. N. Saw-whet Owls breed in Palmyra. Rec. N. J. Birds 25: 2--3. (29 Ark Rd., Medford, NJ 08055, USA.)---Conclusive evidence that Aegolius acadicus acadicus nests in southern New Jersey along tidal Delaware River in riparian woods.---E.I.S. {ROL #81}

{C318} Dobos, R. Z. 1998. Ontario Bird Records Committee report for 1997. Ontario Birds 18: 51--80. (1156 5th Concession Rd. W., R.R. 2, Waterdown, ON L0R 2H2, Can.)---Review of 182 extralimital records of birds in Ontario, many illustrated by photographs. Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis), Plumbeous Vireo (Vireo plumbeus) and Baird's Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii) bring the Ontario list to 470 species. Races added to the list were "Palearctic" Dunlin (Calidris alpina arctica or Calidris alpina scinzii) and "Gray-headed" Junco (Junco hyemalis caniceps).---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Duncan, J. R., & P. A. Duncan. 1997. Increase in distribution records of owl species in Manitoba based on a volunteer nocturnal survey using Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus) and Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) playback. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 519--524. (Box 253, Balmoral, MB R0C 0H0, Can.)---Surveys increased known range of Aegolius acadicus by 88%, with large increases also for Aegolius funereus (40%) and Strix nebulosa (19%); small increases (æ10%) were made for Surnia ulula, Strix varia, and Bubo virginianus. No increases were determined for Otus asio, Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Athene cunicularia, Nyctea scandiaca, and Tyto alba.---J.M.S. {E522} {ROL #81}

{C318} Garner, H. D. 1999. Distribution and habitat use of Sharp-shinned and Cooper’s Hawks in Arkansas. J. Raptor Res. 33: 329--332. (Southern Ecol. Serv., 1204 Arrowhead Farm Road, Jonesboro, AR 72401, USA.)---Accipiter striatus, Accipiter cooperii. {C908} {ROL #81}

{C318} Griffith, M. 1997. Recent Trumpeter Swan sightings in West Virginia. Redstart 64: 109--110. (11th Ave. Huntington, WV 25701, USA.)---4 captive-bred Cygnus buccinator from Ohio were the first WV records since 1875.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{C318} Halliwell, T., et al. 2000. Historical Report of the New Jersey Bird Records Committee: Rare Bird Reports through 1989. Rec. N. J. Birds 26: 13--44. (19 Kings Rd., Netcong, NJ 07857, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C318} Hanowski, J. 1999. Breeding birds of the Cornish Hardwood Management Area, Aitkin County [Minnesota]. Loon 71: 62--66. (NRRI, 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy, Duluth, MN 55811, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C318} Hanson, J. W. 1999. Curlew Sandpipers (Calidris ferruginea) in New Jersey. Rec. N. J. Birds 25: 26--31. (13 Vincent Pl., Montclair, NJ 07042, USA.)---Seasonal patterns of occurrence, distribution in New Jersey, historical trends, identification and future research.---E.I.S. {ROL #81}

{C318} Hertzel, A. X. 1999. A review of historical record of the Eskimo Curlew in Minnesota. Loon 71: 66--75. (8461 Pleasant View Dr., Mounds View, MN 55112, USA.)---Numenius borealis. {ROL #81}

{C318} Hertzel, A. X. 1999. Northern Saw-whet Owls nesting in Washington County [Minnesota]. Loon 71: 220--222. (8461 Pleasant View Dr., Mounds, MN 55112, USA.)---First observed breeding of Aegolius acadicus in southeastern Minnesota.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{C318} Houston, C. S., & K. J. McGowan. 1999. The westward spread of the Barred Owl. Blue Jay 57: 190--195. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Strix varia has spread from Manitoba to British Columbia---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Houston, C. S. 1998. Northern Goshawks move back south. Blue Jay 56: 191--192. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Accipiter gentilis nest records in the Aspen Parkland.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Houston, C. S. 1999. Extension of range of Violet-green Swallow. Blue Jay 57: 116--117. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Tachycineta thalassina; recent nesting evidence on clay cliffs in extreme SE AB and adjacent SK.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Jenkinson, M. A. 1991. Fork-tailed Flycatcher in Barton County. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 42: 29--30. (Nat. Hist. Mus., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2454, USA.)---Sight record of Tyrannus savana in Kansas is first for State; 13 May 1979.---R.F.J. {ROL #81}

{C318} Jones, E. T. 1998. Spring '98 at Beaverhills Lake, Alberta. Alberta Nat. 28: 45. (#119-215 Blackburn Dr. E. SW, Edmonton, AB T6W 1B9, Can.)---Includes 3rd Alberta record of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), 2nd spring Alberta record of Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens), longevity records for Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) and several significant banding recovery records.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Kane, R., P. A. Buckley, & J. Golub. 1989. Large-billed Tern in New Jersey: North America’s first confirmed occurrence (Phaetusa simplex). Am. Birds 43: 1275--1276. (Sherman-Hoffman Sanctuary, NJ Audubon Society, P.O. Box 693, Bernardsville, NJ 07924, USA.)---30 May 1988, Hudson Co.; photo.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C318} Kessen, A. E., & A. X. Hertzel. 1999. The historical record of the Swallow-tailed Kite in Minnesota. Loon 71: 178--181. (31145 Genesis Ave., Stacy, MN 55079, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C318} Koes, R. 1999. Curve-billed Thrasher winters in St. Claude, Manitoba. Blue Jay 57: 75--77. (135 Rossmere Cr., Winnipeg, MB R2K 0G1, Can.)---Toxostoma curvirostre that

overwintered west of Winnipeg (1998--99) photographed for first provincial record and 2nd Canadian record, the first being in fall 1986 NW of Edmonton, AB.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Koes, R. F. 1999. An early summer's birding at Churchill, Manitoba. Blue Jay 57: 152--155. (135 Rossmere Cr., Winnipeg, MB R2K 0G1, Can.)---From June 3--18, 1999, 137 species were recorded, including many rarities.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Korol, B., & R. Wapple. 1994. Pomarine Jaeger at Lac la Plonge, Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 52: 33--35. (Dept. Crop Sci. & Plant Ecol., Univ. Sask., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W0, Can.)---Stercorarius pomarinus rarity (12th record), it boldly plucked food from a person's hand, 5 Jun 1993.---R.W.N. {D306} {ROL #81}

{C318} Kreba, R. 1999. Ancient Murrelet at Last Mountain Lake, Saskatchewan. Birders J. 8: 45--47. (Museum Annex, 2340 Albert St., Regina, SK S4P 3V7, Can.)---Synthliboramphus antiquus sighted on 13 Nov 1998; first report for Saskatchewan.---A.L.L. {ROL #81}

{C318} Kuecherer, D. 1999. Green Violet-ear [Hummingbird] visits La Crosse [Wisconsin]. Passenger Pigeon 61: 167--169. (128 N. Vera Ln., West Salem, WI 54669, USA.)---First state record of Colibri thalassinus.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{C318} Lahrman, F. W. 1994. A Bar-headed Goose seen in Regina---a possible first for North America. Blue Jay 52: 137--140. (No. 7, 3941 Retallack St., Regina, SK, S4S 3C1, Can.)---Unbanded Anser indicus, photographed Sept. 11, 1993.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Lauff, R. F. 1997. Range expansion of Northern Hawk Owls (Surnia ulula) and Boreal Owls (Aegolius funereus) in Nova Scotia. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 569--571. (Dept. Biol., St. Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS B2G 2W5, Can; EM: of 1 of 3 hawk-owl nests; Boreal Owl nesting suspected with this first summer record.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C318} Maxwell, T. C., & M. S. Husak. 1999. Common Black-Hawk nesting in west-central Texas. J. Raptor Res. 33: 270--271. (Dept. Biol., Angelo State Univ., San Angelo, TX 76909, USA.)---Breeding Buteogallus anthracinus in Tom Green Co. from 1996--1998 extend the breeding range 345 km. northeast from the nearest known regular breeding population in the state.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C318} McRae, A. 1998. American Swallow-tailed Kite at East River Mountain, Bluefield, West Virginia. Redstart 65: 5--6. (126 Fincastle Ln., Bluefield, WV 24701, USA.)---Elanoides forficatus 3rd state record and 2nd record in 90 years.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{C318} Norment, C. J., A. Hall, & P. Hendricks. 1999. Important bird and mammal records in the Thelon River Valley, Northwest Territories: range expansions and possible causes. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 375--385. (Dept. Biol. Sci., SUNY Coll., Brockport, NY 14420, USA.; EM: {ROL #81}

{C318} Olcott., S. 1998. Henslow’s Sparrow nests at Hillcrest Wildlife Management Area (WV). Redstart 65: 54--55. (1304 Goose Run Rd., Fairmont, WV 26554, USA.)---Ammodramus henslowii, a species of concern in the state.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{C318} Parker, B. 1998. Missing picture. Alberta Nat. 28: 1. (Box 1472, Edmonton, AB T5J 2N5, Can.)---Photo of hand-held Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina that should have accompanied documentation (1997. Alberta Nat. 27: 68.) of second provincial record by E. Kuyt.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Pochek, A., & T. Halliwell. 2000. White-tailed Kite: new to New Jersey. Rec. N. J. Birds 26: 2--3. (1071 Mereline Ave., Avenel, NJ 07001, USA.)---Photos of Elanus leucurus vagrant at Cape May on 4 Jun 1998.---E.I.S. {ROL #81}

{C318} Podrebarac, D. K., & E. J. Finck. 1991. The winter distribution of the House Finch in Kansas. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 42: 33--36. (Div. Biol. Sci., Emporia State Univ., Emporia, KS 66801, USA.)---Records of Carpodacus mexicanus from all sectors of the State; species found historically in W., but those in E. are new, probably of descendants from captives released in New York in the 1930s.---R.F.J. {B708} {ROL #81}

{C318} Renaud, W. E. 1998. Bird observations from northern Saskatchewan, August 1973. Blue Jay 56: 201--206. (9 Oakwood Ave., N. Mississauga, ON L5G 3L6, Can.)---Records of 48 species. {ROL #81}

{C318} Robson, D. B. 1999. New bird records for the McLennan Lake area, Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 57: 114. (811 Ave. E. North, Saskatoon, SK S7L 1S7, Can.)---List 48 species not previously recorded.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Rogers, J. 1998. White-winged Dove at Slave Lake, Alberta. Alberta Nat. 28: 17--18. (40 Payne Close, Red Deer, AB T4P 1T7, Can.)---Description and photograph of first record of Zenaida asiatica in Alberta, at feeder 25--28 June 1997.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Salt, J. R. 1998. Some bird records from Jasper National Park. Alberta Nat. 28: 73--74. (464 Nelson St., Victoria, BC V9A 6P4, Can.)---Extralimital records of Cyanocitta cristata, Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Zonotrichia querula and Pooecetes gramineus, all unusual in montane portions of province.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Schultz, T. R. 1999. A remarkable first Wisconsin record: Streak-backed Oriole. Passenger Pigeon 61: 161--166. (N6104 Honeysuckle Ln., Green Lake, WI 54941, USA.)---Icterus pustulatus. {ROL #81}

{C318} Schwilling, M. D. 1991. Ash-throated Flycatcher and probable Western Screech-Owl nesting in Morton County, Kansas. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 42: 37--38. (1407 College Dr., Emporia, KS, 66801, USA.)---3 nests of Myiarchus cinerascens and 1 nest of Otus kennicottii, all in man-made nestboxes; first breeding records for the State.---R.F.J. {B708, B716} {ROL #81}

{C318} Sykes, P. W., Jr., & D. W. Sonneborn. 1998. First breeding records of Whooper Swan and Brambling in North America at Attu Island, Alaska. Condor 100: 162--164. (USGS/BRD, Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr.-Athens, Warnell Sch. For. Resour., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2152, USA; EM: cygnus, Fringilla montifringilla. {ROL #81}

{C318} Taylor, P. 1994. Recent records of Oldsquaw in southeastern Manitoba. Blue Jay 52: 147--151. (Box 597, Pinawa, MB R0E 1L0, Can.)---Summarizes records from 1973--1993 for Clangula hyemalis, an unusual migrant in this area.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Wallis, A. 1996. First Hooded Oriole record for western Canada. Brit. Columbia Birds 6: 7--8. (2072 Weiler Ave., Sidney, BC V8L 1R4, Can.)---Documentation of 2nd Canadian record of Icterus cucullatus with editor's summary of subsequent British Columbia records. 6--7 May 1996 at Sidney, Vancouver Is., B.C.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Weir, J. 1997. A west coast record of a juvenile Boreal Owl. Brit. Columbia Birds 7: 11--12. (3048 Quail Cresc., Kelowna, BC V1V 2A1, Can.)---Photograph of recently fledged Aegolius funereus helped extend documented breeding range westwards to west coast of North America.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Wormington, A. 1999. Cave Swallow---second record for Ontario and the Great Lakes Region. Birders J. 8: 35--37. (RR 1, Leamington, ON N8H 3V4, Can.)---Photo and description of Petrochelidon fulva on 7 Dec 1998 at Pt. Pelee National Park.---A.L.L. {ROL #81}

{C318} Wright, A. L., & G. D. Hayward. 1998. Barred Owl range expansion into the central Idaho wilderness. J. Raptor Res. 32: 77--81. (Hornocker Wildl. Inst., HC-83 Running Creek Ranch, Cascade, ID 83611, USA.)---Strix varia. {ROL #81}

{C318} Wright, K. G. 1997. Common Eider: a fourth British Columbian record. Brit. Columbia Birds 7: 13--14. (6090 Blink Bonnie Rd., West Vancouver, BC V7W 1V8, Can.)---Detailed documentation of southernmost confirmed record of Somateria mollissima along the North American Pacific coast, with review of previously reported occurrences in British Columbia.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C318} Wright, K. G. 1999. Bird observations from the McLeod River and its headwater tributaries, Alberta. Blue Jay 57: 78--82. (6090 Blink Bonnie Rd., West Vancouver, BC V7W 1V8, Can.)---Forty-three species, including 58(+/-) Histrionicus histrionicus, observed 18--23 Jun 1998 in an "arctic-like setting" under development for large scale open pit coal mine.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C318} Zink, R. M., & J. Klicka. 1999. The Green Violet-ear Hummingbird specimen from Wisconsin: a museum report. Passenger Pigeon 61: 171--173. (Bell Mus., Univ. Minnesota, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---First state record, tentatively assigned to subspecies Colibri thalassinus thalassinus. {ROL #81}

{C320} Fukuda, Y. 2000. [Breeding of Black-tailed Gull Larus crassirostris on the Shiretoko Peninsula {Japan}.] Strix 18: 153--156. (Aotaka-maru, 5-2-25 Oka, Matsubara, Osaka, Japan.)---Population fluctuation in Larus crassirostris. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {C914} {ROL #81}

{C320} Gerasimov, Y., et al. 1999. Status of shorebirds in Kamchatka, Russia. Stilt 34: 31--34. (Kamchatka Inst. Ecol., Far-East Br. Russian Acad. Sci., Rybakov 19A, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683024, Russia.)---Individual summaries of presence in different regions for 53 species and subspecies, including breeding records.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C320} Hayashi, E. 2000. [A record of the Lesser Yellowlegs at Tokyo Port Wild Bird Park.] Strix 18: 157--159. (Tokyo Port Wild Bird Pk., 3-1 Toukai, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-0001, Japan.)---Tringa flavipes. (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C320} Higuchi, T., J. Hirokawa, & H. Shinjo. 2000. [The first record of a flock of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo in Hokkaido {Japan}.] Strix 18: 149--152. (Dept. Gen. Educ., Health Sci., Univ. Hokkaido, Kanazawa 1757, Tobetsu-cho, Ishikari-gun, Hokkaido 061-0293, Japan.) (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C320} Hirano, T., et al. 2000. [The distribution and abundance of Great Cormorants in Tochigi Prefecture [Japan].] Strix 18: 29--43. (Wild Bird Soc. Japan, Tochigi Chapter, Hanawada 2-5-1, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 320-0027, Japan.)---Population increase of Phalacrocorax carbo. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {C914} {ROL #81}

{C320} Ma Ming. 1998. Xinjiang Ground-jay in Taklimakan Desert. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 57--58. (Zool. Dept., Xinjiang Inst. Biol., Acad. Sinica, No. 4 Beijing Rd., Urumqi, 830011, Xinjiang, China.)---Reports "a few dozen" sightings (contra Grimett 1991) of Podoces biddulphi during a Sino-Nipponian Exploration Group journey through the desert in the extreme west of China (900--1200 m asl) from 18 Feb to 25 Mar 1997.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C320} Moores, N. 1998. Saunder's [sic] Gull colony in South Korea: first nesting record outside of the People's Republic of China. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 28: 42--43. (Korean NGOs for Ramsar, c/o Korean Federation for the Env., Nooha Dong 251, Chongro Ku, Seoul, 110 042, S. Korea.)---3 nests of Larus saundersi found on 26 May 1998, all depredated by 28 July, by which time the gulls had gone.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C320} Moores, N. 1999. A survey of the distribution and abundance of shorebirds in South Korea during 1998--1999: interim summary. Stilt 34: 18--29. (251 Nooha-Dong, Chongro-Gu, Seoul 110-042, S. Korea.)---20 sites of international importance for shorebirds identified with 19 species occurring in internationally important concentrations.---I.D.E. {B910} {ROL #81}

{C320} Tatara, S. 2000. [A record of the Kermadec Petrel Pterodroma neglecta saved in Kochi {Japan}.] Strix 18: 161--164. (Noichi Zool. Pk., Kochi Prefecture, 738 Otani, Noichi, Kami-gun, Kochi, Japan.) (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C320} Tsutsubuchi, M., & T. Shibuya. 2000. [Records of vagrant Pacific Loons in inland areas of Hokkaido.] Strix 18: 127--130. (Lab. Wildl. Ecol., Dept. Agro-Environ. Sci., Obihiro Univ. Agric. & Vet. Med., Inada-cho, Obihiro-shi, Hokkaido, 080-8555, Japan.)---Gavia pacifica. (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C328} Allen, D. 1999. Green-faced Parrotfinch Erythrura viridifacies in northern Luzon, Philippines. Forktail 15: 103. (1158 No GaYa Cho, Machida Shi, Tokyo 19500, Japan.)---Single bird seen at Dumalneg, 9 Feb 1994.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Barker, C., et al. 1999. Some recent records of birds around Islamabad, Pakistan. Forktail 15: 96--97. (15A Dane Rd., Minnis Bay, Birchungton, Kent CT7 9PU, UK.)---Notes on 23 species seen during survey for Western Tragopan Tragopan melanocephalus, 10 Dec 1995 to 9 Mar 1996.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Barua, M., & P. Sharma. 1999. Birds of Kaziranga National Park, India. Forktail 15: 47--60. ('Barua Bhavan', 107 M.C. Rd., Uzan Bazaar, Guwahati-781001, Assam, India.)---Records for 1993--99 of habitat, abundance and migration status for 478 species in Assam.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Bishop, D., & N. W. Brickle. 1998. An annotated checklist of the birds of the Tanimbar Islands. Kukila 10: 115--150. (P.O. Box 6068, Kincumber, NSW 2251, Australia.)---Includes 86 resident species, 10 of which are endemics; 15 Australian and 13 Palearctic migrants. Also gives history of local ornithology and describes vegetation and conservation needs.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Bishop, K. D. 1999. Preliminary notes on some birds in Bhutan. Forktail 15: 87--91. (P.O. Box 68, Kincumber, NSW 2251, Australia.)---Additional information on 62 species, especially globally threatened Aceros nipalensis and Sitta formosa, from five 21-day annual visits.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Bishop, R., & A. Bishop. 1999. A record of Greater Painted-snipe Rostratula benghalensis in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Forktail 15: 105. (Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya.)---A female and five males/juveniles at Dumoga Bone Natl. Pk., 4 and 6 Aug 1997.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Collar, N. J. 1998. Little-known Oriental bird: Luzon Water Redstart Rhyacornis bicolor. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 26--28. (BirdLife Int., Wellbrook Ct., Girton Rd., Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK.)---Illustrated overview of status and distribution of a threatened Philippine endemic.---I.C.R. {B904} {ROL #81}

{C328} Drivers, R., et al. 1999. Olive-backed Pipit Anthus hodgsoni: a new species for Pakistan. Forktail 15: 98. (Veldstratt 13A, 2440 Geel, Belgium.)---15 individuals in woodland near Rawal Lake, Islamabad.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Dymond, N. 1999. Two records of Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala in Sabah: the first definite occurrences in Malaysia and Borneo. Forktail 15: 102--103. (Springfield, Scotsburgh, Shetland ZE2 9JE, UK.)---Seen at Pulau Tiga Natl. Pk., 16 Oct 1996 and 22 Oct 1997.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Goes, F. 1999. Notes on selected bird species in Cambodia. Forktail 15: 25--27. (P.O. Box 45, Siem Reap, Cambodia.)---Includes 11 new species, 14 globally threatened, or near-threatened species and 12 species of regional conservation concern.---I.C.R. {B904} {ROL #81}

{C328} Holt, P. 1999. Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus at Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India: a new species for the Indian subcontinent. Forktail 15: 95--96. (The Old Surgery, 4 The Barton, Hatch Beauchamp, Taunton, Somerset TA3 6SG, UK.)---Seen 13--23 Feb 1997.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Isherwood, I., et al. 1998. New information on the birds of Seram, Indonesia, and their conservation. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 28: 18--21. (Broombank, Sandside, Kirkby-in-Furness, Cumbria, UK.)---Reports a 6-week survey of little known NE Seram, Jul--Sep 1996.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Kennerley, P., & R. Ollington. 1998. Aleutian Terns in south-east Asia. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 34--41. (15 Penrhyn Beach East, Penrhyn Bay, Llandudno, Gwynedd LL30 3NT, UK.)---Reports recent occurrence of Sterna aleutica, an overlooked species.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Kennerley, P. 1998. Basra at Tuas, Singapore on 26th November 1995. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 54--55. (15 Penrhyn Beach East, Penrhyn Bay, Llandudno, Gwynedd LL30 3NT, UK.)---Accipiter virgatus mist-netted on 26 Nov 1996; described and measured.; 1st record for Basra and the Malay Peninsula.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Kennerley, P. 1998. Oriental Cuckoos at Tuas, Singapore on 21st October and 2nd December 1995. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 55--57. (15 Penrhyn Beach East, Penrhyn Bay, Llandudno, Gwynedd LL30 3NT, UK.)---1st documented occurrence of Cuculus saturatus, mist-netted on 21 Oct and another on 2 Dec 1995.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Linsley, M. D., M. J. Jones, & S. J. Marsden. 1998. A review of the Sumba avifauna. Kukila 10: 60--90. (Elm Cottage, The Street, Chillesford, Woodbridge, UK.)---Reviews birds of this island in the Lesser Sundas of Indonesia, including 41 additions since White & Bruce (1986). Discusses ecology and conservation of vegetation and birds.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Lott, E. J., & C. Lott. 1999. On the occurrence of White-naped Tit Parus nuchalis in S. India. Forktail 15: 93--94. (Green Shola, 16 Main Rd., Old Dalby, Melton Mowbray, Leics LE14 3LR, UK.)---Relict southern population seen 5 times during 1985--95.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Luijendijk, T. J. C., & J. Scharringa. 1998. Siberian Blue Robin in West Java. Kukila 10: 161--162. (Nieuwe Rijn 44A, 2312 JG Leiden, Netherlands)---Luscinia cyane seen near Cibodas on 10 Apr 1996 and 17 Nov 1997. 1st and 2nd records for Java, Indonesia.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Ma Ming. 1999. Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber and Rufous-tailed Scrub Robin Cercotrichas galactotes: two new species for China. Forktail 15: 105--106. (Xinjiang Inst. Biol., Pedol. Desert Res., No. 40, S. Beijing Rd., Urumqi, 830011, Xinjiang, China.)---Describes 3 specimens---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Ng Bee Choo. 1998. Status and distribution of Hornbills in Thailand. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 28: 30--32. (c/o Nature's Niche, Bukit Timah Nat. Res. Visitor Ctr., 177 Hindehede Drive, 589333 Singapore.)---13 of 31 Asian species of hornbill recorded in Thailand; distribution, populations, and future conservation discussed from data of Pilai Poonswad.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Pfister, O. 1999 Owls in Ladakh. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 29: 22--29. (Transversal 1 Este # 57-42, Apto, 501, Barrio El Castillo, Bogota, D.C., Colombia.)---5 species of owl in Ladakh, India: Asio otus, Asio flammeus, Bubo bubo, Athene noctua and Otus brucei. Distribution and habits given; illustrated.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Poole, C. M. 1999. Little-known Oriental bird: Chestnut-headed Partridge Arborophila cambodiana. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 30: 46--49. (Wildl. Conserv. Soc., P.O. Box 1620, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.)---A partridge bought in a Cambodian wildlife market proved to be an Arborophila cambodiana, a threatened species; 1st Cambodian record since 1936. It was caught in Kirirom National Park; photographed before it died. History, status, plumage and taxonomy and conservation needs given.---I.C.R. {B904} {ROL #81}

{C328} Raja, N. A., et al. 1999. The Birds of Palas, NW Frontier Province, Pakistan. Forktail 15: 77--85. (c/o Himalayan Jungle Project, 25 St. 67, Sector G-6/4, Islamabad, Pakistan.)---Annotated list of 157 species recorded during 7 surveys, May 1987--Dec 1996; summarises status, abundance and breeding biology, where known.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Shepherd, C. 1998. House Crow observed in North Sumatra. Kukila 10: 162--163. (No address given)---Corvus splendens seen at Belawan, a port in N. Sumatra, Indonesia; no date given.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Showler, D. A., & P. Davidson. 1999. Observations of Jerdon's Babbler Chrysomma altirostre and Rufous-vented Prinia Prinia burnesii in Punjab and NW Frontier Province, Pakistan. Forktail 15: 67--76. (12 Wedgewood Dr., Hughenden Valley, High Wycombe, Bucks HP14 4PA, UK.)---Conservation status, distribution and habitat of 2 threatened species; also lists 144 species seen during a survey in Feb 1996.---I.C.R. {B128} {ROL #81}

{C328} van Balen, S., & P. F. Nurwatha. 1998. Eastern Marsh-Harrier in Kalimantan. Kukila 10: 152--153. (Trop. Nat. Conserv. Vert. Ecol., Wageningen Agric. Univ., Bornsesteeg 69, 6708 PD Wageningen, Netherlands.)---Circus spilonotus seen 26 Mar 1996; no previous record from Kalimantan, Indonesia.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} van Balen, S. 1998. First record of Grey Heron in Kalimantan. Kukila 10: 156--157. (Trop. Nat. Conserv. Vert. Ecol., Wageningen Agric. Univ., Bornsesteeg 69, 6708 PD Wageningen, Netherlands.)---Ardea cinerea seen Nov-Dec 1997 on Tubu R., Bulungan District in north of E. Kalimantan, Indonesia.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} van Balen, S. 1998. Note on the distribution of Kinabalu Serpent Eagle with a first record for Kalimantan. Kukila 10: 154--156. (Trop. Nat. Conserv. Vert. Ecol., Wageningen Agric. Univ., Bornsesteeg 69, 6708 PD Wageningen, Netherlands.)---Spilornis kinabaluensis identified by sound recordings Nov 1997, in Bulungan District in north of E. Kalimantan, Indonesia. Previously known only from N. Borneo.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} van Balen, S. 1998. Note on the sighting of Striated Grassbird in Kalimantan. Kukila 10: 157--158. (Trop. Nat. Conserv. Vert. Ecol., Wageningen Agric. Univ., Bornsesteeg 69, 6708 PD Wageningen, Netherlands.)---Megalurus palustris seen 30 Oct 1998 near Malinau, E. Kalimantan, Indonesia; possibly spreading from Borneo?---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Vercruysse, E., & R. Drivers. 1999. Vinous-breasted Starling Sturnus burmannicus: a new species for Malaysia. Forktail 15: 99. (Wijzemanstraat 5, 9000 Gent, Belgium.)---Seen near Kuala Selangor, 12 Apr 1993.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Verhoeye, J., & D. A. Holmes. 1998. The birds of the islands of Flores [Indonesia]: a review. Kukila 10: 3--59. (Rotsestraat 2, 9890 Dikkelvenne, Belgium.)---Combines historical and recent records, including rare endemics Loriculus flosculus, Otus alfredi, Monarcha sacerdotum and Corvus florensis.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Wardell, J. C., & F. S. G. Katuuk. 1998 Eastern Marsh Harrier in Sulawesi. Kukila 10: 151--152. (27 Carton Ave., Hornsea, E. Yorkshire HU18 1JG, UK.)---Circus spilonotus seen 15 Apr 1997; no previous record for Wallacea.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{C328} Wardill, J. C., & I. Hunowu. 1998. First observations of the endemic subspecies of Black-fronted White-eye on Sangihe, North Sulawesi. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 48--49. (Action Sampiri Conserv. Proj., 27 Carton Ave., Hornsea, E. Yorkshire HU18 1JG, UK.)---No examples of Zosterops nehrkorni exist and the type specimen has been lost. On 10 Nov 1996 three white-eyes were watched on Gunung Sahengbalira at 900 m.---I.C.R. {C706} {ROL #81}

{C328} Wardill, J. C., et al. 1998 Birds of the Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park, south-east Sulawesi. Kukila 10: 91--114. (27 Carton Ave., Hornsea, E. Yorkshire HU18 1JG, UK.)---Describes habitat, conservation and human pressures of the 4th Natl. Pk. in Sulawesi; 105,194 ha; 157 species of bird recorded; annotated selected list.---I.C.R. {B910} {ROL #81}

{C328} Zacharias, V. J., & A. J. Gaston. 1999. The recent distribution of endemic, disjunct and globally uncommon birds in the forests of Kerala State, south-west India. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 191--225. (St. Joseph's Coll., Devagiri, Calicut, Kerala 673 008, India.)---309 species of forest birds surveyed between 1973-1997. Distribution and status of endemics or populations disjunct from conspecifics in northern India reported. Regional threats to avifauna identified.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{C330} Brooks, T. M. 1998. A record of a Harpy Eagle from eastern Paraguay. J. Raptor Res. 32: 318--321. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., 569 Dabney Hall, Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1610, USA.)---Sight record of Harpia harpyja at a rainforest preserve where the species has not previously been recorded.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C330} Díaz, M., F. G. Stiles, & J. L. Tellería. 1995. The birds in a large and permanent opening of the Amazonian rainforest: the Sierra of Chiribiquete (Colombia). Ardeola 42 (2): 191--200. (Depto. Biol. Anim. 1, Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, España.) {C922} {ROL #81}

{C330} Goreck, J. M. 1999. Distribution of birds along an elevational gradient in the Atlantic forest of Brazil: implications for the conservation of endemic and endangered species. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 235--253. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Nat. Bridge Rd., St. Louis, MO 63121-4499, USA.)---Point counts and tape recordings of vocalizations along transects, and opportunistic visual observations used to document avifauna of 254 spp. from elevations of 0--1150 m along 5 km trail through a primary forest remnant. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of distribution of each species, presented in table, indicate high levels of endemism, monotypic genera, and endangerment. Intense deforestation pressures on remaining 2--5% of Atlantic forest.---K.J.E. {C922, E506} {ROL #81}

{C700} Cattrall, D. Undated [1998]. Index to Ontario Birds volumes 1 through 15 1983--1997. Ont. Field Ornithol., Burlington, ON. 41 pp. (c/o Ont. Field Ornithol., Box 455, Stn. R, Toronto, ON M4G 4E1, Can.)---Indexed by "bird groups" (family or groups of related families), geographic areas ("northern" = all northern and western Ontario vs. "southern" = southeastern Ontario), and "other" keywords (essentially a subject index); code of ethics included.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C700} Jessop, R., & P. Collins (Eds). 1999. Australasian Wader Studies Group Conference, Phillip Island, Victoria. 12 to 13 June 1999. Stilt 35: 59--70. (RMB 4009, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Abstracts of spoken papers and posters.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C702} Carcelar, F., S. Plá, & O. Arribas. 1993. [Proposal of a new index to categorize natural areas.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 437--451. (No address given.) {ROL #81}

{C702} Clark, R. J. 1997. Summary and concluding remarks [2nd International Symposium: Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere]. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 11--20. (Biol. Dept., York Coll. Pennsylvania, York, PA 17405-7199, USA.)---Comparison of topics and species covered between the 1987 and 1997 symposia, with a plea for studies and conferences of owls in lesser-known parts of the world.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C702} López, G., J. Castany, & M. A. Gutiérrez. 1993. [Development of a computer program for managing ornithological information.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 391--402. (Depto. Cienc. Ambientales y Recursos Nat., Univ. Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante, España.) {ROL #81}

{C702} Olioso, G. 1998. [Bibliography of Provence ornithology (XV).] Faune de Provence 19: 79--81. (le Mail, F-26230 Grignan, France.) (French.) {ROL #81}

{C702} Straw, P., & K. A. Harris. 1999. How will waders benefit from the new Atlas of Australian Birds? Stilt 35: 66--67. (Avifauna Stud., 15 Kings Rd., Brighton-le-Sands, NSW 2216, Australia.)---Identification of smaller coastal sites and inland distributions. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {B910} {ROL #81}

{C704} Davis, W. E., Jr. 1999. He spanned two eras: Charles Foster Batchelder, last of the "shotgun" ornithologists. Bird Observer (Massachusetts) 27: 12--18. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C704} Houston, C. S., & A. Dzubin. 1998. In memorium: Jerome H. Stoudt, 1910--1996. Blue Jay 56: 248--250. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C704} Houston, C. S., & M. I. Houston. 1998. Leroy and Myrtle Simmons, record-breaking Winnipeg bird banders. Blue Jay 56: 75--81. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Posthumous review; 53,527 birds banded, 240 recoveries, maps of encounters for Carpodacus purpureus, Carduelis flammea and Hesperiphona vespertina.---R.W.N. {E526} {ROL #81}

{C704} Houston, C. S. 1998. Donald Stewart McRobbie, 1929--1998. Blue Jay 56: 247. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C704} Matteson, S. W., & R. T. Highsmith. 1999. John T. Emlen, Jr.: a naturalist for all seasons, Part 3: final adventures (1960--1989) and lasting tributes. Passenger Pigeon 61: 7--70. (5101 Coney Weston Pl., Madison, WI 53711, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C704} Peck, G. K. 1998. Ross D. James: distinguished ornithologist. Ontario Birds 18: 150--152. (ONRS/Ornithology, CBCB, Roy. Ontario Mus., 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, ON M5S 2C6, Can.)---Brief biographical tribute on occasion of his receiving 2nd Distinguished Ornithologist Award from Ontario Field Ornithologists.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C704} Potti, J., & J. Moreno. 1996. [Historic profile of breeding bird studies in Spain.] Ardeola 43 (1): 3--8. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Alcalá de Henares, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{C704} Ricklefs, R. E. 2000. Lack, Skutch, and Moreau: The early development of life-history thinking. Condor 102: 3--8. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St. Louis, MO 63121-4499, USA; EM: and evaluates how contributions and convictions of 3 scientists, first published in the 1940s, both promoted and held back the development of life-history theory until the mid-1960s.---S.N.L. {clutch size} {ROL #81}

{C704} Stiles, D. 1998. In memoriam---Kay Morck (1914--1997). Alberta Nat. 28: 21. (20 Lake Wapta Rise SE, Calgary, AB T2J 2M9, Can.)---Brief biography of prominent Calgary, Alberta, naturalist, best known for her pioneering bird photography.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C708} Houston, C. S. 1994. How did the Canada Goose get its name before there was a Canada? Blue Jay 52: 141--143. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Branta canadensis named Canada Goose first by Catesby: Natural History of Carolina... Vol. 1, 1729--32.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C708} McAllan, I. A. W. 1999. A common name for the Norfolk Island Pigeon. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 179--180. (46 Yeramba St., Turramurra, NSW 2074, Australia.)---Early visitors called the now extinct Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea a "Wood Quest".---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C708} Mielczarek, P., & W. Cichocki. 1999. [Polish names of the birds of the world.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 40, Special issue: 1--264. (Zaklad Zoopsychologii i Etologii Zwierzat, Instytut Nauk o Srodowisku Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Kraków, Poland)---List of Polish and scientific names for all species (sometimes also subspecies) and higher systematic categories of birds. (Polish)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{C708} Topercer, J. 1997 [Do we need a special category for the occurrence of non-breeding birds in the breeding season?] Tichodroma 10: 155--161. (Univerzita Komenského, Botanická záhrada, 038 15 Blatnica 315, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C900} Barrett, R. T., M. Asheim, & V. Bakken. 1997. Ecological relationships between two sympatric congeneric species, Common Murres and Thick-billed Murres, Uria aalge and U. lomiva, breeding in the Barents Sea. Can. J. Zool. 75: 618--631. (Zool. Dept. Tromsö Mus. Univ. of Tromsö, N-9037 Tromsö, Norway.) {ROL #81}

{C900} Koenig, W. D. 1998. Spatial autocorrelation in California land birds. Conserv. Biol. 12: 612--620. (Hastings Nat. Hist. Res., Univ. California, Berkeley, 38601 E. Carmel Valley Rd., Carmel Valley, CA 93924, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C900} Queral R., I., F. J. Sánchez A., & R. Prades B. 1993. [Ecology of Charadrius alexandrinus in a protected area of the littoral of Castellón {Spain}]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 221--229. (Apdo. 566, E-12080 Castellón de La Plana, España.) {ROL #81}

{C900} van Woudenberg, A. M., & D. A. Christie. 1997. Flammulated Owl (Otus flammeolus) population and habitat inventory at its northern range limit in the southern interior of British Columbia. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 466--476. (Cascadia Nat. Resour. Consult., 2675 Skeena Dr., Kamloops, BC V2E 2M9, Can.)---Includes recommendations for survey protocols.---J.M.S. {E506} {ROL #81}

{C902} Augspurger, T., & A. Boynton. 1998. Organochlorines and mercury in Peregrine Falcon eggs from western North Carolina. J. Raptor Res. 32: 251--254. (U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv., P. O. Box 33726, Raleigh, NC 27636-3726, USA.)---Falco peregrinus. {ROL #81}

{C902} Barrett, R. T., J. U. Skaare, & G. W. Gabrielsen. 1996. Recent changes in levels of persistent organochlorines and mercury in eggs of seabirds from the Barents Sea [Arctic Ocean]. Environ. Pollut. 92: 13--18. (Dept. Zool., Tromsö Mus., Univ. Tromsö, N-9037 Tromsö, Norway.)---Organochlorine concentrations declined significantly in 6 out of 10 species since 1983, but mercury levels changed little.---R.J.D. {ROL #81}

{C902} Blus, L. J., S. N. Wiemeyer, & C. M. Bunck. 1997. Clarification of effects of DDE on shell thickness, size, mass, and shape of avian eggs. Environ. Pollut. 95: 67--74. (Natl. Biol. Serv., For. Range. Ecosystem Sci. Ctr., Northwest Res. Stn., 3080 SE Clearwater Drive, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA.)---Refute the argument that eggshell thinning is a secondary effect resulting from the primary effect of DDE-induced changes in the size or shape of eggs.---R.J.D. {B710} {ROL #81}

{C902} Champoux, L. 1996. PCBs, dioxins and furans in Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), Common Merganser (Mergus merganser) and mink (Mustela vison), collected along the St. Maurice River near La Tuque, Quebec [Canada]. Environ. Pollut. 92: 147--153. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Environ. Can., C.P. 10100, Ste-Foy, PQ G1V 4H5, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C902} Court, G. S., et al. 1997. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of South Polar Skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) and Adelie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) from Ross Sea, Antarctica. Environ. Pollut. 97: 295--301. (Nat. Resour. Serv., Wildl. Manage. Div., 7th Floor, O.S. Longman Bldg., 6909 116th St., Edmonton, AB, Can. T6H 4P2.)---DDE and PCB concentrations in eggs discounted as the cause of high rates of egg infertility and embryo death.---R.J.D. {ROL #81}

{C902} Ferns, P. N., & J. I. Anderson. 1997. Lead in the diet and body tissues of dunlins, Calidris alpina, from the Bristol Channel, UK. Environ. Pollut. 96: 35--42. (Sch. Pure Appl. Biol., Univ. Wales, Cardiff, PO Box 915, Cardiff, CF1 3TL, UK.) {ROL #81}

{C902} Flint, P. L., M. R. Petersen, & J. B. Grand. 1997. Exposure of Spectacled Eiders and other diving ducks to lead in western Alaska. Can. J. Zool. 75: 439--443. (Natl. Biol. Serv., AK Sci. Ctr., 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA.)---Somateria spectabilis. {ROL #81}

{C902} Guruge, K. S., & S. Tanabe. 1997. Congener specific accumulation and toxic assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in Common Cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo, from Lake Biwa, Japan. Environ. Pollut. 96: 425--433. (Dept. Environ. Conserv., Ehime Univ., Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama 790, Japan.) {ROL #81}

{C902} Henny, C. J., et al. 1998. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury in hawk, falcon, eagle and owl eggs from the Lipetsk, Voronezh, Novgorod and Saratov regions, Russia, 1992--1993. J. Raptor Res. 32: 143--150. (USGS, For. Range. Ecosystem Sci. Ctr., 3080 SE Clearwater Drive, Corvallis OR 97333, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C902} Henriksen, E. O., G. W. Gabrielsen, & J. U. Skaare. 1996. Levels and congener pattern of polychlorinated biphenyls in kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), in relation to mobilization of body-lipids associated with reproduction. Environ. Pollut. 92: 27--37. (Norwegian Polar Inst., P.O. Box 399, N-9001 Tromsö, Norway.)---As fat deposits are metabolized in females during the breeding season, PCBs are mobilized and brain concentrations increase.---R.J.D. {E118} {ROL #81}

{C902} Johnston, G., A. Dawson, & C. H. Walker. 1996. Effects of prochloraz and malathion on the Red-legged Partridge: A semi-natural field study. Environ. Pollut. 91: 217--225. (Sch. Anim. Microb. Sci., AMS Building, Univ. Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 228, Reading, RG6 2AJ, UK.)---Alectoris rufa; no toxic synergism between the fungicide prochloraz and organophosphorous insecticide malathion, but synergism between prochloraz and other organophosphates could not be ruled out.---R.J.D. {ROL #81}

{C902} Keith, J. O., & R. L. Bruggers. 1998. Review of hazards to raptors from pest control in Sahelian Africa. J. Raptor Res. 32: 151--158. (USDA, APHIS, Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., 1201 Oakridge Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C902} Kim, E. -Y., et al. 1996. Metal accumulation in tissues of seabirds from Chaun, northeast Siberia, Russia. Environ. Pollut. 92: 247--252. (Dept. Environ. Conserv., Ehime Univ., Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama 790, Japan.)---Concentrations of iron, manganese, zinc, copper, cadmium, and mercury measured in 11 species.---R.J.D. {ROL #81}

{C902} Mateo, R., A. Martinez-Vilalta, & R. Guitart. 1997. Lead shot pellets in the Ebro Delta, Spain: densities in sediments and prevalence of exposure in waterfowl. Environ. Pollut. 96: 335--341. (Lab. Toxicol., Sch. Vet., Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.)---71% of Northern Pintail Anas acuta and 69% of Common Pochard Aythya ferina had ingested lead shot. Levels of exposure were higher than in other northern countries of the western Palearctic flyway, where lead shot has been banned.---R.J.D. {B508} {ROL #81}

{C902} McNichol, D. K., et al. 1997. Leeches as indicators of dietary mercury exposure in non-piscivorous waterfowl in central Ontario, Canada. Environ. Pollut. 95: 177--181. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Ontario Region, 49 Camelot Drive, Nepean, ON, K1A 0H3, Can.)---Unsuitable as biomonitors.---R.J.D. {ROL #81}

{C902} Miles, A. K., & M. W. Tome. 1997. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in metallic elements in industrialized aquatic bird habitats. Environ. Pollut. 95: 75--84. (California Sci. Ctr., Natl. Biol. Serv., Davis Field Stn., c/o WFCB, Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.)---Hazards of 20 metals to waterbirds in Baltimore Harbor, MD, USA assessed.---R.J.D. {ROL #81}

{C902} Mineau, P., et al. 1999. Poisoning of raptors with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides with emphasis on Canada, U.S. and U.K. J. Raptor Res. 33: 1--37. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C902} Scheuhammer, A. M., et al. 1997. Relationships between lake chemistry and calcium and trace metal concentrations of aquatic invertebrates eaten by breeding insectivorous waterfowl. Environ. Pollut. 96: 235--247. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., 100 Gamelin Blvd, Hull, Quebec, K1A 0H3, Can.)---In acidified waters, reduced availability of dietary calcium threatens breeding success more than exposure to toxic metals.---R.J.D. {C918, C924} {ROL #81}

{C904} Petty, S. J., & B. L. Fawkes. 1997. Clutch size variation in Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) from adjacent valley systems: Can this be used as a surrogate to investigate temporal and spatial variations in vole density? USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 315--324. (Woodland Ecol. Br., For. Comm. Res. Div., Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9SY, Scotland, UK.)---Yes. Owl clutch sizes varied with abundance of voles in March each year in that valley on Scottish-English border; the 2 valleys being separated by about 10 km.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C904} Rodriguez-Estrella, R., J. A. Donazar, & F. Hiraldo. 1998. Raptors as indicators of environmental change in the scrub habitat of Baja California Sur, Mexico. Conserv. Biol. 12: 921--925. (Ctr. Invest. Biol. Noroeste, Div. Biol. Terrestr, km 1 Carr. San Juan de la Costa, La Paz 23000 B.C.S., Mexico.) {ROL #81}

{C904} Román, J. 1995. Present status of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Castilla-León, Asturias, Cantabria and La Rioja [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 195--200. (Avda. Sanjurjo, 39, 10º C. E-09004, Burgos, España.) {ROL #81}

{C904} Sheffield, S. R. 1997. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 383--398. (Inst. Wildl. Environ. Toxicol., Dept. Environ. Toxicol., Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC 29670, USA.)---Review of the use of wild owls as biomonitors.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C906} Blanco, G., J. A. Cuevas, & J. A. Fargallo. 1993. [The effects of weather conditions on the dynamics of a Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) roost.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 241--247. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Alcalà de Henares, Alcalá de Henares, E-28871 Madrid, Spain) {B308} {ROL #81}

{C906} Boersma, P. D. 1998. Population trends of the Galápagos Penguin: Impacts of El Niño and La Niña. Condor 100: 245--253. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1800, USA; EM: of Spheniscus mendiculus dropped precipitously after 1982--83 El Niño and has since been recovering slowly. Body condition as evidenced by weight is enhanced during cold surface water conditions, deteriorates when surface waters are warmed. Long-term global warming is likely to threaten this small population.---S.N.L. {B904, Southern Oscillation, global climate change, population trends} {ROL #81}

{C906} Patten, M. A., & J. T. Rotenberry. 1999. The proximate effects of rainfall on clutch size of the California Gnatcatcher. Condor 101: 876--880. (Dept. Biol., Univ. California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; EM: Polioptila californica in arid regions, rainfall during egg formation was a better predictor of clutch size than seasonal rainfall; strong positive trend between clutch size and cumulative rainfall across 1 month prior to estimated month of clutch completion.---S.N.L. {B710, C918, isotonic regression, nutritional constraints} {ROL #81}

{C906} Salt, J. R. 1998. Some aspects of the biology of White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) in the Alberta Rockies. I. Micro-climate of White-tailed Ptarmigan breeding range. Alberta Nat. 28: 53--54. (464 Nelson St., Victoria, BC V9A 6P4, Can.)---Temperature records at ground level (bare soil, scree, and vegetation) and 1 m above ground during breeding season at two breeding sites in Alberta.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{C906} Sparks, T., & H. Crick. 1999. Opinion: The times they are a changing? Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 1--7. (Inst. Terrestrial Ecol., Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE17 2LS, UK; EM: phenology is vital in helping to predict the effects of climate change on wildlife. Aegithalos caudatus, Sylvia atricapilla.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{C906} Trnka, A. 1997 [Impact of long-lasting 1995-1996 winter on bird migration within the Trnava region {Slovakia}.] Tichodroma 10: 138--143. (Katedra biológie, Hornopotocná, 918 43 Trnava, Slovakia.)---Little effect on migration here. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{C906} Weston, M. A., & M. A. Elgar. 2000. The effect of a major rainfall event on Hooded Plovers on a salt-lake in Western Australia. Emu 100: 64--69. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.)---Foraging behaviour and success of Thinornis rubricollis altered as a result of heavy rainfall.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{C908} Anderson, J. T., & L. M. Smith. 1999. Carrying capacity and diel use of managed playa wetlands by nonbreeding waterbirds. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27:281--291. (Wildl. Fish. Resour. Prog., Div. Forestry, West Virginia Univ., P.O. Box 6125, Morgantown, WV 26506-6125, USA.)---Anas acuta, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos. {ROL #81}

{C908} Appleman., A. 1999. Mapping Bush Stone-Curlew habitat preferences around Townsville, North Queensland [Australia]. Stilt 35: 59. (James Cook Univ., Townsville, Qld. 4111, Australia; EM: grallarius. (Abstract only). {ROL #81}

{C908} Beck, M. J., & T. L. George. 2000. Song post and foraging site characteristics of breeding Varied Thrushes in Northwestern California. Condor 102: 93--103. (Ecol., Evol., & Cons. Biol., Dept. Biol./314, Univ. Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557, USA; EM: characteristics of song posts and foraging sites used by Ixoreus naevius on both a mesohabitat (0.04 ha plots) and microhabitat (0.5 m radius) scale. Males used song posts with low foliage density near the top of large conifers (micro) located on slopes surrounded by a high density of trees, in drainages closer to water (mesohabitat); ground foraging locations were correlated with foliage density of microhabitat.---S.N.L. {hierarchical habitat selection, redwood forests} {ROL #81}

{C908} Bellocq, M. I., et al. 1998. Habitat use of Crowned Eagles (Harpyhaliaetus coronatus) in the southern limits of the species’ range. J. Raptor Res. 32: 312--314. (Depto. Cienc. Biol., FCEN-Univ. Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. 2 Piso 4, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Benoit, L. K., & R. A. Askins. 1999. Impact of the spread of Phragmites on the distribution of birds in Connecticut tidal marshes. Wetlands 19: 194--208. (Dept. Environ. Prot., Off. Long Island Sound Prog., 79 Elm St., Hartford, CT 06106, USA.)---Fewer bird species, including species of concern, occurred in Phragmites australis dominated areas compared to short-grass marshes; Agelaius phoeniceus, Ammodramus spp., Anas spp., Branta canadensis, Butorides striatus, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, Carduelis tristis, Cistothorus palustris, Egretta thula, Empidonax traillii, Geothlypis trichas, Ixobrychus exilis, Melospiza georgiana, Pandion haliaetus, Progne subis, Rallus spp., Riparia riparia, Sterna spp., Tyrannus tyrannus.---W.P.J. {ROL #81}

{C908} Benzinger, J., & D. Miranda. 1999-2000. Breeding bird community of the Kittatinny Ridegtop [New Jersey]. Rec. N. J. Birds 25: 86--99. (783 Wilderness Rd., East Stroudsburg, PA 18301, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Boutin, C., K. E. Freemark, & D. A. Kirk. 1999. Spatial and temporal patterns of bird use of farmland in southern Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 430--460. (Natl. Wildl. Res Ctr., CWS, 100 Gmelin Blvd., Hull, PQ K1A 0H3, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Buchanan, J. T. 1997. A spatial analysis of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) population in Santa Clara County, California, using a geographic information system. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 90--96. (Johnson Controls World Srv., NASA Ames Res. Ctr.-MS242, Moffet Field, CA 94035-1000, USA.)---Habitats utilized by Athene cunicularia in heavily urbanized area.---J.M.S. {E508, GIS} {ROL #81}

{C908} Calvo M., J. M., S. J. Peris A., & J. A. Pascual. 1993. [The relation between avifauna and vegetation structure in Dak woods in west-central Iberia.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 351--364. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Salamanca, Salamanca, España.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Carbonell, R., & J. L. Tellerìa. 1998. Selection and habitat use by five Iberian Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) populations. Ardeola 45 (1): 1--10. (Depto. Biol. Anim. I (Vert.). Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense. E-28040 Madrid, Spain; {ROL #81}

{C908} Carrete, M., J. A. Sánchez Z, & J. F. Calvo. 2000. Breeding densities and habitat attributes of Golden Eagles in southeastern Spain. J. Raptor Res. 34: 48--52. (Depto. Ecol. Hidrol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Murcia, Campus Espinardo, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.)---Aquila chrysaetos. {C914} {ROL #81}

{C908} Chamberlain, D. E., & R. J. Fuller. 1999. Density-dependent habitat distribution in birds: issues of scale, habitat definition, and habitat availability. J. Avian Biol. 30: 427--436. (BTO, The Nunnery, Thetford, Norfolk, IP24 2PU, UK; EM: of relationships for 12 species in 13 farmland study areas.---R.T.B. {ROL #81}

{C908} Christie, D. A., & A. M. van Woudenberg. 1997. Modeling critical habitat for the Flammulated Owl (Otus flammeolus). USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 97--106. (Cascadia Nat. Resour. Consultants, 2675 Skeena Dr., Kamloops, BC V2E 2M9, Can.)---Pilot habitat prediction map prepared for south-central British Columbia; refinements to come from further study.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C908} Clergeau, P., et al. 1998. Bird abundance and diversity along an urban-rural gradient: A comparative study between two cities on different continents. Condor 100: 413--425. (INRA & UMR CNRS EcoBio, Lab. évol. Syst. nat. & modifiés, Ave. Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes cedex, France; EM: both Québec, Canada, and Rennes, France, avifaunal diversity increases from the most to the least urbanized areas in spring. Breeding densities of Passer domesticus and Sturnus vulgaris similar in both cities. Urban environment should be examined as a new ecological system rather than as a degraded environment.---S.N.L. {C922, avifauna structure, biodiversity, landscape ecology, urban ecosystem} {ROL #81}

{C908} Cresswell, W., et al. 1999. Densities and habitat preferences of Andean cloud-forest birds in pristine and degraded habitats in north-eastern Ecuador. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 129--145. (Proj. Guandera, Glasgow Univ. Expedition 1997, IBLS Graham Kerr Bldg., Univ. of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK; EM: over 10-week period at Guandera Biological Reserve, Carchi Province. Diversity and density of birds in even degraded forest patches suggest importance of this habitat for Andean birds.---K.J.E. {B910} {ROL #81}

{C908} Desrochers, A., & S. J. Hannon. 1997. Gap crossing decisions by forest songbirds during the post-fledging period. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1204--1210. (Centre de Recherche en Biologie Forestiere, Univ. Laval, Sainte-Foy, PQ, G1K 7P4, Can.)---Routes through forest patches preferred to open crossings, even if distance is greater.---G.C.L. {B300} {ROL #81}

{C908} Dorio, J. C. 1999. Forest management practices and use by breeding birds in selected pine stands in northeast Minnesota. Loon 71: 146--153. (663 W Placita Nueva, Green Valley, AZ 85614, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Duncan, J. R., & A. E. Kearns. 1997. Habitat associated with Barred Owl (Strix varia) locations in southeastern Manitoba: A review of a habitat model. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 138--147. (Box 253, Balmoral, MB R0C 0H0, Can.)---Validity check of a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C908} Finn, P., P. Driscoll, & C. Catterall. 1999. The low tide distribution of Eastern Curlew at feeding grounds in Moreton Bay [Queensland, Australia]. Stilt 35: 62. (Mailbox 117, Wildl. Ecol. Lab., Environ. Sci., Griffith Univ., Nathan, Qld. 4111, Australia; EM: of flat areas accounted for some variation in number of Numenius madagascariensis at individual sites. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C908} Fitch, H. S. 1999. A half century of change in a Kansan avian community. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 50(3): 33--36. (Fitch Natural History Res., 2060 E. 1600 Rd., Lawrence, KS 66044-9460, USA.)---Some early ecologic seres persisted, but general vegetational succession from shortgrass pastures and weedy fields in 1947 to woodland in 1997 had some effect on numbers of many species. Two new species appeared, 11 disappeared, and species diversity declined.---R.F.J. {B908, C922} {ROL #81}

{C908} Gilardi, J. D., & C. A. Munn. 1998. Patterns of activity, flocking, and habitat use in parrots of the Peruvian Amazon. Condor 100: 641--653. (Wildl. Preservation Trust Int., 2320 Amapola Dr., Davis, CA 95616, USA; EM: observation sites in trees in various habitat types to study 9 genera of forest-dwelling parrots. Birds were less social than parrots in more open habitats. Large and mid-sized species preferred high-ground forest, smaller species favored transitional forest.---S.N.L. {nonbreeding behavior, roosting sociality, survey methods} {ROL #81}

{C908} Gill, M., & R. J. Cannings. 1997. Habitat selection of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus brooksi) on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 197--204. (Cannings Holm Consulting, 1330 Debeck Rd., S. 11, C. 96, RR#1, Naramata, BC V0H 1N0, Can.)---Nest not yet known for this form. Several characteristics of occupied habitat described.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C908} Greenberg, R., P. Bichier, & J. Sterling. 1997. Bird populations in rustic and planted shade coffee plantations of Eastern Chiapas, México. Biotropica 29: 501--514. (Smithsonian Migratory Bird Ctr., Natl. Zool. Pk., Washington D.C. 20008, USA.)---Both types of habitat differ from other local habitat in supporting more seasonal bird populations.---G.Rom. {ROL #81}

{C908} Gutiérrez, R. J., et al. 1998. Characteristics of Spotted Owl habitat in landscapes disturbed by timber harvest in northwestern California. J. Raptor Res. 32: 104--110. (Dept. Wildl., Humboldt St. Univ., Arcata, CA 95521, USA.)---Strix occidentalis caurina. {ROL #81}

{C908} Hruz, V. 1996 [The seasonal dynamics of avian communities in selected forests around Silac spa resort {Slovakia}.] Tichodroma 9: 65--72. (Prachatická 35, 960 01 Zvolen, Slovakia.)---Comparison made using zonal and mapping methods. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {E506} {ROL #81}

{C908} Hunt, P. D. 1998. Evidence from a landscape population model of the importance of early successional habitat to the American redstart. Conserv. Biol. 12: 1377--1389. (P.O. Box 289, Enfield, NH 03748)---Setophaga ruticilla. {ROL #81}

{C908} Jenkins, A. J., & G. A. Benn. 1998. Home range size and habitat requirements of Peregrine Falcons on the Cape Peninsula, South Africa). J. Raptor Res. 32: 90--97. (Percy FitzPatrick Inst. African Ornithol., Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa.)---Falco peregrinus. {B316} {ROL #81}

{C908} Kattan, G. H., & W. Beltran. 1999. Altitudinal distribution, habitat use, and abundance of Grallaria antpittas in the Central Andes of Colombia. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 271--281. (Fundacion EcoAndina/Wildlife Conservation Society-Columbia Program, Apartado 25527, Cali, Columbia; EM: study of 5 species of this little known genera at Ucumari Regional Park of Otun River watershed.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{C908} Kirk, D. A., et al. 1997. Erratum: Breeding bird communities of western and northern Canadian boreal forest: relationship to forest type. Can. J. Zool. 75: 157--159. (Aquila Appl. Ecol., C.P. 47, Wakefield, PQ J0X 3G0, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Kirk, D. A., et al. 1996. Breeding bird communities of the western and northern Canadian boreal forest: relationship to forest type. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1749--1770. (Aquila Appl. Ecol., C.P. 47, Wakefield, QC J0X 3G0, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Kratter, A. W. 1997. Bamboo specialization by amazonian birds. Biotropica 29: 100--110. (Mus. Nat. Sci. & Dept. Zool. Physiol., 119 Foster Hall, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.)---Degree of restriction of 19 bird species to thickets of bamboo (Guadua weberbaueri) in lowland forests in southeastern Peru.---G.Rom. {D302} {ROL #81}

{C908} Lane, W. H., D. E. Andersen, & T. H. Nicholls. 1997. Habitat use and movements of breeding male Boreal Owls (Aegolius funereus) in northeast Minnesota as determined by radio telemetry. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 248--249. (195 Main St., Freeport, ME 04032, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Linkhart, B. D., & R. T. Reynolds. 1997. Territories of Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus): Is occupancy a measure of habitat quality? USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 250--254. (Rocky Mtn. For. & Range Exp. Stn., USDA Forest Serv., 240 Prospect St., Ft. Collins, CO 80526-2098, USA.)---Yes. Old growth forest held most consistent numbers of breeding pairs; unmated males found in less optimum habitats.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C908} Mañosa, S., J. Real, & J. Codina. 1998. Selection of settlement areas by juvenile Bonelli’s Eagle in Catalonia. J. Raptor Res. 32: 208--214. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal, 645, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.)---Hieraaetus fasciatus. {ROL #81}

{C908} Martìnez, J. A., G. Lûpez, et al. 1999. Breeding and hunting habitat of the Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus in La Mata-Torrevieja National Park [Alicante, Spain]: effects of habitat structure and prey density. Ardeola 46 (2): 205--212. (Depto. Ecol., Univ. Alicante., Ap. 99.03080, Alicante, Spain) {ROL #81}

{C908} Monkkonen, M., et al. 1997. Heterospecific attraction affects community structure and migrant abundances in northern breeding bird communities. Can. J. Zool. 75: 2077--2083. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Oulu, P.O. Box 333, FIN-90571 Oulu, Finland.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Morneau, F., et al. 1999. Breeding bird species richness associated with a powerline right-of-way in a northern mixed forest landscape. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 598--604. (TransEnergie, 800, boul. de Maisonneuve Est, Montreal, PQ H2L 4M8, Can.; EM: {C922} {ROL #81}

{C908} Múrias, T., et al. 1997. Low-water use of the Mondego estuary [Portugal] by waders (Charadrii). Ardeola 44 (1): 79--91. (Inst. Mar, I.M.A.R.-Coimbra, Depto. Zool., Univ. Coimbra, P-3049 Coimbra Codex, Portugal.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Naugle, D. E., K. F. Higgins, & S. M. Nusser. 1999. Effects of woody vegetation on prairie wetland birds. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 487--492. (Coll. Nat. Resour., Univ. Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA.)---Chlidonias niger, Phalaropus tricolor, Podiceps nigricollis, and Agelaius phoeniceus less likely to occur in wetlands surrounded by trees.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{C908} Onofre, N. 1995. An essay on the use of hunting habitats by the Montagu´s Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Castro Verde, Baixo Alentejo [Portugal]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 509--513. (Estaçao Florestal Nac. Posto Apícola. Tapada da Ajuda, P-1300 Lisboa, Portugal.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Paracuellos, M. 1997. Comparative analysis between the passerine communities of great reed beds (Arundo donax) and reed beds (Phragmites australis) in southeastern Iberia [Spain]. Ardeola 44 (1): 105--108. (Consejería Medio Ambiente, Junta Andalucía, C. R. Oliveros, E-04071 Almería, España.) {C922} {ROL #81}

{C908} Pavlík, S. 1996 [A comparison of bird habitat requirements of four woodpecker species in an oak forest.] Tichodroma 9: 87--95. (Katedra ochrany lesa a pol’ovníctva, Lesnícka fakulta TU, T.G. Masaryka 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia.)---The most important factors influencing Dendrocopos major, Dendrocopos minor, Dendrocopos medius and Dendrocopos leucotos are relief, tree species composition and percentage of dead trees. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{C908} Rabenold, K. N., et al. 1998. Response of avian communities to disturbance by an exotic insect in spruce-fir forests of the Southern Appalachians. Conserv. Biol. 12: 177--189. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Lilly Hall, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.)---Insect species Adelges piceae.---G.C.L. {ROL #81}

{C908} Rey, P. J., F. Valera, & A. M. Sánchez-Lafuente. 1997. Breeding bird communities and habitat structure in the lowlands and mountain system (Sierras Subbéticas) in southern Jaén [Spain]. Doñana Acta Vert. 24 (1-2): 115--142. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Vegetal Ecol., Univ. Jaén, E-23071 Jaén, Spain). {ROL #81}

{C908} Saniga, M. 1996 [Bird communities of the subalpine meadows in the Velka Fatra mountains {Slovakia}.] Tichodroma 9: 51--64. (SAZP-str. Námestovo, Bernolákova 408, 029 01 Námestovo, Slovakia.)---Three broad habitat types surveyed. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{C908} Shuford, W. D., G. W. Page, & J. E. Kjelmyr. 1998. Patterns and dynamics of shorebird use of California’s Central Valley. Condor 100: 227--244. (Point Reyes Bird Obs., 4990 Shoreline Hwy., Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA; EM: differ in their seasonal, geographic, and habitat use of the Central Valley, primarily in response to changes in water availability from rainfall or management practices. The shorebirds are threatened by poor or toxic water quality, changing agricultural practices, and habit loss.---S.N.L. {B908, B910, conservation, distribution, habitat use, Calidris alpina, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Charadrius vociferus, Pacific Flyway, ricelands, seasonal abundance, wetlands} {ROL #81}

{C908} Taylor, S., et al. 1999. The distribution and numbers of Hooded Plover at Wilson’s Promontory National Park [Victoria, Australia]. Stilt 35: 69. (Dept. Nat. Resour. Environ., 310 Commercial Rd., Yarram, Vic. 3971, Australia; EM: distribution of Thinornis rubricollis may be due to habitat differences or pressure from human disturbance. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {B908, C914} {ROL #81}

{C908} Urbanová, S & K L’udovít. 1997 [Bird communities in three types of rustic settlement in Slovakia.] Tichodroma 10: 110--126. (Katedra zoológie Prírodovedeckej fakulty, UniverZity Komenského, Mlynskádolina B-1, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C908} Valentine-Darby, P. L., R. E. Bennetts, & W. M. Kitchens. 1998. Seasonal patterns of habitat use by Snail Kites in Florida. J. Raptor Res. 32: 98--103. (St. Johns R. Water Manage. Dist., P.O. Box 1429, Palatka, FL 32178-1429, USA.)---Rostrhamus sociabilis. {ROL #81}

{C908} Valle, R., & F. Scartûn. 1999. Habitat selection and nesting association in four species of Charadriiformes in the Po Delta [Italy]. Ardeola 46 (1): 1--12. (Castello 618/E, 30122 Venezia, Italy; {ROL #81}

{C908} Ward, J. P. Jr., Gutiérrez, R. J., & B. R. Noon. 1998. Habitat selection by Northern Spotted Owls: The consequences of prey selection and distribution. Condor 100: 79--92. (USDA For. Serv., Rocky Mountain Res. Stn., c/o Lincoln Nat. For. Supervisor’s Off., 1101 New York Ave., Alamogordo, NM 88310, USA; EM: occidentalis caurina in northwestern California select dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes) over other prey and select late seral forest edge sites where this prey is most abundant.---S.N.L. {D306, energetic requirements, foraging habitat, reproductive success} {ROL #81}

{C908} Young, K. E., et al. 1998. Density and roost site characteristics of Spotted Owls in the Sierra Madre Occidental, Chihuahua, Mexico. Condor 100: 732--736. (Dept. Fish. & Wildl. Sci., New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA; EM: density of Strix occidentalis lucida in this region is approximately half that reported for Arizona and New Mexico. Owls primarily (70%) roost in medium-sized trees on steeper slopes, with more canopy layers and greater canopy closure and live tree basal area than random sites.---S.N.L. {B308, C914, habitat} {ROL #81}

{C909} Ganter, B., F. Cooke, & P. Mineau. 1996. Long-term vegetation changes in a Snow Goose nesting habitat. Can. J. Zool. 74: 965--969. (Inst. For. Nat. Res. (IBN-DLO), P.O. Box 23, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands.)---Chen caerulescens caerulescens. {ROL #81}

{C910} Bertram, D. F., et al. 2000. Survival rates of Cassin’s and Rhinoceros auklets at Triangle Island, British Columbia. Condor 102: 155--162. (Simon Fraser Univ., Dept. Biol. Sci., 8888 University Dr., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can., & Can. Wildl. Serv., Pacific Wildl. Res. Ctr., R.R. 1, 5421 Robertson Rd., Delta, BC V4K 3N2, Can.; EM: of local adult survival were lower for Ptychoramphus aleuticus (0.672) than Cerorhinca monocerata (0.829). Survival rate for Cassin’s Auklet may be less than that required for maintenance of a stable population.---S.N.L. {C914, demography, seabird conservation and management} {ROL #81}

{C910} Clayton, K. M., & J. K. Schmutz. 1997. Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) survival in prairie Canada. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 107--110. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W0, Can.)---For Athene cunicularia, most mortality occurs during post-fledging period; female survival is higher than that of males or juveniles; vehicular collisions important in some habitats.---J.M.S. {C912} {ROL #81}

{C910} Longcore, J. R., et al. 1996. Survival of breeding male American Woodcock in Maine. Can. J. Zool. 74: 2046--2054. (Natl. Biol. Serv., NE Res. Group, Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr., 5768 S. Annex A, Orono, ME 04469--5768, USA.)---Scolopax minor. {ROL #81}

{C910} Zelenak, J. R., J. J. Rotella, & A. R. Harmata. 1997. Survival of fledgling Ferruginous Hawks in northern Montana. Can. J. Zool. 75: 152--156. (JJR: Biol. Dept., MT State Univ., Bozeman, MT 59717, USA.)---Buteo regalis. {ROL #81}

{C912} Baudvin, H. 1997. Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) mortality along motorways in Bourgogne-Champagne [France]: Report and suggestions. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 58--61. (La Choue, Lignière, 21350 Beurizot, France.)---Systematic study along 259 km of highway Nov 1991--Dec 1995. Includes summary of all vertebrates found, incl. almost 4 dozen species of birds.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C912} Castaño L., J. P. 1995. Effect of the cereal harvest and causes of reproductive failure in a breeding population of Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus L.) in the SE of Ciudad Real [Spain]. Ardeola 42(2): 167--172. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., Depto. Ecol. & Evol., c/ José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid, España.) {B502} {ROL #81}

{C912} Duncan, J. R., & R. W. Nero. 1998. Juvenile Eastern Screech-owl dies eating a Red-breasted Nuthatch. Blue Jay 56: 209--212. (Box 24, 200 Saulteaux Cr., Winnipeg, MB R3J 3W3, Can.)---Otus asio with Sitta canadensis caught in its throat.---R.W.N. {D302} {ROL #81}

{C912} Hunter, D. B., C. Rohner, & D. C. Currie. 1997. Black-flies and Leucocytozoon spp. as causes of mortality in juvenile Great Horned Owls in the Yukon, Canada. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 243--245. (Dept. Pathobiol., Ontario Vet. Coll., Univ. Guelf, Guelf, ON N1G 2W1, Can.)---Black fly feeding and infection of juvenile Bubo virginianus caused significant mortality in 1989--90, although losses were mediated by low prey base of Lepus americanus.---J.M.S. {C104} {ROL #81}

{C912} Martínez R., E. 1993. [Study of the mortality of the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in the Madrid Community {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 39--43. (Corregidor Diego de Valderrabano, 14-2ºD, E-28030 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{C912} Nero, R. W. 1994. Short-tailed Shrew apparent cause of mortality of Eastern Screech-Owl. Blue Jay 52: 176--178. (Box 24, 1495 St. James St., Winnipeg, MB R3H 0W9, Can.)---Otus asio, Blarina brevicauda. {ROL #81}

{C912} Newton, I., I. Wyllie, & L. Dale. 1997. Mortality causes in British Barn Owls (Tyto alba), based on 1,101 carcasses examined during 1963--1996. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 299--307. (Inst. Terrestrial, Ecol., Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambs PE17 2LS, UK.)---Main causes were collisions with road traffic and starvation, but organochlorine pesticides accounted for 20% prior to 1970, decreasing afterwards until last report in 1976.---J.M.S. {B502, C902} {ROL #81}

{C912} Rohner, C., & D. B. Hunter. 1996. First-year survival of Great Horned Owls during a peak and decline of the snowshoe hare cycle. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1092--1097. (Mitrani Ctr. Desert Ecol., Ben-Gurion Univ. Negev, Sde Boker, 84990, Israel.)---Bubo virginianus young survival tracked patterns of Lepus americanus abundance although starvation was not a major cause of mortality.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{C912} Yanes, M., & F. Suárez. 1996. Nest mortality and population viability of larks. Ardeola 43 (1): 57--68. (Depto. Interuniv. Ecol., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Autónoma, E-28049 Madrid, España.) {C914} {ROL #81}

{C914} Agler, B. A., S. J. Kendall, & D. B. Irons. 1998. Abundance and distribution of Marbled and Kittlitz’s murrelets in southcentral and southeast Alaska. Condor 100: 254--265. (P.O. Box 210661, Auke Bay, AK 99821, USA.)---Survey of nearshore waters estimated summer population of Brachyramphus marmoratus and Brachyramphus brevirostris at 3 locations to be between 655,482 and 1,062,398. Lower winter estimates suggest movement away from inshore summer breeding localities. Figures are higher than earlier estimates; future surveys are needed to examine trends.---S.N.L. {population abundance} {ROL #81}

{C914} Avilès, J. M., & D. Parejo. 1999. Waders (Charadrii) in a reservoir in the centre of the Iberian peninsula throughout the year: inland wetlands vs. coastal wetlands. Misc. Zool. 22 (1): 1--10. (Grupo Invest. Conserv., Area Biol. Anim. y Celular, Univ. Extremadura, E-06071 Badajoz, Spain.) {C310, C922} {ROL #81}

{C914} Bancroft, G. T. 1989. Status and conservation of wading birds in the Everglades. Am. Birds 43: 1258--1265. (Field Research Dept., Natl. Audubon Soc., 115 Indian Mound Trail, Tavernier, FL 33070, USA.)---Nyctanassa violacea, Eudocimus albus, Plegadis falcinellus, Ajaia ajaja, Mycteria americana, Ardea herodias, Ardea alba, Egretta thula, Egretta caerulea. {ROL #81}

{C914} Belanger, R. A. 1994. Weyburn shorebird study: 1990--1992. Blue Jay 52: 36--42. (412 McGillivary Dr., Weyburn, SK S4H 1M1, Can.)---Counts at a sewage lagoon in Saskatchewan.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C914} Bergerandi, A., et al. 1995. Increase in the breeding population of the Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) in Navarra, northern Spain. Ardeola 42 (2): 201--203. (Sta. Cruz, 49, E-31180 Cizur Mayor, Navarra, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Berry, M. E., C. E. Bock, & S. L. Haire. 1998. Abundance of diurnal raptors on open space grasslands in an urbanized landscape. Condor 100: 601--608. (Dept. Environ., Popul., & Organismic Biol., Univ. Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0334, USA; EM: wintering species scarce on plots with significant urbanization (threshold, 5--7%): Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Buteo regalis, Buteo lagopus, Falco mexicanus. Buteo jamaicensis, Buteo swainsoni, and Falco sparverius were not sensitive to urbanization (up to 30%) in landscapes sampled.---S.N.L. {B908, conservation} {ROL #81}

{C914} Bravo, F., & S. J. Peris. 1998. [Demographic review of the Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa]. Ecología 12: 413--421. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain). {ROL #81}

{C914} Cade, T. J., & C. P. Woods. 1997. Changes in distribution and abundance of the Loggerhead Shrike. Conserv. Biol. 11: 21--31. (Peregrine Fund, Inc., 5666 W. Flying Hawk Ln., Boise, ID 83709, USA.)---Lanius ludovicianus. {ROL #81}

{C914} Cagnucci, G. 1998. Analysis of the breeding population of Monticola saxatilis in the Apennines of Central Italy. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 23 (1-2): 5--11. (Contrada Dignano 59 62038, Serravalle di Chienti, MC, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Corser, J. D., et al. 1999. Recovery of a cliff-nesting Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus, population in northern New York and New England, 1984--1996. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 472--480. (Twin Peaks Nat. Resour. Ctr., Great Smoky Mountains Natl. Pk., 1314 Cherokee Orchard Rd., Gatlinburg, TN 37738, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Crawford, D. N. 1999. Migratory waders in South-East Asia, Australia and New Zealand: reference data and the relative abundance of each species. Stilt 35: 2--9. (1/6 Marrawah St., Lyons, ACT 2606, Australia.)---Data from 37 districts used to estimate relative abundance of 52 species in the flyway. Calidris ruficollis and Limosa lapponica are the 2 most abundant species.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C914} Crawford, D. N. 1999. Queensland coastal migratory wader populations: an association index analysis. Stilt 35: 13--17. (1/6 Marrawah St., Lyons, ACT 2606, Australia.)---Two populations exist within a broader continuum, the northern one extending into NW Australia.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C914} Davidson, G. S. 1997. Aerial and ground surveys of Ospreys nesting on utility poles in the west Kootenay region of British Columbia in 1994. Brit. Columbia Birds 7: 8--10. (Box 294, Nakusp, BC V0G 1R0, Can.)---Details of nesting effort and success of Pandion haliaetus on artificial sites in 1994, with briefer summary of 1995--1997 nesting success.---M.K.M. {C918} {ROL #81}

{C914} De Juana, E., & X. Ferrer. 1996. The status of the Great White Heron, Egretta alba, in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands [Spain]. Ardeola 43 (2): 225--229. (Depto. Biol. Anim. 1., Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense. E-28040 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Deán, J. I. 1996. Spring census of Black Kite (Milvus migrans) in Navarra [Spain] by road transects. Ardeola 43 (2): 177--188. (Travesía de Bayona, 1, 6º, E-31011 Pamplona, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Diller, L. V., & D. M. Thome. 1999. Population density of Northern Spotted Owls in managed young-growth forests in coastal northern California. J. Raptor Res. 33: 275--286. (Simpson Timber Co., P. O. Box 68, Korbel, CA 95550, USA.)---Estimated baseline data for assessing long-term trends in Strix occidentalis caurina population dynamics within the study area.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C914} Douglas, H. D. III. 1998. Changes in the distribution and abundance of Waved Albatrosses at Isla Española, Galápagos Islands, Equador. Condor 100: 737--740. (1320 W. Market St., Apt. 3, Greensboro, NC 27403, USA; EM: census estimated Diomedea irrorata world population of at least 18,200 breeding pairs, a 52% increase over 1970--1971 estimate. Between 1971--1994, 2 small inland colonies disappeared, 2 coastal colonies increased, and one other large colony remained stable.---S.N.L. {nest site limitation, population ecology} {ROL #81}

{C914} Driscoll, D. E., et al. 1999. Status of nesting Bald Eagles in Arizona. J. Raptor Res. 33: 218--226. (Predatory Bird Res. Group, Long Mar. Lab., Univ. California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA.)---Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {ROL #81}

{C914} Driscoll, P. 1999. The plight of waders around the mouth of the Brisbane River [Australia]: how bright is their future? Stilt 35: 61--62. (Fahey Rd., Mt. Glorious, Qld. 4520, Australia; EM: species have shown statistically significant declines, others have increased, in a highly impacted environment. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C914} Dunn, E. H., & D. J. T. Hussell. 1995. Using migration counts to monitor landbird populations: Review and evaluation of current status. Curr. Ornithol. 12: 43--88. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., Hull, PQ K1A 0H3, Can.)---Methods of collecting and analyzing data, evaluation of validity of counts, pros and cons of use, and future of migration monitoring in North America.---S.N.L. {D900, E514} {ROL #81}

{C914} Edwards, P. J. 1999. Recent waterbird surveys in Cambodia. Forktail 15: 29--42. (Xenus Ecology, 1 The Court, Lanwades Business Pk., Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7PN, UK.)---Reports ground surveys during Jan 1996 by Wetlands International--Asia Pacific at 2 prospective Ramsar sites, 4 other coastal and 3 inland sites. Summary of total bird counts at 11 sites.---I.C.R. {C328} {ROL #81}

{C914} Elósegui, J., et al. 1995. Census of the Hen Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Navarra [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 213--240. (Gurelur-CIDN. Manuel de Falla,8. E-31005, Pamplona, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Estrada, J., et al. 1995. Characteristics of the Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus, population in Catalonia [Spain] during the breeding season. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 49--57. (P.N. del Delta de l'Ebre. Pl. 20 de Mayo, 2. E-43580 Deltebre, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Estrada, J., X. Riera, & A. Martínez-Vilalta. 1995. The wintering population of the Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus, in the Ebro Delta [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 49--57. (AM-V: P.N. del Delta de l'Ebre. Pl. 20 de Mayo, 2. E-43580 Deltebre, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Fawen, Q. 1999. Wader banding research in China. Stilt 34: 36--40. (Chinese Natl. Bird Banding Ctr., P.O. Box 1928, Beijing 100091, China.)---Tabulates numbers of birds banded and recovered from 13 stations. Research impeded by shortage of funds and trained staff.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C914} Fernandez-Jurici, E., et al. 1998. Current status of the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) in the southern border of its distribution range. Ardeola 45 (1): 77--82. (Depto. Biol. Anim. I., Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense de Madrid,. E-28040 Madrid, Spain; EM: {ROL #81}

{C914} Fernández-Juricic, E., & J. L. Tellerìa. 1999. Recruitment patterns of Blackbirds (Turdus merula) in urban fragmented populations. Ardeola 46 (1): 61--70. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense Madrid,. E-28040 Madrid, Spain; {ROL #81}

{C914} Ferrero, J. J., et al. 1991. [Studies on the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Extremadura {Spain} 1: Population census (1988).] Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 9--18. (ADENEX. Cuba, 10. E-06800. Mérida, España.) {B904} {ROL #81}

{C914} Ferrero, J. J., V. M. Pizarro, & J. A. Román. 1993. [Dynamics of the post-nuptial groups of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Extremadura {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 65--80. (Sec. Zool. ADENEX. Cuba, 10, E-06800 Mérida, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Frere, E., et al. 1999. Striated Caracara (Phalcoboenus australis) population at Staten and Año Nuevo Islands [Argentina]. J. Raptor Res. 33: 268--269. (Ctr. Invest. Puerto Deseado, Univ. Nac. Patagonia Austral, Alte. Brown y Colón s/n, (9050) Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz, Argentina.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Ganadeiro, J. P., et al. 1997. Beached bird surveys in Portugal (1990-1996). Ardeola 44 (1): 9--17. (C.E.M.P.A. Inst. Conserv. Nat., Rua Filipe Folque 46, 3º, P-1050 Lisboa, Portugal.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Gill, H. B., & D. N. Crawford. 1999. Wader censuses on the Cairns waterfront, Queensland [Australia] from 1964 to 1970. Stilt 35: 10--12. (7 Babinda Pl., Isabella plains, ACT 2905, Australia.)---Mean monthly counts of 22 species over 6 years.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C914} Goerck, J. M. 1997. Patterns of rarity in the birds of the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Conserv. Biol. 11: 112--118. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Nat. Bridge Rd., St. Louis, MO 63121, USA.)---To determine rarity, birds were grouped by geographic distribution, habitat specificity, and population size. By these parameters, 68% of all avian species were considered rare.---G.C.L. {B904} {ROL #81}

{C914} Grussu, M. 1996. Status, distribution and population of the breeding birds in Sardinia [Italy] up to the 1995. II and last part. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 5--16. (Via Cagliari, 2-09095 Mongoro, Oristano, Italy). {C310} {ROL #81}

{C914} Guix, J. C., et al. 1997. Census of three frugivorous birds (Penelope obscura, Pipile jacutinga, Baillonius bailloni) in an Atlantic rainforest area of southeastern Brazil. Ardeola 44 (2): 229--233. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal, 645, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Gutiérrez, R., & J. Figuerola. 1997. Estimating the size of Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) breeding populations. Ardeola 44 (2): 157--161. (Reserva Nat. Delta del Llobregat, Depto. Agric., Gran Vía de les Corts Catalanes, 612-614, 2n, E-08007 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Hamilton, W. J. III. 1998. Tricolored Blackbird itinerant breeding in California. Condor 100: 218--226. (Div. Environ. Stud., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616, USA; EM: Agelaius tricolor nest again in the same year at different localities. Local and regional declines in population that resemble population collapses are probably attributable to itinerant breeding.---S.N.L. {B702, abundance, distribution, migration, philopatry} {ROL #81}

{C914} Harris, K. A. 1999. Report on population monitoring counts, 1998. Stilt 34: 51--54. (59 Strickland Dr., Wheelers Hill, Vic. 3150, Australia.)---Tabulation of summer and winter surveys at 18 sites around Australia.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C914} Harris, W. C., & S. M. Lamont. 1994. 52nd annual Christmas bird count---1993 [Saskatchewan]. Blue Jay 52: 4--24. (Box 414, Raymore, SK S0A 3J0, Can.) {C318} {ROL #81}

{C914} Harris, W. C. 1998. 56th annual Saskatchewan Christmas bird count---1997. Blue Jay 56: 1--27. (350 Cheadle St. W., Swift Current, SK S9H 4G3, Can.)---Details for 103 counts in southern 2/3 of province; record number of 12 species, including first Otus kennicottii, Catharus guttatus and Vermivora celata.---R.W.N. {C318} {ROL #81}

{C914} Harris, W. C. 1999. 57th annual Saskatchewan Christmas Bird Count---1998. Blue Jay 57: 1--27. (Sask. Env. & Resource Mgt., 350 Cheadle St. W., Swift Current, SK S9H 4G3, Can.) {C318} {ROL #81}

{C914} Hatch, S. A., et al. 2000. Seasonal movements and pelagic habitat use of murres and puffins determined by satellite telemetry. Condor 102: 145--154. (U.S. Geol. Survey, Alaska Biol. Sci. Ctr., 1011 East Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: aalge, Uria lomvia and Fratercula cirrhata tracked from 4 colonies. Contrasting population trends explained by differences in foraging conditions during summer rather than differential mortality rates in winter.---S.N.L. {C908, D306, E524} {ROL #81}

{C914} Hjertaas, D. G. 1994. Summer and breeding records of the Whooping Crane in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 52: 99--115. (Sask. Environ. & Res. Manage., 3211 Albert St., Regina, SK S4S 5W6, Can.)---Comprehensive review and evaluation of Grus americana records from 1827 to present.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C914} Houston, C. S. 1997. Banding of Asio owls in south-central Saskatchewan. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 237--242. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Populations of Asio otus and Asio flammeus fluctuated with Microtus cycles over 50-year period.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C914} Houston, C. S. 1998. Swainson's Hawk productivity and five-young nests. Blue Jay 56: 151--155. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Between 1987 and 1996, Buteo swainsoni nesting pairs dropped by 50%.---R.W.N. {C918} {ROL #81}

{C914} Houston, C. S., W. C. Harris & A. Schmidt. 1998. Ferruginous Hawk banding in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 56: 92--94. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Results of banding 3601 nestling Buteo regalis.---R.W.N. {E526} {ROL #81}

{C914} Igl, L. D., D. H. Johnson, & H. A. Kantrud. 1999. Uncommon breeding birds in North Dakota: population estimates and frequencies of occurrence. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 646--651. (Northern Prairie Wildl. Res. Ctr., 8711 37th St. SE, Jamestown, ND 58401, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Jacobson, M. J., & J. I. Hodges. 1999. Population trend of adult Bald Eagles in southeast Alaska, 1967--1997. J. Raptor Res. 33: 295--298. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., 3000 Vintage Blvd., Suite 240, Juneau, AK 99801-7100, USA.)---Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {ROL #81}

{C914} James, P. C. 1994. Northen Hawk-Owl irruptions in Saskatchewan: 1990--91 and 1991--92. Blue Jay 52: 25--28. (Royal Sask. Museum, 2340 Albert St., Regina, SK S4P 3V7, Can.)---Surnia ulula. {ROL #81}

{C914} Jantscher, P. E., et al. 1999. Recent status and record high counts of the Ross's Goose in Minnesota. Loon 71: 223--228. (7533 15th Ave. S., Richfield, MN 55423, USA.)---Chen rossii. {ROL #81}

{C914} Jubete, F., F. Martínez, & A. Ortega. 1995. Winter census of the Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus, in the Iberian Peninsula. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 21--36. (Apdo. 621 E-3408, Palencia, Spain.)---1848 birds. More than 250 localities searched. Distribution map.---L.J.A. (C310} {ROL #81}

{C914} Koenen, M. T., S. G. Koenen, & N. Yanez. 2000. An evaluation of the Andean Condor population in northern Ecuador. J. Raptor Res. 34: 33--36. (Wings of the Americas-The Nature Conservancy, 4245 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 100, Arlington, VA 22203-1606, USA.)---Vultur gryphus. {ROL #81}

{C914} Kropil, R. 1996 [Results of 1995 bird census in Slovakia.] Tichodroma 9: 127--133. (Lesnícka fakulta TU, Masarykova 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {C310} {ROL #81}

{C914} Lane, W. H. 1999. Continued monitoring of Boreal Owls in northeastern Minnesota. Loon 71: 102--106. (456 Royal Rd., North Yarmouth, ME 04097, USA.)---Aegolius funereus. {ROL #81}

{C914} Lane, W. H., D. E. Andersen, & T. H. Nicholls. 1997. Distribution, abundance, and habitat use of territorial male Boreal Owls (Aegolius funereus) in northeast Minnesota. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 246--247. (195 Main St., Freeport, ME 04032, USA.) {C318, C908} {ROL #81}

{C914} Langley, W. 1999. Changes in wintering crow populations in Kansas. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 50(4): 35--38. (2524 Gentry Lane. El Dorado, KS 67042, USA.)---Numbers of Corvus brachyrhynchos increased, especially from 1975 to 1997, coincident with shift from rural to urban roosts.---R.F.J. {B308, C908} {ROL #81}

{C914} Lekuona, J. M., & F. Campos. 1997. Evolution of the wintering population of Grey Heron, Ardea cinerea, in Navarra [Spain] from 1991 to 1996. Ardeola 44 (1): 93--99. (Depto. Zool. & Ecol., Univ. Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Luterbach, B. 1999. Orchard Orioles increase within Tyvan area, Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 57: 150--151. (Box 36, Tyvan, SK S0G 4X0, Can.)---Icterus spurius. {ROL #81}

{C914} Lutz, R. S., & D. L. Plumpton. 1997. Metapopulation dynamics of a Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) population in Colorado. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 255--259. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol., 1630 Linden Dr., 226 Russell Labs., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1598, USA.)---Used capture-recapture models to estimate survival and recapture rates and Leslie matrix models to project population growth in Athene cunicularia.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C914} Mancuso, C. 1997. Results of censuses during winter '95-'96. on Laridae and Sternidae along the coasts of Gulf of Salerno [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 26--38. (Via Zoccoli, 9 Salerno, Italy) {C310} {ROL #81}

{C914} Marcos, J. M., T. Velasco, & L. J. Alberto. 1995. Population structure and phenology of waders at Chozas Lagoon, Leon province [Spain]. Misc. Zool. 18: 161--168. (Depto. Fisiol. & Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes 6, E-41071 Sevilla, España.) {D904} {ROL #81}

{C914} Marks, J. S. 1997. Is the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) nomadic? USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 260. (Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.)---Maybe, in some portions of its range. Need more studies of breeding populations.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C914} Milling, T. C., et al. 1997. Population densities of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) in degraded boreal forests of the southern Appalachians. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 272--285. (Dept. Biol., Appalachian State Univ., Boone, NC 28608, USA.)---Population beset with air pollution, exotic insect pest, and loss of habitat but appears to be stable at this time ca. 500 pairs.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C914} Mokwa, T., & A. Sikora. 1999. [Wintering of the Canada Goose Branta canadensis in the Zulawy Wislane region {Poland}.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 40: 51--60. (Stacja Ornitologiczna IE PAN, Nadwislanska 108, 80-680 Gdansk 40, Poland; EM: Poland, steady increase to 700 birds in 1995. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{C914} Nero, R. W., & H. W. R. Copland. 1997. Sex and age ratios of Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa), winter 1995/1996. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 587--590. (Wildl. Br., Box 24, 200 Saulteaux Cr., Winnipeg, MB R3J 3W3, Can.)---Large hatch in 1994 and subsequent food shortage in 1995 may have caused large numbers of 2-yr-olds to move across the continent.---J.M.S. {B714, C920} {ROL #81}

{C914} Northeimer, J. E. 1998. Winter Rough-legged Hawk observations from Tucker County, West Virginia, 1990--1998. Redstart 65: 80--81. (P.O. Box 686, Davis, WV 26260, USA.)---Migration dates and numbers of Buteo lagopus.---G.A.H. {D904} {ROL #81}

{C914} Olea, P. P., et al. 1997. Current situation of the breeding population of Rooks (Corvus frugilegus Linnaeus, 1758) in northwestern Spain. Ardeola 44 (1): 3--7. (C/ Renueva 16, 2ºB, E-24002 León, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Palacín M., C., J. Marchamalo de B., & M. A. Carro M. 1993. [Population and breeding variations of the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) in the Duratón river basin {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 99--103. (No address given.) {C310} {ROL #81}

{C914} Palacios, C.-J. 2000. Decline of the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands. J. Raptor Res. 34: 61. (Calle Valencia, 1.2º-J, 35600 Puerto del Rosario, Fuerteventura, Spain.)---Census results and probable factors causing low reproductive rates in this study population.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C914} Ralph, C. J., S. G. Fancy, & T. D. Male. 1998. Demography of an introduced Red-billed Leiothrix population in Hawaii. Condor 100: 468--473. (SGF: U.S. Geol. Survey, Biol. Resour. Div., Pacific Island Ecosystems Res. Ctr., P.O. Box 44, Hawaii Nat. Park, HI 96718, USA; EM: from 4 study sites indicate that Leiothrix lutea populations are stable, with relatively high recruitment and survival. Birds seem relatively tolerant of avian diseases. Large historic fluctuations in population are not well understood.---S.N.L. {alien species} {ROL #81}

{C914} Ribic, C. A., D. Curson, & K. Lewandowski. 1998. Baseline bird surveys of Waterfowl Production Areas in Polk and Dunn Counties, Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 60: 313--319. (USGS BRD Wisc. Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.) {B508} {ROL #81}

{C914} Riley, T. Z., & S. P. Riley. 1999. Temporal comparison of pheasant brood sizes in the Midwest [USA]. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 366--373. (Wildl. Manage. Inst., 1101 14th Street NW, Suite 801, Washington, DC 20005, USA.)---Phasianus colchicus. {B508} {ROL #81}

{C914} Rohner, C. 1997. Non-territorial floaters in Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus). USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 347--362. (Dept. Renew. Resour., Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 3H1, Can.)---Up to 50% of the population in southwestern Yukon may be unmated birds over 1 year of age; these birds are secretive and would be undetectable in standard surveys, as well as delay any observable declines in the breeding population for one or more years.---J.M.S. {C910} {ROL #81}

{C914} Saether, B.-E., et al. 1998. Environmental stochasticity and extinction risk in a population of a small songbird, the Great Tit. Am. Nat. 151: 441--450. (Dept. Zool., Norwegian Univ. Sci. Technol., N-7034 Trondheim, Norway; EM: using Parus major data from Wytham Wood, UK, showed long time to extirpation due to large population and assumptions of the model.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{C914} Sánchez, A., J. A. Alvarez, & J. M. Sánchez-Guzmán. 1991. [Census of wintering gulls (Larus spp.) and cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Extremadura {Spain} January, 1990.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 143--150. (Agencia Med. Amb. Junta, Extremadura, E-06871 Mérida, España.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Sánchez-Aguado, F. J., & E. Hernández. 1993. [Breeding population of the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) in Las Hoces del Río Duratón National Park {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 87--98. (Serv. Territorial de Medio Ambiente & ).T. Sta. Catalina, 15, E-40003 Segovia, .España.) {C310} {ROL #81}

{C914} Saurola, P. L. 1997. Monitoring Finnish owls 1982--1996: Methods and results. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 363--380. (Finnish Mus. Nat. Hist., Ringing Ctr., P.O. Box 17, FIN-00014 Univ. Helsinki, Finland.)---Results of extensive survey and banding program. Bubo bubo, Nyctea scandiaca, Strix aluco, Strix uralensis, Strix nebulosa, Surnia ulula, Glaucidium passerinum, Aegolius funereus, Asio otus, and Asio flammeus.---J.M.S. {E506} {ROL #81}

{C914} Seaman, D. E. 1997. Abundance and population characteristics of Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park, Washington. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 381. (USGS/BRD, For. & Rangeland Ecosystem Sci. Ctr., Olympic Field Stn., 600 E. Park Ave., Port Angeles, WA 98362, USA.)---Park population estimate for 1992--1996 was 230 pairs (Å71, 90% CI), most on east side of park.---J.M.S. {C918, D302} {ROL #81}

{C914} Severinghaus, L. L. 1997. Population dynamics of Lanyu Scops Owls (Otus elegans botelensis). USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 382. (Inst. Zool., Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.)---Monthly visits since 1986 to small Taiwanese island; population appears to be stable.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C914} Singor, M. J. C. 1999. Waders at Woodman Point, southern Western Australia. Stilt 34: 4--10. (149A Bishopsgate St., Carlisle, WA 6101, Australia.)---Individual accounts for 21 species compare count data with a survey 12 years earlier. Most species occur in similar numbers.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C914} Skeel, M. A., & D. C. Duncan. 1998. Population size and productivity of Piping Plovers at Lake Diefenbaker in relation to water level. Blue Jay 56: 137--146. (Saskatchewan Wetland Cons. Corp., 202-2050 Cornwall St., Regina, SK S4P 2K5, Can.)---Data from a 12-year study of Charadrius melodus indicate decreased reproductive success owing to changing water levels.---R.W.N. {B908, C918} {ROL #81}

{C914} Sladek, J. 1996 [Supplementary information on the history of raptor populations in Slovakia.] Tichodroma 9: 175--184. (Lesnícka fakulta TU, Masarykova 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia.) (Slovak, German summ.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Smith, J. L. 1998. Winter waterfowl on New River, West Virginia. Redstart 65: 138--141. (319 Fifth Ave., Montgomery, WV 25136, USA.)---Count data on 10 miles of stream for 20 years.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{C914} Sodhi, N. S. 1994. Relative abundance of birds during the breeding season in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 52: 169--173. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Starks, J. R. 1999. Winter surveys of the Orange-bellied Parrot Neophema chrysogaster in south-eastern Australia in 1996. Birds Aust. Rpt. Ser. 7: 12 pp. (Birds Aust., 415 Riversdale Rd., Hawthorn E., Vic. 3123, Australia.)---The annual national winter count recorded a total of 40 birds.---W.K.S. {B904} {ROL #81}

{C914} Steadman, D. W., & H. B. Freifeld. 1998. Distribution, relative abundance, and habitat relationships of landbirds in the Vava’u Group, Kingdom of Tonga. Condor 100: 609--628. (Florida Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Florida, P.O. Box 117800, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; EM: of 12 indigenous species on 16 islands. 7 species occurred on all 16 islands. Found 1 small population of Gallicolumba stairi. Found no Ptilinopus perousii, Vini australis, and Clytorhynchus vitiensis, which have probably been extirpated.---S.N.L. {B904, C324, endangered species, forest birds, island biogeography, deforestation, West Polynesian Ground-Dove, Many-colored Fruit-Dove, Blue-crowned Lorikeet, Fiji Shrikebill} {ROL #81}

{C914} Suydam, R., et al. 2000. Population declines of King and Common eiders of the Beaufort Sea. Condor 102: 219--222. (North Slope Borough Dept. Wildl. Man., Box 69, Barrow, AK 99723, USA; EM: spectabilis population appeared to remain stable between 1953--1976, but declined by 56% from 1976--1996. Somateria mollissima v-nigra population declined by 53% from 1976--1996. Reasons for declines unknown.---S.N.L. {B904, mortality, population trend} {ROL #81}

{C914} Swengel, A. B., & S. R. Swengel. 1997. Auditory surveys for Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) in southern Wisconsin 1986--1996. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 411--420. (909 Birch St., Baraboo, WI 53913, USA.)---4-yr cyclic variation in birds detected. Bubo virginianus, Otus asio, and Strix varia did not show similar cyclic variation.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C914} Sydeman, W. J., et al. 1998. Status and trends of the Ashy Storm-Petrel on southeast Farallon Island, California, based upon capture-recapture analysis. Condor 100: 438--447. (Point Reyes Bird Observatory, 4990 Shoreline Hwy., Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA.)---Data collected in 1971, 1972 and 1992 at prime breeding habitat showed a decline in numbers of breeding Oceanodroma homochroa of 44%.---S.N.L. {B904, conservation, population estimation} {ROL #81}

{C914} Takats, D. L., & G. L. Holroyd. 1997. Owl broadcast surveys in the Foothills Model Forest, Alberta, Canada. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 421--431. (Dept. Renewable Resour., 751 GSB, Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H1, Can.)---Study of the owls in this forest as well as the techniques used in this and other playback protocols. Bubo virginianus, Strix varia, Strix nebulosa, Aegolius acadicus, Aegolius funereus, Glaucidium gnoma.---J.M.S. {E506} {ROL #81}

{C914} Thrailkill, J. A., R. G. Anthony, & E. C. Meslow. 1997. An update of demographic estimates for Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) from Oregon's central Coast Ranges. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 432--448. (Oregon Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, 104 Nash Hall, Dept. Fish. Wildl., Oregon State Univ., Corvalis, OR 97331, USA.)---Judging from extensive bandings over 6 years, population continues to decline.---J.M.S. {C920, C912, B904} {ROL #81}

{C914} Topercer, J. 1997 [Annual cycle of dominance in birds in the valley environments of the western Carpathian high mountains {Slovakia}.] Tichodroma 10: 36--77. (Botanická záhrada University Komenského, 038 15 Blatnica 315, Slovakia.)---Dominant species are most abundant in late winter. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{C914} Trine, C. L. 1998. Wood thrush population sinks and implications for the scale of regional conservation strategies. Conserv. Biol. 12: 576--585. (Dept. Ecol., Ethol., & Evol., Univ. Illinois, 505 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA.)---Hylocichla mustelina. {B906} {ROL #81}

{C914} Vermundsen, T. 1999. Seasonal and diurnal variation in Pacific Parakeet Aratinga strenua flock sizes in Nicaragua. Ardeola 46 (1): 39--43. (Dept. Appl. Zool., P. O. Box 27. FIN-00014, Univ. Helsinki. Finland; EM: {ROL #81}

{C914} Walker, K., & G. Elliott. 1999. Population changes and biology of the Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans gibsoni at the Auckland Islands [Southern Ocean]. Emu 99: 239--247. (Dept. Conserv., Private Bag 5, Nelson, New Zealand.)---Provides first reliable estimate of this endemic subspecies’ breeding population, 5831 pairs, in addition to other breeding data.---W.K.S. {C918} {ROL #81}

{C914} Warnock, N., S. M. Haig, & L. W. Oring. 1998. Monitoring species richness and abundance of shorebirds in the western Great Basin. Condor 100: 589--600. (Point Reyes Bird Obs., 4990 Shoreline Hwy., Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA; EM: combination of ground and aerial surveys. Recorded 31 species; at 3 lakes, estimated >300,000 birds, 67% Recurvirostra americana and 30% Phalaropus spp. Surveys over multiple sites and years are required for accurate picture of diversity, abundance and trends in region.---S.N.L. {censussing, conservation, wetlands} {E506} {ROL #81}

{C914} Watkins, M. A., & D. W. Mulhern. 1999. Ten years of successful Bald Eagle nesting in Kansas. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 50(3): 29--33. (US Army Corps of Engineers, Attn: (CO-TR), 700 Federal Bldg., Kansas City, MO, 64106, USA.)---Since the first recorded instance of nesting by Haliaeetus leucocephalus in Kansas in 1989, 75 eagles have been fledged, 36% of them in 1997 and 1998.---R.F.J. {B716, B702} {ROL #81}

{C914} Wells, J. V., et al. 1996. Population cycles in the Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius). Can. J. Zool. 74: 2062--2069. (Bird Popul. Stud., Cornell Lab. Ornith., 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., Ithaca, NY 14850, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C914} Wilson, J. 1999. Wader population monitoring in Australia. Stilt 35: 70. (13/27 Giles St., Kingston, ACT 2604, Australia; EM: of monitoring studies and recommendations for a future integrated project. (Abstract only).---I.D.E.{E506} {ROL #81}

{C914} Wilson. J., & M. Barter. 1999. Wader counts on the north coast of the Yellow Sea . Stilt 35: 70. (13/27 Giles St., Kingston, ACT 2604, Australia; EM: region of China and North Korea is possibly one of the world’s top 10 wader sites, having 10 species of international conservation significance. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {B910} {ROL #81}

{C914} Yamamoto, H., & K. Oohata. 2000. [Movement to the feeding ground and seasonal change in the number of the Baikal Teal Anas formosa in Katano-Kamoike, Ishikawa Prefecture, central Japan.] Strix 18: 55--63. (Wild Bird Soc. Japan, Ne 2-1 katano-machi Kaga-shi, Ishikawa 922-0564, Japan.)---Light intensity when flying to the feeding ground was 0.9--1.0 lux. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {D306} {ROL #81}

{C916} Bayne, E. M., & K. A. Hobson. 1997. Comparing the effects of landscape fragmentation by forestry and agriculture on predation of artificial nests. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1418--1429. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Saskatchewan, 112 Sci. Pl., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Can.) {B908} {ROL #81}

{C916} Blight, L. K., J. L. Ryder, & D. F. Bertram. 1999. Predation on Rhinoceros Auklet eggs by a native population of Peromyscus. Condor 101: 871--876. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: by Keen’s mice (Peromyscus keeni) was the single greatest cause of egg loss for Cerorhinca monocerata in a 1998 study of a Triangle Is., British Columbia study. Mice commonly opened eggs of nearly twice their mass and depredated up to 34% of eggs. Rate of predation likely related to temporary egg neglect during parental foraging.---S.N.L. {egg neglect, Triangle Island} {ROL #81}

{C916} Boles, W. A. 1999. Avian prey of the Australian Ghost Bat Macroderma gigas (Microchiroptera: Megadermatidae): prey characteristics and damage from predation. Aust. Zool. 31: 82--91. (Div. Vert. Zool., Aust. Mus., 6 College St., Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.)---Identifies avian prey and makes several inferences about the bat’s methods of capture and processing.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{C916} Cote, I. M., & W. J. Sutherland. 1997. The effectiveness of removing predators to protect bird populations. Conserv. Biol. 11: 395--405. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.)---Removal enhances harvestable post-breeding populations but is less effective in maintaining or increasing breeding bird population.---G.C.L. {ROL #81}

{C916} De la Puente, J., & M. Yanes. 1995. Nest predation rates in above-ground nesting Iberian passerines. Ardeola 42 (2): 139--146. (Fermín Caballero, 50, 11º, E-28034 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{C916} Dumbacher, J. P., & S. Pruett-Jones. 1996. Avian chemical defense. Curr. Ornithol. 13: 137--174. (Dept. Ecol. & Evol., Univ. Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.)---Reviews evidence for chemical defense (toxicity and unpalatability) from ecological and evolutionary perspectives, sources of defensive chemicals and considers evidence of correlation with mimicry, aposematic coloration, and gregariousness.---S.N.L. {B308, E108} {ROL #81}

{C916} Fisher, D. 1998. Death of an Osprey. Blue Jay 56: 89--91. (72 Richmond Cr., Saskatoon, SK S7K 1A8, Can.)---Young Pandion haliaetus apparently killed by muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) it had attempted to kill.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C916} Gilchrist, H. G., & A. J. Gaston. 1997. Effects of murre nest site characteristics and wind conditions on predation by Glaucous Gulls. Can. J. Zool. 75: 518--524. (Can. Wildl. Serv., North. Conserv. Dist., P.O. Box 637, Yellowknife, NWT, X1A 2N5, Can.)---Larus hyperboreus are able to access more nests of Uria lomvia when winds exceed 15 km/h.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{C916} Hartley, M. J., & M. L. Hunter, Jr. 1998. Meta-analysis of forest cover, edge effects, and artificial nest predation rates. Conserv. Biol. 12: 465--469. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol., 5755 Nutting Hall, Univ. Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C916} Keyser, A. J., G. E. Hill, & E. C. Soehren. 1998. Effects of forest fragment size, nest density, and proximity to edge on the risk of predation to ground-nesting passerine birds. Conserv. Biol. 12: 986--994. (Dept. Genetics, Life Sci. Bldg., Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C916} King, D. I., R. M. Degraaf, & C. R. Griffin. 1998. Edge-related nest predation in clearcut and groupcut stands. Conserv. Biol. 12: 1412--1415. (Dept. For. Wildl., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C916} Koonz, W. H. 1998. Herring Gull harasses American Avocet. Blue Jay 56: 238--239. (Box 24, 200 Saulteaux Cr., Winnipeg, MB R3J 3W3, Can.)---Larus argentatus pursued an adult Recurvirostra americana along lakeshore and even inland for 15 minutes until out of sight.---R.W.N. {B302} {ROL #81}

{C916} Lima, S. L., & P. A. Bednekoff. 1999. Temporal variation in danger drives antipredator behavior: the predation risk allocation hypothesis. Am. Nat. 153: 649--659. (Dept. Life Sci., Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute, IN 47809, USA; EM: of risk variation suggests many studies overestimate intensity of anti-predator behavior.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{C916} McGrady, M. J., E. Potapov, & I. Utekhina. 1999. Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) feeds on Steller’s Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) nestling. J. Raptor Res. 33: 342--343. (Raptor Res. Ctr., Boise State Univ., Boise, ID 83725, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C916} Nero, R. W., & R. F. Nero. 1999. A short-tailed shrew--Common Grackle encounter. Blue Jay 57: 122. (546 Coventry Rd., Winnipeg, MB R3R 1B6, Can.)---Quiscalus quiscula attempted to prey on Blarina brevicauda.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{C916} Nero, R. W. 1994. Snowy Owl captures Rock Dove in mid-air. Blue Jay 52: 162--163. (Box 24, 1495 St. James St., Winnipeg, MB R3H 0W9, Can.)---Nyctea scandiaca, Columba livia. {ROL #81}

{C916} Rogers, K. G., & A. Rogers. 1999. Australian Ravens preying on Banded Stilt. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 128--130. (340 Ninks Rd., St. Andrews, Vic. 3761, Australia.)---Pair of Corvus coronatus forced a Cladorhynchus leucocephalus to the ground but observer intervention allowed prey to escape.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C916} Sarasola, J. H., R. A. Sosa, & J. J. Maceda. 2000. A case of nest predation on Turkey Vultures nesting in Argentina. J. Raptor Res. 34: 60. (Fac. Cienc. Exactas y Naturales, Univ. Nac. de La Pampa, Uruguay 151, (6300) Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina.)---Cathartes aura. {ROL #81}

{C916} Schmidt, K. A., & C. J. Whelan. 1998. Predator-mediated interactions between and within guilds of nesting songbirds: experimental and observational evidence. Am. Nat. 152: 393--402. (Inst. Ecosystem Stud., Box AB, Milbrook, NY 12545, USA; EM: patch-use models on results of nest predation by raccoons on natural and artificial nests; document apparent competition both within and among nesting guilds.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{C916} Walley, W. J. 1998. Snow Goose successfully counterattacks Bald Eagle. Blue Jay 56: 193--194. (222 Bossons Ave., Dauphin, MB R7N 0R2, Can.)---Chen caerulescens, Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {B302} {ROL #81}

{C918} Avilés, J. M., J. M. Sánchez, & A. Sánchez. 2000. Breeding biology of the Eurasian Kestrel in the steppes of southwestern Spain. J. Raptor Res. 34: 45--48. (Conserv. Res. Group, Dept. Zool., Univ. Extremadura, Badajoz E-06071, Spain.)---Productivity of Falco tinnunculus, with brief comments on habitat and phenology.---P.A.G. {B700} {ROL #81}

{C918} Barros C., & E. De Juana. 1997. Breeding success of the Stone Curlew, Burhinus oedicnemus, at La Serena (Badajoz, Spain). 1997. Ardeola 44 (2): 199--206. (C/ Atenea 2, Urbanización Pinar del Plantío, E-28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{C918} Bonabeau, E., J.-L. Deneubourg, & G. Theraulaz. 1998. Within-brood competition and the optimal partitioning of parental investment. Am. Nat. 152: 419--427. (Santa Fe Inst., Santa Fe, NM 87501, USA; EM: within-brood growth model argues that sibling competition provides proximate mechanism for parental brood adjustment.---J.R.F. {B718, B720} {ROL #81}

{C918} Botelho, E. S., & P. C. Arrowood. 1998. The effect of burrow site use on the reproductive success of a partially migratory population of Western Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia hypugaea). J. Raptor Res. 32: 233--240. (P. O Box 30001/Dept. 3AF, Dept. Biol., New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM 8800-0001, USA.)--Athene cunicularia. {ROL #81}

{C918} Cairns, D. K. 1992. Population regulation of seabird colonies. Curr. Ornithol. 9: 37--61. (Sci. Br., Dept. Fish. & Oceans, Moncton, NB E1C 9B6, Can.)---Reviews factors thought to influence populations, and seabird response to and demographic consequences of limiting factors. Discusses food-supply models.---S.N.L. {C914} {ROL #81}

{C918} Catry, P., et al. 1998. The incidence of nonbreeding by adult Great Skuas and Parasitic Jaegers from Foula, Shetland [U.K.]. Condor 100: 448--455. (R.A. Phillips: Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Durham, South Rd., Durham, DH1 3LE, UK; EM: contrast to studies showing seabirds have high levels of nonbreeding, 1989--1996 study found just 8.9% of experienced Catharacta skua and 5.5% of Stercorarius parasiticus deferred breeding.---S.N.L. {age effects, breeding frequency, environmental fluctuation, senescence} {ROL #81}

{C918} Deerenberg, C., & G. J. F. Overkamp. 1999. Hard work impinges on fitness: an experimental study with Zebra Finches. Anim. Behav. 58: 173--179. (Dept. Zool., Oklahoma State Univ., 430 LSW, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.)---High workload (number of hops to obtain food) delayed breeding in Taeniopygia guttata---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{C918} Forbes, S., & D. W. Mock. 2000. A tale of two strategies: Life-history aspects of family strife. Condor 102: 23--34. (DWM: Dept. Zool., Univ. Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, USA; EM: over the role of insurance, i.e., having a back-up chick in case of the early death of one offspring, is misdirected. In some taxa, insurance provides a totally sufficient explanation for over-production.---S.N.L. {brood reduction, siblicide} {ROL #81}

{C918} Gale, G. A., L. A. Hanners, & S. R. Patton. 1997. Reproductive success of Worm-eating Warblers in a forested landscape. Conserv. Biol. 11: 246--250. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., Box U-43, Univ. Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.)---Helmitheros vermivorus. {ROL #81}

{C918} Gende, S. M., M. F. Wilson, & M. Jacobsen. 1997. Reproductive success of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and its association with habitat or landscape features and weather in southeast Alaska. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1595--1604. (Pacific NW Res. Stn., For. Sci. Lab., 2770 Sherwood Lane, Suite 2A, Juneau, AK 99801, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C918} Janss, G. F. E., & I. Sánchez. 1997. Productivity of White Storks [Ciconia ciconia] at different nest sites. Ardeola 44 (1): 101--103. (Cons. Supr. Inv. Cient., Estación Biol. Doñana, Pabellón Perú., Avda. Mª Luisa, s/n, E-41013 Sevilla, España.) {ROL #81}

{C918} Marti, C. D. 1997. A 20-year study of Barn Owl (Tyto alba) reproduction in northern Utah. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 261. (Dept. Zool., Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT 84408-2505, USA; lifetime reproductive success and other measures of reproductive biology.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C918} Martin, T. E. 1992. Interaction of nest predation and food limitation in reproductive strategies. Curr. Ornithol. 9: 163--197. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., AR Coop. Fish and Wildl. Res. Unit, & Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.)---Develops a model to examine effects of time-allocation tradeoffs between nest-guarding and foraging as reproductive habits.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{C918} Menyushina, I. E. 1997. Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca) reproduction in relation to lemming population cycles on Wrangel Island. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 572--582. (Chukotka Div. Pacific. Inst. Geog., Far-East Branch Russian Acad. Sci., RF, Russia.)---Reproductive effort was positively correlated to lemming numbers. Polygamy noted in high lemming years.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C918} Miranda, H. C., Jr., et al. 2000. Summary of Philippine Eagle reproductive success, 1978--1998. J. Raptor Res. 34: 37--41. (Philippine Eagle Foundation, Garnet cor. Diamond Street, Marfori Heights, Davao City, 8000 Philippines; & Univ. Philippines-Mindanao, Ladislawa Ave., Buhangin, Davao City, 8000, Philippines.)---Insights into key reasons for the decline of Pithecophaga jefferyi, one of the rarest eagles in the world.---P.A.G. {B904} {ROL #81}

{C918} Osorno, J.-L. 1999. Offspring desertion in the Magnificent Frigatebird: are males facing a trade-off between current and future reproduction? J. Avian Biol. 30: 335--341. (Depto. Ecol. Evol., Inst. Ecol., UNAM. A.P. 70-275, México, D.F. 04510; México; EM: of parental attendance, male desertion and chick survival of Fregata magnificens on Mexican colony.---R.T.B. {B718} {ROL #81}

{C918} Palomino, J. J., M. Martín-Vivaldi, & M. Soler. 1999. Determinants of reproductive success in the Rufous Bush Robin (Cercotrichas galactotes). J. f. Ornithol. 140: 467--480. (Dept. de Biol. Anim. y Ecol., Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Granada, E-18001 Granada, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{C918} Purcell, K. L., & J. Verner. 1998. Density and reproductive success of California Towhees. Conserv. Biol. 12: 442--450. (Program Ecol., Evol., & Conserv. Biol., Univ. Nevada, 1000 Valley Rd., Reno, NV 89512, USA.)---Pipilo crissalis. {ROL #81}

{C918} Sandercock, B. K., D. B. Lank, & F. Cooke. 1999. Seasonal declines in the fecundity of arctic-breeding sandpipers: different tactics in two species with an invariant clutch size. J. Avian Biol. 30: 460--468. (Dept. Environ. Sci., Policy and Management, Univ. California, 151 Hilgard Hall, Berkeley CA 94720-3110, USA; EM: on 4-yr study of Calidris mauri and Calidris pusilla in Alaska.---R.T.B. {ROL #81}

{C918} Schjørring, S., J. Gregersen, & T. Bregnballe. 1999. Prospecting enhances breeding success of first-time breeders in the Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis. Anim. Behav. 57: 647--654. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. EM: {ROL #81}

{C918} Stout, W. E., R. K. Anderson, & J. M. Papp. 1998. Urban, suburban and rural Red-tailed Hawk nesting habitat and populations in southeast Wisconsin. J. Raptor Res. 32: 221--228. (W2364 Heather Street, Oconomowoc, WI 53066, USA.)---Buteo jamaicensis. {B716, C914} {ROL #81}

{C918} Suarez, A. V., K. S. Pfennig, & S. K. Robinson. 1997. Nesting success of a disturbance-dependent on different kinds of edges. Conserv. Biol. 11: 928--935. (Dept. Ecol., Ethol., & Evol., Univ. Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.)---Less brood parasitism, depredation, and larger clutch sizes found at gradual edge sites.---G.C.L. {ROL #81}

{C918} Woodard, J. D., & M. T. Murphy. 1999. Sex roles, parental experience and reproductive success of Eastern Kingbirds, Tyrannus tyrannus. Anim. Behav. 57: 105--115. (MTM: Dept. Biol., Hartwick Coll., Oneonta, NY 13820, USA. EM: {B718} {ROL #81}

{C918} Zelenak, J. R., & J. J. Rotella. 1997. Nest success and productivity of Ferruginous Hawks in northern Montana. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1035--1041. (Biol. Dept., MT State Univ., Bozeman, MT 59717, USA.)---Human-altered habitat with less than 20% cultivation benefitted breeding Buteo regalis.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{C920} Arsenault, D. P., A. Hodgson, & P. B. Stacey. 1997. Dispersal movements of juvenile Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in New Mexico. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 47--57. (Dept. Environ. Resour. Sci., Univ. Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557, USA.)---Radio-tracked 15 owls across variety of habitats.---J.M.S. {B312, C908} {ROL #81}

{C920} Belthoff, J. R., & A. M. Duffy, Jr. 1997. Corticosterone and dispersal in Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicottii). USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 62--67. (Dept. Biol., Boise State Univ., Boise, ID 83725, USA; EM: activity levels are reduced in captive owls at time of dispersal under the influence of a corticosterone-blocking drug.---J.M.S. {E108} {ROL #81}

{C920} Collins, P., R. Jessop, & C. D. T. Minton. 1999. The movements of Pied Oystercatchers from wintering sites in Victoria. Stilt 35: 60. (RMB 4009, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Assumptions that Haematopus longirostris and Haematopus fuliginosus are site faithful and do not undergo long distance travel proved incorrect. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C920} Collister, D. M. 1997. Seasonal distribution of the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) in southwestern Alberta. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 119--122. (URSUS Ecosystem Manage. Ltd., 3426 Lane Cr. SW, Calgary, AB T3E 5X2, Can.)---Diversity of available habitats appears to allow the owls in this region to remain and not force irruptive movement to more distant habitats.---J.M.S. {B316} {ROL #81}

{C920} Cooke, F., et al. 2000. Survival, emigration, and winter population structure of Harlequin Ducks. Condor 102: 137--144. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.; EM: Histrionicus histrionicus show stronger philopatry than males; paired adults, stronger philopatry than unpaired and young birds. Dispersal of young males makes local population differentiation unlikely. Survival similar for adults of both sexes in non-breeding season, higher for males in breeding summer.---S.N.L. {C910, dispersal, juveniles} {ROL #81}

{C920} Ellsworth, E., & J. R. Belthoff. 1997. Sex-biased dispersal of young Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicottii) in southwestern Idaho. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 155--159. (Dept. Biol. & Raptor Res. Ctr., Boise State Univ., Boise, ID 83725, USA; EM (JRB): average, females disperse farther than the less dominant males.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{C920} Ellsworth, E. A., & J. R. Belthoff. 1999. Effects of social status on the dispersal behaviour of juvenile Western Screech-owls. Anim. Behav. 57: 883--892. (JRB: Dept. Biol., Boise State Univ., Boise, Idaho 83725, USA. EM: dominant Otus kennicottii disperse first.---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{C920} González-Solís, J., H. Wendeln, & P.H. Becker. 1999. Within and between season nest-site and mate fidelity in Common Terns (Sterna hirundo). J. f. Ornithol. 140: 491--498. (Marine Life Sciences Division, British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madlingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, U.K.) {B312} {ROL #81}

{C920} Jenkins, M. J., R. E. Jackman, & W. G. Hunt. 1999. Survival and movements of immature Bald Eagles fledged in northern California. J. Raptor Res. 33: 81--86. (Tech. & Ecol. Serv., Pacific Gas and Electric Co., 3400 Crow Canyon Rd., San Ramon, CA 94583, USA.)---Site-fidelity, dispersal, and survivorship of 2 cohorts of Haliaeetus leucocephalus totaling 13 radio-tagged birds.---P.A.G. {C910} {ROL #81}

{C920} Lemon, R. E., S. Perreault, & G. A. Lozano. 1996. Breeding dispersions and site fidelity of American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla). Can. J. Zool. 74: 2238--2247. (Dept. Biol., McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ H3A 1B1, Can.) {ROL #81}

{C920} Lepage, D., G. Gauthier, & A. Reed. 1996. Breeding-site infidelity in Greater Snow Geese: a consequence of constraints on laying date? Can. J. Zool. 74: 1866--1875. (GG: Dept. Biol. & Ctr. d'Études Nordiques, Pavillon Vachon, Univ. Laval, Ste-Foy, QC G1K 7P4, Can.)---Chen caerulescens atlantica nesting in association with Nyctea scandiaca were more successful, probably because the owls deter arctic foxes, Alopex lagopus.---D.E.F. {B706} {ROL #81}

{C920} Lutz, R. S., & D. L. Plumpton. 1999. Philopatry and nest site reuse by Burrowing Owls: implications for productivity. J. Raptor Res. 33: 149--153. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol., 226 Russell Labs, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.)---Demographics of Athene cunicularia hypugaea in an annually migratory population.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C920} Marti, C. D. 1999. Natal and breeding dispersal in Barn Owls. J. Raptor Res. 33: 181--189. (Boise St. Univ., Raptor Res. Ctr., Boise, ID 83725, USA.)---Discusses a long-term study of Tyto alba dispersal in northern Utah from 1977--1996.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{C920} Reed, E. T., et al. 1998. Site fidelity of Black Brant wintering and spring staging in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Condor 100: 426--437. (Dépt. Biol. & Ctr. d’Études Nordiques, Univ. Laval, Ste-Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Can.; EM: knowledge of an area is an important determinant of site fidelity. Low levels of site fidelity are unlikely to lead to genetic sub-structuring of population.---S.N.L. {D502, mark-resight, survival} {ROL #81}

{C920} Stiles, D. J. 1998. Interprovincial recoveries of Mountain Bluebirds and Tree Swallows, and a California recovery of a Tree Swallow. Blue Jay 56: 156--159. (20 Lake Wapta Rise SE, Calgary, AB T2J 2M9, Can.)---Sialia currucoides, Tachycineta bicolor. {ROL #81}

{C920} Vega R., J. H., et al. 1998. Wood Thrush postfledging movements and habitat use in northern Virginia. Condor 100: 69--78. (Cons. & Res. Ctr., Nat. Zool. Pk., Smithsonian Inst., 1500 Remount Rd., Front Royal, VA 22630, USA; EM: 42 radio-tagged fledgling Hylocichla mustelina. Age at dispersal from natal sites averaged 32.5 days post hatching. First dispersal sites averaged 1.5 km from natal site. Post-fledging movements keyed by the availability of food resources and presence of conspecifics.---S.N.L. {E524, juvenile movements, radiotelemetry} {ROL #81}

{C920} Wahl, R. 1999. [The Osprey in central France: first observations in 1998 of locally colour-ringed birds.] Ornithos 6: 105--114. (M.F. des Six Routes, F-45530 Vitry-aux-Loges, France.)---Pandion haliaetus. (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{C920} Walls, S. S., et al. 1999. Is early dispersal enterprise or exile? Evidence from radio-tagged buzzards. J. Avian Biol. 30: 407--415. (Biotrack Ltd., 52 Furzebrook Rd., Wareham, Dorset, BH20 5AX, UK; EM: 5-yr study of 76 juvenile Buteo buteo revealed that smaller range size of distant dispersers, combined with evidence of increased productivity among them, suggests they were more likely to have been entrepreneurs than exiles.---R.T.B. {ROL #81}

{C920} Whitcomb, S. D., F. A. Servello, & A. F. O'connell, Jr. 1996. Patch occupancy and dispersal of Spruce Grouse on the edge of its range in Maine. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1951--1955. (FAS: Dept. Wildl. Ecol., Univ. Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA.)---Dispersal of juvenile Dendragapus canadensis canadensis measured using radio telemetry.---D.E.F. {E524} {ROL #81}

{C920} Willey, D. W., & C. van Riper III. 2000. First-year movements by juvenile Mexican Spotted Owls in the canyonlands of Utah. J. Raptor Res. 34: 1--7. (Dept. Biol. Wildl., Univ. Alaska Fairbanks, 211 Irving I, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA.)---Natal dispersal of Strix occidentalis lucida tracked using telemetry.---P.A.G. {D904} {ROL #81}

{C922} Barcák, C., & E. Kalivodová. 1997 [Birds of water reservoirs in the southern part of the Little Carpathians {Slovakia}.] Tichodroma 10: 103--109. (CHKO Malé, Štúrova 115, 900 01 Modra, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {C310} {ROL #81}

{C922} Brouse, P. 1999. Twenty year change in the raptor community in northern Utah during the nonbreeding season. J. Raptor Res. 33: 317--322. (Fish. & Wildl., BNR 206, Utah State Univ., Logan, UT 84322-5210, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C922} Feriancová-Masárová, Z., & Z. Országhová. 1996. [Bird communities of the Zilinia-Strecno {Slovakia} inundation area before the start of construction for a water dam.] Tichodroma 9: 31--39. (Zoologický ústav PriF UK, Mylnská dolina B-2, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C922} Feriancová-Masárová, Z. 1997 [Birds from the towns and villages of the southern part of the Male Karpaty mountains {Slovakia} in years 1963--1965 and 1995--1997] Tichodroma 10: 78--84. (Prírodovedecká fakultaUk, Mylnská dolina B-2, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia.)---Describes changes. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {C310} {ROL #81}

{C922} Greenberg, R., et al. 1997. Bird populations in shade and sun coffee plantations in Central Guatemala. Conserv. Biol. 11: 448--459. (Smithsonian Migratory Bird Ctr., Natl. Zool. Pk., Washington, DC 20008, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C922} Hanowski, J. M., G. J. Niemi, & D. C. Christian. 1997. Influence of within-plantation heterogeneity and surrounding landscape composition on avian communities in hybrid poplar plantations. Conserv. Biol. 11: 936--944. (Ctr. Water & Environ., Nat. Resour. Res. Inst., 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy., Duluth, MN 55811, USA.) {C908} {ROL #81}

{C922} Krištín, A. 1996. [Bird communities of the Ruziná dam {Slovakia} and foraging assemblages of birds in winter.] Tichodroma 9: 5--30. (Ústav Ekológie lesa SAV, Štúrova 2, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {C926} {ROL #81}

{C922} Mikusinski, G., & P. Angelstam. 1998. Economic geography, forest distribution, and woodpecker diversity in Central Europe. Conserv. Biol. 12: 200--208. (Grimso Wildl. Res. Stn., Dept. Conserv. Biol., For. Faculty, Swedish Univ. Agric. Sci., S-730 91 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.) {ROL #81}

{C922} Paracuellos, M. 1996. Seasonal variation in the passerine community in southeastern Iberian coastal reed-beds. Doñana Acta Vert. 23(1): 33--44. (Consejería Med. Amb., Junta Andalucía. Centro Res. Oliveros. E-04071 Almería, España.) {ROL #81}

{C922} Rosenstock, S. S. 1998. Influence of Gambel oak on breeding birds in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona. Condor 100: 485--492. (Arizona Game & Fish Dept., Res. Br.-WMRS, 2221 W. Greenway Rd., Phoenix, AZ 85023, USA; EM: of 16 stands found that mixed pine-oak stands had a higher overall bird diversity, more species of Neotropical migrants, ground nesters, primary cavity excavators, and secondary cavity users than ponderosa pine stands, although total bird abundance did not differ.---S.N.L. {C908, community structure, forest management} {ROL #81}

{C922} Stokland, J. N. 1997. Representativeness and efficiency of bird and insect conservation in Norwegian boreal forest reserves. Conserv. Biol. 11: 101--111. (Univ. Oslo, Dept. Biol., Div. Zool., P.O. Box 1050-Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.)---Biodiversity is positively correlated with timber production. Present reserve networks are skewed to low production sites.---G.C.L. {B910} {ROL #81}

{C924} Atienza, J. C., & J. C. Illera. 1995. Relation between space use by the Long-Tailed Tit (Aegithalos caudatus) and arthropod availability during the spring-summer period. Doñana Acta Vert. 22(1-2): 5--18. (Depto. Biol. Anim., 1. Pac. Biol., Univ. Complutense Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{C924} Camiña, C. A. 1993. [Food availability for the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) in La Rioja {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 81--85. (Cartagena, 136-1ºA, E-28002 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{C924} Duxbury, J. M., & G. L. Holroyd. 1997. You are what you eat: Stable isotope ecology of owl diets in Alberta, Canada. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 148--154. (Dept. Renewable Resour., 751 General Serv. Bldg., Univ. Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H1, Can.; EM: isotope ratio analysis used to analyze trophic levels of the diets of Strix varia, Surnia ulula, and Bubo virginianus.---J.M.S. {D302} {ROL #81}

{C924} Gould, P., P. Ostrom, & W. Walker. 1997. Trophic relationships of albatrosses associated with squid and large-mesh drift-net fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean. Can. J. Zool. 75: 549--562. (AK Sci. Ctr., Natl. Biol. Serv., 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA.)---Diet of Phoebastria immutabilis and Phoebastria nigripes.---D.E.F. {B502} {ROL #81}

{C924} Marquès, A. M., & L. Vicente. 1999. Seasonal variation of waterbird prey abundance in the Sado estuary [Portugal] rice fields. Ardeola 46 (2): 235--238. (Ctr. Biol. Ambiental/ Depto. Zool. Antroplo., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Lisboa, C2, P3, Campo Grande, P-1700 Lisboa, Portugal.) {D302} {ROL #81}

{C924} Piersma, T., G. Pearson, & M. Lavaleye. 1998. The teeming mud of Roebuck Bay [NW Australia]. Landscope 13 (4): 16--22. (CALM, Woodvale Res. Ctr., Ocean Reef Rd., Wanneroo, WA 6026, Australia.)---Describes benthic fauna available for migrant shorebirds.---I.C.R. {D902} {ROL #81}

{C924} Post, D. M., et al. 1998. The role of migratory waterfowl as nutrient vectors in a managed wetland. Conserv. Biol. 12: 910--920. (Sec. Ecol. Syst., Corson Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C924} Pravosudov, V. V., & T. C. Grubb, Jr. 1997. Energy management in passerine birds during the nonbreeding season: A review. Curr. Ornithol. 14: 189--234. (Behav. Ecol. Group, Dept. Zool., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210-1293, USA.)---Seasonal and daily regulation of fat reserves, fat reserves and starvation and predation risk, seasonal and daily regulation of food caching.---S.N.L. {E118} {ROL #81}

{C924} Taylor, I. R. 1999. The carrying capacity of wetlands for shorebirds: a case study of Black-winged Stilts Himantopus himantopus in saline lagoons. Stilt 35: 68--69. (Johnstone Ctr., Sch. Environ. Info. Sci., Charles Sturt Univ., P.O. Box 789, Albury, NSW 2640, Australia.)---Dependent on prey density and water depth. (Poster abstract).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{C924} Thompson, D. R., et al. 1999. Trophic relationships among six species of Icelandic seabirds as determined through stable isotope analysis. Condor 101: 898--903. (Nat. Inst. Water & Atmospheric Res. Ltd., 301 Evans Bay Parade, Greta Point, P.O. Box 14-901, Kilbirnie, Wellington, NZ; EM: multiple-source mixing model used to estimate contributions of different prey species to the diets of Uria aalge, Uria lomvia, Alca torda, Fratercula arctica, Rissa tridactyla and Fulmarus glacialis supported conventionally-collected dietary data, but tended to overestimate importance of relatively rare prey species.---S.N.L. {D302, dietary analysis, mixing model} {ROL #81}

{C926} Beck, C. W., & B. D. Watts. 1997. The effect of cover and food on space use by wintering Song Sparrows and Field Sparrows. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1636--1641. (Ctr. Conserv. Biol., Coll. William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185, USA.)---Melospiza melodia, Spizella pusilla. {ROL #81}

{C926} Bueno, J. M. 1998. Migration and wintering of small Turdinae in the Iberian Peninsula. V. Robin (Erithacus rubecula). Ardeola 45 (2): 193--200. (Depto. Biol. Anim. I (Zool.), Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.) {D900} {ROL #81}

{C926} Butler, R. W. 1999. Winter abundance and distribution of shorebirds and songbirds on farmlands on the Fraser River delta, British Columbia, 1989--1991. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 390--395. (Environ. Can., CWS, 5421 Robertson Rd., RR 1, Delta, BC V4K 3N2, Can.) {C318} {ROL #81}

{C926} Cresswell, W. 1999. Travel distance and mass gain in wintering Blackbirds. Anim. Behav. 58: 1109--1116. (EGI, Dept. Zool., S. Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3PS, UK. EM: merula. {E116} {ROL #81}

{C926} Garner, H. D., & J. C. Bednarz. 2000. Habitat use by Red-tailed Hawks wintering in the Delta region of Arkansas. J. Raptor Res. 34: 26--32. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Arkansas State Univ., State University, AR 72467, USA.)---Buteo jamaicensis. {ROL #81}

{C926} Gil, J. M. 1995. Notes on the wintering of the Hen Harrier, Circus cyaneus, in the province of Granada [Spain] Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 149--150. (Falco, Assoc. for the protection, study and activities in the Nat. Dr. Prados Picazo, 10-4º B. E-18230 Atarfe, Granada, España.) {ROL #81}

{C926} Gram, W. K. 1998. Winter participation by Neotropical migrants and resident birds in mixed-species flocks in northeastern Mexico. Condor 100: 44--53. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St. Louis, MO 63121, USA; EM: study of 4 habitats in El Cielo Biosphere Reserve found that 37% of all species in Reserve participated in mixed-species flocks, including 16 migrant species. Social role of species within flock may depend on habitat, resource availability, species density, and other species present.---S.N.L. {B314, non-breeding season, nuclear species, follower species, Regulus calendula, Polioptila caerulea, Baeolophus wollweberi, Parula superciliosa} {ROL #81}

{C926} Haney, J. C., D. S. Lee, & M. Walsh-McGehee. 1998. A quantitative analysis of winter distribution and habitats of Kirtland’s Warblers in the Bahamas. Condor 100: 201--217. (Wilderness Soc., Ecol. & Econ. Res. Dept., 900 17th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006, USA; EM: reports of 194 Dendroica kirtlandii individuals from the Bahama Archipelago, 1841--1997; no evidence to support claim of a preference for scrub habitat. Rather, quantitative evaluation found an association with pine-dominated habitat, and population decline during periods of disturbance of the Bahamian pine ecosystem .---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{C926} Igl, L. D., & B. M. Ballard. 1999. Habitat associations of migrating and overwintering grassland birds in southern Texas. Condor 101: 771--782. (North. Prairie Wildl. Res. Ctr., U.S. Geol. Survey, Biol. Resour. Div., 8711 37th St. SE, Jamestown, ND 58401, USA; EM: species of grassland birds observed over 2 winters occurred in a variety of habitats during the non-breeding season. Densities were highest in habitats with <30% of woody canopy coverage.---S.N.L. {B910, stopover} {ROL #81}

{C926} Kuban, V., B. Matousek & B. Trnkova. 1996 [Birds wintering at the Slnava water reservoir and within Piestany town surroundings {Slovakia}. Part 4.] Tichodroma 9: 134--174. (Veterná 3, 921 01 Piešt’any , Slovakia.) (Slovak, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C926} Lekuona, J. M., & F. Campos. 1998. Wintering distribution of day roosts, night roosts and feeding areas of Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in rivers from Navarra [Spain]. Misc. Zool. 21 (1): 61--74. (Depto. Zool. Ecol., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, Spain). {B308} {ROL #81}

{C926} Lorenzo, J. A. 1995. Habitat use of wintering waders in the coast of El Médano [Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain]. Misc. Zool. 18: 153--160. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, España.) {ROL #81}

{C926} Martìnez, J. E., & J. A. Sánchez-Zapata. 1999. Wintering of Booted Eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) and Short-Toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus) in Spain. Ardeola 46 (1): 93--96. (AS-Z: Depto. Ecol. Hidrol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Murcia. Campus Espinardo, E-30100 Murcia, Spain; {ROL #81}

{C926} Mason, C.F., & S. M. MacDonald. 1999. Winter bird numbers and land-use preferences in an arable landscape in eastern England. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 119--127. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK; EM: winter avifauna of intensively farmed land documented, land management recommendations to increase diversity and quality of habitat reviewed.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{C926} Northeimer, J. E. 1998. Black Vulture overwinters in Blackwater Canyon, West Virginia. Redstart 65: 136--137. (P.O. Box 686, Davis, WV 26260, USA.)---Up to 20 Coragyps atratus wintering at higher elevation and farther north than normal range.---G.A.H. {C318} {ROL #81}

{C926} Pravosudov, V. V., et al. 1999. Social dominance and energy reserves in wintering woodland birds. Condor 101: 880--884. (Sec. Neurobiol., Physiol. & Behav., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616, USA; EM: more predictable food supply available to social dominants of Poecile carolinensis, Baeolophus bicolor, and Sitta carolinensis enables them to maintain lower energetic reserves than subordinate conspecifics.---S.N.L. {E118, fatness, fat reserves} {ROL #81}

{C926} Rappole, J. H., D. I. King, & W. C. Barrow Jr. 1999. Winter ecology of the endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler. Condor 101: 762--770. (Smithsonian Conserv. & Res. Ctr., 1500 Remount Rd., Front Royal, VA 22630, USA; EM: chrysoparia studied over 3 winter seasons in Honduras, Guatemala and Mexico. Occurs mostly in mixed-species flocks favoring sites with more encino oak, ground cover and fewer pines than random sites. Forages commonly by gleaning and sally-hovering, particularly in outermost portions of mid-story encino oak. Appears tolerant of moderate levels of logging and grazing; understory clearing for cattle grazing may threaten winter habitat availability.---S.N.L. {B910 D306, foraging behavior, habitat-use, Neotropical migrant} {ROL #81}

{C926} Rufray, X. 1999. [The wintering of grebes in France (1993-1997).] Ornithos 6: 32--39. (GRIVE, Maison de l’Environnement, 16 rue Ferdinand Fabre, F-34090 Montpellier, France.)---Podiceps cristatus, Podiceps grisegena, Podiceps auritus, Podiceps nigricollis, Tachybaptus ruficollis. (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{C926} Shimada, T. 2000. [Movements of neck-collared White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons within their over-wintering grounds.] Strix 18: 105--109. (Miyagi Prefectural Izunuma-Uchinuma Environ. Found., 17-2, Shikimi, Wakayanagi, Miyagi 989-5504, Japan.) (Japanese, Engl. summ.) {ROL #81}

{C926} Skagen, S. K., et al. 1998. Comparative use of riparian corridors and oases by migrating birds in Southeast Arizona. Conserv. Biol. 12: 896--909. (USGS, BRD, Midcontinent Ecol. Sci. Ctr., Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA.) {ROL #81}

{C926} Smith, J. L. 1991. The Rough-legged Hawk in the lower Kanawha Valley [West Virginia, USA]. Redstart 58: 77--78. (Allegheny Vistas, Tornado, WV 2520, USA.)---More winter records of Buteo lagopus in recent years than in past.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{C926} Smith, N. 1997. Observations of wintering Snowy Owls (Nyctea scandiaca) at Logan Airport, East Boston, Massachusetts from 1981--1997. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 591--596. (Blue Hills Trailside Mus. & Chickatawbut Hill Educ. Ctr., Mass. Audubon Soc., 1904 Canton Ave., Milton, MA 02186, USA.)---25% were resighted outside immediate banding area. 10 of 226 banded birds returned in subsequent winters. Diet and other data presented.---J.M.S. {C920, D302} {ROL #81}

{C926} Svingen, P. H. 1999. Fall staging of the Bonaparte's Gull on Lakes Winnibigosh and Mille Lacs [Minnesota, USA]. Loon 71: 120--129. (2602 E. 4th St., Duluth, MN 55812--1533, USA.)---Larus philadelphia. {C914} {ROL #81}

{C926} Walk, J. W. 1998. Winter roost sites of Northern Harriers and Short-eared Owls on Illinois grasslands. J. Raptor Res. 32: 116--119. (Dept. Zool., E. Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL 61920, USA.)---Circus cyaneus and Asio flammeus. {ROL #81}

{D103} Bochenski, Z. 1998. [The nest building of Penduline Tits and its systematic implications.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 231--241. (Instytut Systematyki i Ewolucji Zwierzat PAN, Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków, Poland)---Remiz macronyx considered a valid species; genera Auriparus and Cephalopyrus to be excluded from Remizidae. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {B716} {ROL #81}

{D103} Farquhar, C. C. 1998. Buteo polyosoma and Buteo poecilochrous, the "Red-backed Buzzards" of South America, are conspecific. Condor 100: 27--43. (Endangered Resour. Br., Texas Pks. & Wildl. Dept., 3000 S-IH 35, Ste. 100, Austin, TX 78704, USA; EM:’s "wing formula" and wing length measurements as currently applied provide insufficient evidence to support separate species status; "poecilochrous" proposed as junior synonym of "polyosoma" for all forms under the English common name of "Variable Buzzard".---S.N.L. {D114, allometry, polymorphism, raptors, systematics, taxonomy} {ROL #81}

{D103} García-Moreno, J., P. Arctander, & J. Fjeldså. 1998. Pre-Pleistocene differentiation among chat-tyrants. Condor 100: 629--640. (Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, 1109 Geddes Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079, USA; EM: monophyly of all chat-tyrants, but suggests keeping Tumbezia as a separate genus, merging Silvicultrix with Ochthoeca, and elevating Ochthoeca frontalis and spodionota, and Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris and thoracica to species rank.---S.N.L. {Andes, biogeography, mtDNA, ND2, speciation} {ROL #81}

{D103} Massey, B. W. 1998. Species and subspecies limits in Least Terns. Condor 100: 180--182. (1825 Knoxville Ave., Long Beach, CA 90815, USA; EM: evidence supporting the separation of Sterna antillarum and Sterna albifrons. All populations of Least Terns on the west coast of the Americas should be considered one subspecies (browni).---S.N.L. {Mexico} {ROL #81}

{D103} Yésou, P., & A. M . Paterson. 1999. [Yelkouan and Balearic Shearwaters: one species or two?] Ornithos 6: 20--31. (O.N.C., 53 rue Russeil, F-44000 Nantes, France.)---Puffinus yelkouan, Puffinus mauretanicus. (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{D105} Haskell, D. G. 1999. The effect of predation on begging-call evolution in nestling wood warblers. Anim. Behav. 57: 893--901. (Dept. Biol., Univ. of the South, Sewanee, TN 37383, USA. EM: caerulescens, Dendroica pensylvanica, Dendroica petechia, Wilsonia citrina, Setophaga ruticilla, Seiurus aurocapillus, Seiurus motacilla, , Mniotilta varia, Helmitheros vermivorus, Vermivora pinus. {B320, C916} {ROL #81}

{D105} Kraaijeveld, K., & E. Nieboer. 1999. The influence of past climate changes on the evolution of Arctic breeding waders. Stilt 35: 63. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.)---Fragmentation of tundra by ice-sheets produced refugia which allowed subspecific differentiation. (Poster abstract).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D105} Le Corre, M. 2000. Taxonomic affinities of Audubon’s Shearwater from Europa Island. Condor 102: 187--190. (SEOR, Mus. Hist. Nat., Rue Poivre 97400 Saint Denis, Réunion Island; EM: newly discovered population of Puffinus lherminieri bailloni on an island in Mozambique Channel, distinct from 3 subspecies of the Comoro, Aldabra and Seychelles group. Biogeographic pattern for this and 2 other Europa Island pelagic species suggests a common cause related to geographic isolation and oceanic conditions.---S.N.L. {C304, D114, geographic variation, Indian Ocean} {ROL #81}

{D105} Moreno, K. J. 1996. [Evolution and avian reproduction.] La Garcilla 96: 10--17. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., C.S.I.C. José Gutiérrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid, España.) {B700} {ROL #81}

{D105} Peterson, A. T., Soberón, J., & Sánchez-Cordero, V. 1999. Conservation of ecological niches in evolutionary time. Science 285: 1265--1267. (Nat. Hist. Mus., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA; EM: isolation, not ecological changes, drove speciation of sister Mexican taxa.---M.J.J. {ROL #81}

{D105} Ricklefs, R. E. 2000. Density dependence, evolutionary optimization, and the diversification of avian life histories. Condor 102: 9--22. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Rd., St. Louis, MO 63121-4499, USA; EM: on evolutionary ecology thinking has tended to divorce life histories from their environmental context. The evolutionary ecology paradigm should be broadened to include a variety of alternative mechanisms for generating patterns of life-history variation.---S.N.L. {B102, age at maturity, clutch size, reproductive rate, survival} {ROL #81}

{D105} Winkler, D. W. 2000. The phylogenetic approach to avian life histories: An important complement to within-population studies. Condor 102: 52--59. (Dept. Ecol. & Evol. Biol., Corson Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853-2701, USA; EM: the phylogenetic approach to studying the evolution of avian life histories, and the ways that comparative methods can be applied to character evolution with examples of applications to life-history traits in swallows, and to dispersal as a life history trait.---S.N.L. {B102} {ROL #81}

{D106} Benkman, C. W. 1999. The selection mosaic and diversifying coevolution between crossbills and lodgepole pine. Am. Nat. 153: S75--S91. (Dept. Biol., New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA; EM: contorta may or may not co-evolve with Loxia curvirostra, depending upon presence of squirrels.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{D106} Bräger, S. 1998. Feeding associations between White-fronted Terns and Hector’s dolphins in New Zealand. Condor 100: 560--562. (Dept. Mar. Sci., Univ. Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, NZ; EM: striata were observed to join surface-feeding dolphins in the austral spring and early summer. Number of terns increased with dolphin group size and duration of association; likely constitutes facultative commensalism by terns.---S.N.L. {D306, seabird-cetacean interaction} {ROL #81}

{D106} Cipollini, M. L., & D. J. Levey. 1998. Secondary metabolites as traits of ripe fleshy fruits: a response to Eriksson and Ehrlen. Am. Nat. 152: 908--911. (Dept. Biol., 430 Berry College, Mount Berry, GA 30149-0430, USA; EM: to Am. Nat. 152: 905--907.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{D106} Eriksson, O., & J. Ehrlen. 1998. Secondary metabolites in fleshy fruits: are adaptive explanations needed? Am. Nat. 152: 905--907. (Dept. Bot., Stockholm Univ., S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; EM: Coincidence of fleshy fruits and secondary metabolites in tissues leads to metabolites in fruits.---J.R.F. {D302} {ROL #81}

{D106} Genov, P. V., P. Gigantesco, & G. Massei. 1998. Interactions between Black-billed Magpie and fallow deer. Condor 100: 177--179. (Bulgarian Acad. Sci., Inst. Zool., Boul. T. Osvoboditel 1, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria.)---Pica pica were observed pecking on fallow deer, apparently removing ectoparasites. Birds preferred sitting deer to standing deer, males to females or calves.---S.N.L. {bird-ungulate interactions} {ROL #81}

{D106} Hernández, A. 1994. Small mammals using abandoned bird nests as food stores and eating places. Doñana Acta Vert. 21 (2): 186--193. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. León, E-24071 León, España.) {ROL #81}

{D106} Hughes, J. M. 1997. Taxonomic significance of host-egg mimicry by facultative brood parasites in the avian genus Coccyzus (Cuculidae). Can. J. Zool. 75: 1380--1386. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G5, Can.) {B704, D108} {ROL #81}

{D106} McGrath, R. J., & D. Bass. 1999. Seed dispersal by Emus on the New South Wales northeast coast [Australia]. Emu 99: 248--252. (Sch. Resour. Sci. & Manage., Southern Cross Univ., Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia.)---Dromaius novaehollandiae, thanks to its ability to transport viable seeds from a wide variety of plants over considerable distances, may play a role in maintaining genetic diversity in fragmented remnant plant communities.---W.K.S. {D304} {ROL #81}

{D106} Penner, R., G. E. E. Moodie, & R. J. Staniforth. 1999. The dispersal of fruits and seeds of Poison-ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, by Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus, and squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus and Sciurus carolinensis. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 616--620. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2E9, Can.) {D106} {ROL #81}

{D106} Roitman, G. G., N. H. Montaldo, & D. Medan. 1997. Pollination biology of Myrrhinium atropurpureum (Myrtaceae): sweet, fleshy petals attract frugivorous birds. Biotropica 29: 162--168. (Lab. Botánica "L. R. Parodi", Fac. Agronomia, Univ. Buenos Aires, Av. San Martin 4453, RA-1417 Buenos Aires, Argentina.)---Poospiza lateralis, Saltator aurantiirostris, Turdus amaurochalinus, Turdus rufiventris, Zonotrichia capensis. {D306} {ROL #81}

{D106} Steinheimer, F. D. 1999. The Mountain Black-eye Chlorocharis emiliae (Zosteropidae) as a rhododendron flower visitor on Mt. Kinabulu, Sabah, Malaysia. Forktail 15: 100--101. (Nat. Hist. Mus., Akeman St., Tring, Herts HP13 6AP, UK.) {ROL #81}

{D106} Zhang, S., & L. Wang. 2000. Following of brown capuchin monkeys by White Hawks in French Guiana. Condor 102: 198--201. (Inst. Zool., Chinese Acad. Sci., Beijing 100080, China, & CNRS URA 1183, Lab. Ecol., 4 Ave. Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy, France; EM: albicollis may follow monkey troops in Amazonian forest primarily for capturing arboreal snakes disturbed by monkey movements.---S.N.L. {D306, rainforest} {ROL #81}

{D108} Fitzpatrick, B. M., & J. R. Dunk. 1999. Ecogeographic variation in morphology of Red-tailed Hawks in western North America. J. Raptor Res. 33: 305--312. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA 95521, USA.)---Buteo jamaicensis. {ROL #81}

{D108} Ward, D., & J. N. M. Smith. 1998. Morphological differentiation of Brown-headed Cowbirds in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. Condor 100: 1--7. (Mitrani Ctr. Desert Ecol., Jacob Blaustein Inst. Desert Res., Ben Gurion Univ., Sede Boqer 84990, Israel; EM: Valley Molothrus ater differ significantly in body measurements from both Molothrus ater artemisiae and Molothrus ater obscurus, suggesting that the Okanagan birds have been isolated there long enough for morphological differentiation to occur, and that cowbirds are not recent arrivals in western North America.---S.N.L. {B704, brood parasite, hybridization, morphology, population differentiation} {ROL #81}

{D108} Weller, A.-A., & K.-L. Schuchmann. 1999. Geographical variation in the southern distributional range of the Rufous-tailed Hummingbird, Amazilia tzacatl De la Llave, 1832: a new subspecies from Nariño, southwestern Colombia. J. f. Ornithol. 140: 457--466. (Res. Group "Biology and Phylogeny of Tropical Birds," Alexander Koenig Res. Inst. and Museum of Zool., Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, FRG.) {C330} {ROL #81}

{D110} King, B., et al. 1999. An undescribed Muscicapa flycatcher on Sulawesi, Indonesia. Forktail 15: 104. (Ornithol. Dept., AMNH, Central Pk. W. 79th. St., New York, NY 10024, USA.)---Seen on 3 occasions in Jul 1997 at 3 separate places; no formal description possible.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{D110} Kumar, R. S., & P. Singh. 1999. Discovery of a new monal from Arunachal Pradesh [India]. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 30: 35--38. (c/o Wildl. Inst. India, Post Box #18, Chandrabani, Dehradum 248001, Uttar Pradesh, India.)---A new Lophophorus pheasant, or monal that resembles Lophophorus sclateri except for a distinctly white tail, which separates it from Lophophorus impejanus and Lophophorus sclateri (photos). Taxonomic status uncertain pending further studies.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{D110} Preleuthner, M., & A. Gamauf. 1998. A possible new subspecies of the Philippine Hawk-Eagle (Spizaëtus philippensis) and its future prospects. J. Raptor Res. 32: 126--135. (Konrad Lorenz-Inst. Comp. Ethol., Austrian Acad. Sci., Savoyenstrasse 1a, A-1160 Vienna, Austria.) {ROL #81}

{D110} Rasmussen, P. 1998. Rediscovery of an Indian enigma: the Forest Owlet. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 50--52. (Div. Birds, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C. 20560, USA.)---In Nov 1997 a single Athene blewitti was intensively videotaped in low foothills forest at Shahada c. 80 miles N. of Dhulia.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{D110} Widodo, W., J. H. Cox, & P. C. Rasmussen. 1999. Rediscovery of Flores Scops Owl Otus alfredi on Flores, Indonesia, and re-affirmation of its specific status. Forktail 15: 14--23. (Div. Birds, Mus. Zool. Bogoriense, Jalan Raya Jakarta-Bogor KM46, Cibinong 16911, W. Java, Indonesia.)---Rediscovery near type locality after nearly 100 years; photographs of juvenile and adult.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{D114} Bernis, F., et al. 1998. [Spanish names for the birds of the world recommended by the Spanish Ornithological Society: fourth set: Pterocliformes, Columbiformes, Psittaciformes and Cuculiformes]. Ardeola 45 (1):87--96. (EdJ: Fac. Biol., Planta 9, Univ. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D114} Rasmussen, P. C., & N. J. Collar. 1999. Little known Oriental non-bird: Intermediate Parakeet Psittacula intermedia. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 29: 36--41. (Div. Birds, Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C. 20560, USA.)---A long investigation into Rothschild's Intermediate Parakeet, a species that had been based on a single, data-less specimen. 2 recent hybridisations from Psittacula cyanocephala and Psittacula himalayana produced "Psittacula intermedia". Well illustrated and researched.---I.C.R. {D508} {ROL #81}

{D114} Rozendaal, F. G., & F. R. Lambert. 1999. The taxonomic and conservation status of Pinarolestes sanghirensis Oustalet 1881. Forktail 15: 1--13. (Akker 113, 3732 XC De Bilt, Netherlands.)---Rediscovery and identification of an endemic species on Sangihe Island off N. Sulawesi, Indonesia. Taxonomic status confirmed as Colluricincla sanghirensis. Critically endangered in one small patch of forest.---I.C.R.{B904} {ROL #81}

{D302} Alivizatos, H., & V. Goutner. 1999. Winter diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) and Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) in northeastern Greece: a comparison. J. Raptor Res. 33: 160--163. (1 Zaliki 4, GR-11524 Athens, Greece.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Anada, S., & I. Tanada. 2000. [Japanese Grosbeaks and a Hawfinch feed on wasp in hard gall on bamboo.] Strix 18: 111--114. (Murana Inst. Wildl., Yokata Nishi-iwase 2639, Toyama-shi, Toyama 930-2241, Japan.)---Eophona personata and Coccothraustes coccothraustes observed feeding on the larvae and pupae of the wasp Aiolomorphous rhopaloides, which forms galls on bamboo. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{D302} Arcas, J. 1998. Diet of Red-backed Shrikes (Lanius collurio L.) in Orense [Spain]. Ardeola 45 (1): 69--71. (Lab. Anat. Anim., Fac. Cienc. Univ. Vigo., Apdo.874, E-36200 Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Avilés, J. M., & D. Parejo. 1997. Diet of Roller (Coracias garrulus) nestlings in a Mediterranean area (Extremadura, SW Spain). Ardeola 44 (2): 235--237. (Grupo Inv. Conserv., Area Biol. Anim., Univ. Extremadura. Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Baker, A. J., et al. 1999. Observation of a Double-toothed Kite (Harpagus bidentatus) hawking bats. J. Raptor Res. 33: 343--344. (The Peregrine Fund, 566 W. Flying Hawk Lane, Boise, ID 83709, USA.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Bertellotti, M. & P. Yorio. 1999. Spatial and temporal patterns in the diet of the Kelp Gull in Patagonia. Condor 101: 790--798. (Ctr. Nac. Patagónico (CONICET), Blvd. Brown s/n, (9120) Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina & Univ. Nac. Patagonia, Blvd. Brown 3700, (9120) Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina; EM: dominicanus diet composition and variation studied throughout 2 breeding cycles at three Provincial Wildlife Reserves. Gulls ate 41 types of prey, mostly intertidal invertebrates. 70.7% of prey types common to all 3 locations. At 2 locations, diet changed to mainly fish during chick stage.---S.N.L. {B718, feeding ecology} {ROL #81}

{D302} Bevis, K. R., et al. 1997. Food habits of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) at six nest sites in Washington's East Cascades. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 68--73. (Yakama Indian Nation, Wildl. Resour. Manage., P.O. Box 151, Toppenish, WA 98948, USA.)---Flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) most important food item.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{D302} Blanco, G., F. Gómez, & J. Morato. 1995. Diet composition and prey size of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in rivers and gravel pits of Central Spain. Ardeola 42 (2): 125--131. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Alcalá de Henares, E-28871 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Blem, C. R., et al. 2000. Rufous Hummingbird sucrose preference: Precision of selection varies with concentration. Condor 102: 235--238. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Dept. Biol., Academic Div., Richmond, VA 23284-2012, USA; EM: offered sucrose solutions varying in concentration by 10% increments, Selasphorus rufus preferred 50% concentrations. At concentrations approximating those of hummingbird-pollinated flowers, birds could distinguish solutions differing by only 1%.---S.N.L. {B310} {ROL #81}

{D302} Cepeda, S. S., C. S. Cabrero, & W. Ibarra. 1991. [Seasonal variation of the Tawny Owl's (Strix aluco) diet in an El Valle Del Jerte oakwood {Cáceres, Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 73--86. (Carretera 40. E-10621 Jerte, Cáceres, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Collins, P. W., N. F. R. Snyder, & S. D. Emslie. 2000. Faunal remains in California Condor nest caves. Condor 102: 222--227. (Santa Barbara Mus. Nat. Hist., 2559 Puestra del Sol, Santa Barbara, CA 93105, USA; of Gymnogyps californianus prey include bones and hair of small, medium and large mammals, almost no birds or reptiles; also, metal, plastic and glass artifacts, likely mistaken for bone materials by the condors. Remains suggest condors had no severe problem with calcium supply.---S.N.L. {calcium supplies, carrion preferences} {ROL #81}

{D302} Cooper, J. M. 1996. Merlin (Falco columbarius) preys on flying dragonflies. Brit. Columbia Birds 6: 15--16. (Sirius Environ. Res., 1278 Laurel Rd., R.R. 3, Sidney, BC V8L 5K8, Can.)---Juvenile migrant switched to chasing dragonflies after unsuccessful chase of bird; includes review of literature on Merlins hunting and eating dragonflies, and their possible importance in learning to hunt.---M.K.M. {D306} {ROL #81}

{D302} Corbacho, C., A. Muñoz, & P. Bartolomé. 1995. Trophic range of the Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus, in Extremadura [Spain]. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 441--448. (Area Biol. Anim. Univ. Extremadura. Avda de Elvas s/n. E-06071, Badajoz, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Dann, P. 1999. Feeding ecology of Eastern Curlew in Western Port Bay, Victoria . Stilt 35: 60--61. (Phillip Island Nat. Pk., P.O. Box 97, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Territorial feeding behaviour of Numenius madagascariensis related to habitat use and sex. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D302} Díaz, I. 1999. Food habits of the Rufous-legged Owl (Strix rufipes) in the Mediterranean sclerophyllous forest of central Chile. J. Raptor Res. 33: 260--264. (Lab. Sistemática Ecol. Vegetal, Fac. Cienc., Univ. Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Didyk, A. S., & M. D. B. Burt. 1999. Frogs consumed by Whimbrels, Numenius phaeopus, on breeding grounds at Churchill, Manitoba. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 663--664. (Biol. Dept., Bag Serv. #45111, Stn. A, Univ. New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 6E1, Can.; EM: {ROL #81}

{D302} Favero, M., et al. 1998. The diet of the Antarctic Shag during summer at Nelson Island, Antarctica. Condor 100: 112--118. (Univ. Nat. Mar del Plata, Fac. Cienc. Exactas Nat., Dept. Biol., Funes, 3250, (7600) Mar del Plata, Argentina; EM: of 139 stomach contents of Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis showed fish were the main diet component, followed by octopods, gammarids, euphausiids and polychaetes. Males caught larger fish than females. Females mainly foraged in the morning; males, in the evening.---S.N.L. {prey temporal variation, sexual variation in foraging, daily food intake} {ROL #81}

{D302} Fernández-Llario, P., & S. J. Hidalgo de T. 1995. The relative importance of prey with physical defects in the diet of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). Ardeola 42 (2): 205--207. (Cát. Biol. & Etol., Fac. Vet., Univ. Extremadura, E-10071 Cáceres, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Figueroa R., R. A., & E. S. Corales S. 1999. Food habits of the Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) in the Araucanía, southern Chile. J. Raptor Res. 33: 264--267. (Lab. Ecol., Depto. Cienc. Básicas, Univ. de los Lagos, Casilla 933, Osorno, Chile.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Gil S., J. M. 1998. Prey selection by Bonelli's Eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) during the breeding season in Granada [Spain]. Ardeola 45 (2): 151--160. (c/Dr. Prados Picazo, 10 4.-B. E-18230 Atarfe, Granada, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Gil S., J. Mª. 1995. Diet and prey selection by Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in Cubillas reservoir [Spain]. Ardeola 42 (2): 133--138. (Dr. Prados Picazo, 10. E-18230 Atarfe, Granada, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Giroux, J. F., & R. Bergeron. 1996. Spring diets of sympatric Greater Snow Geese and Canada Geese in southern Quebec. Can. J. Zool. 74: 950--953. (Dept. Sci. Biol., Univ. Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Can.)—Chen caerulescens atlantica, Branta canadensis. {ROL #81}

{D302} Gosper, C. R. 1999. Plant food resources of birds in coastal dune communities in New South Wales [Australia]. Corella 23: 53--62. (Aust. Flora Fauna Ctr., Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Wollongong, Northfields Ave., Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.)---Tabulates usage of nectar, flower parts, leaves, exudates, seeds, elaiosomes and fruits for 53 species and gives specific notes on interesting or unusual food types or foraging behaviour.---I.D.E. {D306} {ROL #81}

{D302} Grubb, T. C., Jr., G. E. Woolfenden, & J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1998. Factors affecting nutritional condition of fledgling Florida Scrub-Jays: A ptilochronology approach. Condor 100: 753--756. (Behav. Ecol. Group, Dept. Evol., Ecol., & Organismal Biol., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210-1293, USA; EM: length of feathers in young Aphelocoma coerulescens was positively related with proportion of a territory covered by open oak scrub.---S.N.L. {E114, fledgling survivorship, open oak scrub} {ROL #81}

{D302} Guillemette, M., A. Reed, & J. H. Himmelman. 1996. Availability and consumption of food by Common Eiders wintering in the Gulf of St. Lawrence: evidence of prey depletion. Can. J. Zool. 74: 32--38. (Dept. Nat. Resour. Sci., Macdonald Campus McGill Univ., 21 111 Lakeshore Rd., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ H9X 3V9, Can.)---Somateria mollissima substantially deplete mussel beds in winter, which may affect the eider's distribution.---D.E.F. {C318} {ROL #81}

{D302} Higuchi, A., & M. T. Abe. 1997. Estimation of food consumption from pellets cast by captive Ural Owls (Strix uralensis). USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 551--552. (Grad. Sch. Sci. Tech., Niigata Univ. Ikarashi 2-8050, Niigata, 950-2181, Japan; EM: intake was positively correlated to dry pellet weight: kcal=33.82 x dry pellet mass (g) + 7.38.---J.M.S. {E118} {ROL #81}

{D302} Hodar, J. A. 1995. Diet of the Thekla Lark, Galerida theklae, in a shrubsteppe of southeastern Spain. Doñana Acta Vert. 22 (1-2): 110--114. (Depto. Biol. Anim. & Ecol., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Granada, E-18071 Granada, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Hoetker, G. M., & K. W. Gobalet. 1999. Predation on Mexican Free-tailed Bats by Burrowing Owls in California. J. Raptor Res. 33: 333--335. (Dept. Biol., California State Univ.-Bakersfield, Bakersfield, CA 93311, USA.)---Athene cunicularia (Speotyto cunicularia) preying on Tadarida brasiliensis. {ROL #81}

{D302} Isotti, R. 1998. Diet of Tyto alba and environmental evaluation of its territory. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 23 (1-2): 14--18. (Via Santa Maria della Speranza 11 00139 Rome, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Jenkins, A. R., & G. M. Avery. 1999. Diets of breeding Peregrine and Lanner Falcons in South Africa. J. Raptor Res. 33: 190--206. (Percy FitzPatrick Inst. African Ornithol., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.)---Falco peregrinus, Falco biarmicus. {B718} {ROL #81}

{D302} Johnson, L. S., & R. M. R. Barclay. 1996. Effects of supplemental calcium on the reproductive output of a small passerine bird, the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). Can. J. Zool. 74: 278--282. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Towson State Univ., Towson, MD 21204, USA.) {E120} {ROL #81}

{D302} Karpanty, S. M., & S. M. Goodman. 1999. Diet of the Madagascar Harrier-Hawk, Polyboroides radiatus, in southeastern Madagascar. J. Raptor Res. 33: 313--316. (Dept. Zool., Miami Univ., Oxford, OH 45056, USA.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Kelly, J. F. 1996. Effects of substrate on prey use by Belted Kingfishers (Ceryle alcyon): a test of the prey abundance-availability assumption. Can. J. Zool. 74: 693--697. (Dept. Biol., CO State Univ., Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.)---Discusses an experiment that measures prey use versus abundance and availability.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{D302} Knopf, F. L. 1998. Foods of Mountain Plovers wintering in California. Condor 100: 382--384. (Biol. Resour. Div., U.S. Geol. Survey, 4512 McMurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400, USA; EM: contents of 39 Charadrius montanus collected at 3 sites included food items representing 13 orders and at least 16 families of invertebrates. They suggest species is a dietary generalist/opportunist and less specialized than previously thought.---S.N.L. {food habits} {ROL #81}

{D302} Koivunen, V., et al. 1996. Prey choice of Tengmalm's Owls (Aegolius funereus funereus): preference for substandard individuals? Can. J. Zool. 74: 816--823. (Lab. Ecol. Zool., Dept. Biol., Univ. Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.)---Main prey includes Microtus epiroticus, Microtus agrestis, Clethrionomys glareolus, and Sorex araneus.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{D302} Lang, A. L., R. A. Andress, & P. A. Martin. 1999. Prey remains in Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, pellets from a winter roost in the upper St. Lawrence River, 1996 and 1997. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 621--626. (PAM: Can. Ctr. Inland Waters, Box 5050, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7R 4A6, Can.; EM: {ROL #81}

{D302} Larson, K. 1999. Nesting Common Ravens near Bredenbury [Saskatchewan, Can.] eat salamanders. Blue Jay 57: 189--190. (Box 479, Saltcoats, SK S0A 3R0, Can.)---Corvus corax. {ROL #81}

{D302} Lekuona, J. M., & F. Campos. 1996. Variation in the diet of Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in the Bidasoa river and its estuary [Spain]. Ardeola 43 (2): 199--205. (Depto. Zool. & Ecol., Univ. Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Lilliendahl, K., et al. 1996. Behavioural control of daily fattening in Great Tits (Parus major). Can. J. Zool. 74: 1612--1616. (Dept. Zool., Stockholm Univ., 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.) {E118} {ROL #81}

{D302} Margalida, A., & J. Bertrán. 1997. Diet and food selection of a pair of Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) in the Pyrenees during the breeding season. Ardeola 44 (2): 191--197. (G.E.P.T. Apdo 43, E-25520 El Pont de Suert, Lleida, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Martínez, D. R., et al. 1998. Food habits and hunting ranges of Short-eared Owls (Asio flammeus) in agricultural landscapes of southern Chile. J. Raptor Res. 32: 111--115. (Lab. Ecol., Depto. Cienc. Básicas, Univ. Los Lagos, Casilla 933, Osorno, Chile.) {D306} {ROL #81}

{D302} Martínez-Pereda, J. A. 1996. Seasonal variation in food habits of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in two distant sites. Doñana Acta Vert. 23 (1): 21--31. (Ctr. Inv. Sanidad Anim.: I.N.I.A., E-28130 Valdeolmos, Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Molina, J., et al. 1998. Diet of Cetti's Warblers Cettia cetti (Temmink, 1820) in a locality of southern Spain. Ardeola 45 (2): 217--220. (Depto. Biol. Anim. y Ecol. Fac. Cienc., Univ. Granada,. E-18071 Granada, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Moreira, F. 1996. Diet and feeding behaviour of Grey Plovers, Pluvialis squatarola, and Redshanks, Tringa totanus, in a southern European estuary. Ardeola 43 (2): 145--156. (Depto. Zool. & Anthropol., Fac. Cienc., Bloco C-2, Univ. Lisboa, Campo Grande, P-1700 Lisboa, Portugal.) {D306} {ROL #81}

{D302} Murphy, R. K. 1997. Importance of prairie wetlands and avian prey to breeding Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in northwestern North Dakota. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 286--298. (USFWS, Des Lacs NWR Complex, 8315 Hwy. 8, Kenmare, ND 58746, USA.)---Owls rely upon wetland-dependent birds (mostly Anserinae & Rallidae) for majority of prey taken during breeding season, regardless of wetland availability.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{D302} Norment, C. J., & M. E. Fuller. 1997. Breeding-season frugivory by Harris' Sparrows (Zonotrichia querula) and White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) in a low-Arctic ecosystem. Can. J. Zool. 75: 670--679. (Dept. Biol. Sci., State Univ. NY, Coll. at Brockport, Brockport, NY 14420, USA.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Ostrand, W. D., et al. 1998. Selection of forage-fish schools by murrelets and Tufted Puffins in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Condor 100: 286--297. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: cirrhata select fish schools near their colony, whereas Brachyramphus marmoratus select smaller, denser fish schools in shallower habitats. Findings may be related to lower maximum diving depths of Marbled Murrelets.---S.N.L. {D306, resource selection} {ROL #81}

{D302} Paci, A. M. 1997. Another case of predatory action on Chiroptera by Hobby Falco subbuteo. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 22 (1): 64. (Badia, 284 06019 Umbertide, PG, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Padial, J. M., et al. 1998. Diet of the Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) in the Sierras Bèticas of Granada [Spain] during the breeding season. Ardeola 45 (1): 55--62. (Grupo Nat. SIGNATUS. Paseo del Salón 3, 6.-C.E-18009 Granada, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Pavlík, S. 1997 [Woodpeckers as predators of leaf-eating lepidopterous larvae in oak forests.] Tichodroma 10: 127--137. (Techniká univerzita vo Zvolene, T.G. Masarkka 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia.)---Caterpillars are taken mainly by Dendrocopos major and Dendrocopos medius, and comprise most of the nestling diet. (Slovak, Engl. summ.)---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{D302} Piattella, E., et al. 1999. Spatial and temporal variations in the diet of the Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in urban Rome, Italy. J. Raptor Res. 33: 172--175. (Dipto. Biol. Anim. e dell’Uomo [Zool.], Univ. Roma "La Sapienza", Viale dell’Università 32, I-00185 Rome, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Piersma, T., et al. 1996. Do arctic breeding Red Knots (Calidris canutus) accumulate skeletal calcium before egg laying? Can. J. Zool. 74: 2257--2261. (Netherlands Inst. Sea Res. (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands.) {B710} {ROL #81}

{D302} Rains, C. 1997. Comparison of food habits of the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) and Western Screech-owl (Otus kennicottii) in southwestern Idaho. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 339--346. (Raptor Res. Ctr., Boise State Univ., Boise, ID 83725, USA.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Rey, P. J., & J. E. Gutiérrez. 1997. Fruit selection and foraging behaviour of frugivores in wild olive shrublands and cultivated olive groves: An optimal strategy based on the benefit handling time ratio. Ardeola 44 (1): 27--39. (Depto. Bio. Anim., Veg., & Ecol., Univ. Jaén, E-23071 Jaén, Spain.) {D306} {ROL #81}

{D302} Rose, A. B. 1999. Notes on the diets of some passerines in New South Wales I: Fairy-wrens to Woodswallows. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 106--120. (Australian Mus., 6-8 College St., Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.)---Incidental records from personal observations and stomach content analysis for 37 species. Sexual dimorphism observed in digestive tract morphology and diet for Ashbyia lovensis.---I.D.E. {E504} {ROL #81}

{D302} Rose, A. B. 1999. Notes on the diets of some passerines in New South Wales [Australia] II: Butcherbirds to Starlings. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 164--178. (Aust. Mus., 6-8 College St., Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.)---Stomach and pellet contents and direct observations for 24 species, with detailed analysis for Gymnorhina tibicen and Strepera graculina.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D302} Rose, A. B. 1999. White-throated Treecreeper Cormobates leucophaeus feeding on sap from a Red Bloodwood Corymbia gummifera. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 131. (Aust. Mus., 6-8 College St., Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.)---Normally insectivorous, but tongue structure facilitates nectar and sap feeding also.---I.D.E. {E104} {ROL #81}

{D302} Ruiz, R. 1996. Geographical and seasonal variations in the diet of the Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) in Europe. Doñana Acta Vert. 23 (1): 5--20. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Málaga, E-29071 Málaga, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Sánchez Z., J. A., & J. F. Calvo. 1998. Importance of birds and potential bias in food habit studies of Montagu’s Harriers (Circus pygargus) in southeastern Spain. J. Raptor Res. 32: 254--256. (Depto. Ecol. & Hidrol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Murcia, Campus Espinardo, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Sancho, J. R. 1995. Food habits of Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) in the northern meseta of Spain during the reproductive season. Doñana Acta Vert. 22 (1-2): 115--119. (Avda. Sanjurjo, 39, 10º Centro, E-09004 Burgos, España.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Santibañez, D. P., & F. M. Jaksic. 1999. Prey size matters at the upper tail of the distribution: a case study in northcentral Chile. J. Raptor Res. 33: 170--172. (Depto. Ecol., Pontificia Univ. Católica Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile.)---Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) segregate by size when taking larger prey but not with smaller prey.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{D302} Schmutz, J. A., & K. A. Hobson. 1998. Geographic, temporal, and age-specific variation in diets of Glaucous Gulls in western Alaska. Condor 100: 119--130. (Alaska Biol. Sci. Ctr., Biol. Resour. Div., U.S. Geol. Survey, 1011 East Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: of Larus hyperboreus diet at 3 sites found gulls consumed proportionately more terrestrial prey after peak hatch in late June, and gulls near the coast consumed proportionately more marine prey than gulls at inland areas. Adults consumed proportionately more marine prey than they fed to their young.---S.N.L. {carbon-13, foraging ecology, nitrogen-15, predation, stable isotopes} {ROL #81}

{D302} Seamans, M. E., & R. J. Gutiérrez. 1999. Diet composition and reproductive success of Mexican Spotted Owls. J. Raptor Res. 33: 143--148. (Dept. Wildl., Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA 95521, USA.)---Strix occidentalis lucida. {C918} {ROL #81}

{D302} Serrano, D. 1998. Interhabitat differences in the diet of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) in the mid Ebro river valley [Spain]: effect of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) availability. Ardeola 45 (1): 35--46. (C/Ocèano Atlántico, 16; 4.-1, E-50012 Zaragoza, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Sova, M., & M. A. Weston. 1999. The foraging ecology of the Hooded Plover in eastern and western Australia. Stilt 35: 65--66. (Birds Aust., 415 Riversdale Rd., Hawthorn E., Vic. 3123, Australia.)---Behaviour and diet of Thinornis rubricollis compared in salt-lake and high energy beach environments. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D302} Spooner, A., S. Pribil, & J. Picman. 1996. Why do Gray Catbirds destroy eggs in nests of other birds? Experimental tests of alternative hypotheses. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1688--1695. (JP: Ottawa--Carleton Inst. Biol., Dept. Biol., Univ. Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa ON K1N 6N5, Can.)---Dumetella carolinensis apparently peck eggs to consume contents and to prevent brood parasitism.---D.E.F. {B704, C918, C916} {ROL #81}

{D302} Taylor, I. R., S. G. Taylor, & G. N. Larmour. 1999. Sex-related differences in the foraging behaviour of Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica in New South Wales, Australia. Stilt 35: 68. (Johnstone Ctr., Sch. Environ. Info. Sci., Charles Sturt Univ., P.O. Box 789, Albury, NSW 2640, Australia.)---Males may have been forced to forage in less profitable habitats because of aggressive female behaviour. (Poster abstract).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D302} Trejo, A., & D. Grigera. 1998. Food habits of the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) in a Patagonian steppe in Argentina. J. Raptor Res. 32: 306--311. (Ctr. Regional Universitario Bariloche, Univ. Nac. Comahue, Unidad Postal Univ., 8400 Bariloche, Argentina.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Watson, J. W., et al. 1998. Prey of breeding Northern Goshawks in Washington. J. Raptor Res. 32: 297--305. (WA Dept. Fish Wildl., 600 Capitol Way N., Olympia, WA 98501-1091, USA.)---Accipiter gentilis. {ROL #81}

{D302} Whalen, D. M., B. D. Watts, & D. W. Johnston. 2000. Diet of autumn migrating Northern Saw-whet Owls on the eastern shore of Virginia. J. Raptor Res. 34: 42--44. (Ctr. Conserv. Biol., College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187, USA.)---Pellet analyses of Aegolius acadicus captured during fall migration and stomach contents of road-killed individuals collected during autumn or early winter compared with data from previous diet studies.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{D302} Wiley, J. W. 1998. Breeding-season food habits of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) in southwestern Dominican Republic. J. Raptor Res. 32: 241--245. (USGS/BRD, Reston, VA 22092, USA.) {ROL #81}

{D302} Wright, K. G. 1999. Common Loon, Gavia immer, feeds on Pacific Giant Octopus, Octopus dofleini. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 522. (6090 Blink Bonnie Rd., West Vancouver, BC V7W 1V8, Can.; EM: {ROL #81}

{D302} Zahler, P., & C. Dietemann. 1999. A note on the food habits of Eurasian Eagle Owl Bubo bubo in N. Pakistan. Forktail 15: 98--99. (P.O. Box 99, Glendale, NY 01229, USA.)---Based on contents of regurgitated pellets.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{D304} Hernández, A. 1995. [Pellets of the Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor), Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) and Woodchat Shrike (Lanius senator).] Ecología 9: 435--440. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. León, E-24071 León, España.) {ROL #81}

{D306} Abbruzzese, C. M., & G. Ritchison. 1997. The hunting behavior of Eastern Screech-owls (Otus asio). USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 21--32. (GR: Dept. Biol. Sci., Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY 40475, USA.)---Report success rates and hunting perch heights under different conditions.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{D306} Bautista, L. M., et al. 1998. Optimal foraging and beyond: how starlings cope with changes in food availability. Am. Nat. 152: 543--561. (Departamento de Ecologia Evolutiva, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain; EM: study of physiological and behavioral responses of Sturnus vulgaris to changes in food availability.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{D306} Brigham, R. M., et al. 1999. Foraging behaviour in relation to the lunar cycle by Australian Owlet-nightjars Aegotheles cristatus. Emu 99: 253--261. (Div. Zool., Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.)---In this species, unlike true nightjars, the greater risk of predation during moonlit nights affects foraging activity.---W.K.S. {ROL #81}

{D306} Clayton, N. S., & A. Dickinson. 1999. Motivational control of caching behaviour in the Scrub Jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens. Anim. Behav. 57: 435--444. (Sect. Neurobiol., Physiol. & Behav., Univ. Calif., Davis, CA 95616, USA. EM: {ROL #81}

{D306} de la Cueva, H., & R. W. Blake. 1997. Flight speed, foraging efficiency, and daily energy budget of the Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1176--1183. (Dept. of Zool., Univ. BC, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A9, Can.) {B306, B308} {ROL #81}

{D306} Delestrade, A. 1999. Foraging strategy in a social bird, the Alpine Chough: effect of variation in quantity and distribution of food. Anim. Behav. 57: 299--305. (Ctr de Recherches sur les Ecosystèmes d’Altitude, 400 route du Tour, Montroc, 744000 Chamonix, France. EM: graculus. {ROL #81}

{D306} Dobbs, R. C., & T. E. Martin. 1998. Variation in foraging behavior among nesting stages of female Red-faced Warblers. Condor 100: 741--745. (TEM: USGS Biol. Resour. Div., Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA; EM: attack rate and search speed of foraging female Cardellina rubrifrons increased significantly from egg-laying to incubation through nestling stage.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{D306} Donnelly, R. E., & K. A. Sullivan. 1998. Foraging proficiency and body condition of juvenile American Dippers. Condor 100: 383--388. (Coll. For. Resour., Univ. Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; EM: proficiency in 9 juvenile Cinclus mexicanus, estimated by rate of calorie intake, was positively associated with body mass and hematocrit value, 2 measures of body condition.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{D306} Gould-Beierle, K. L., & A. C. Kamil. 1999. The effect of proximity on landmark use in Clark’s Nutcrackers. Anim. Behav. 58: 477--488. (Dept. Psychol., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. EM: visual cues overshadow other spatial cues in Nucifraga columbiana---A.K.T. {B304} {ROL #81}

{D306} Grantham, M. 1998. Short note on Purple Heron consistently feeding in a coffee plantation. Kukila 10: 160. (No address given).---Ardea purpurea with a full crop repeatedly seen in a dry plantation in SE Java, Indonesia, more than 500 m from the nearest river; no food identified.---I.C.R {ROL #81}

{D306} Heinrich, B., & J. W. Pepper. 1998. Influence of competitors on caching behaviour in the Common Raven, Corvus corax. Anim. Behav. 56: 1083--1090. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.) {B304} {ROL #81}

{D306} Hewitt, D. G., & R. L. Kirkpatrick. 1996. Forage intake rates of Ruffed Grouse and potential effects on grouse density. Can. J. Zool. 74: 2016--2024. (Caesar Kleberg Wildl. Res. Inst., Texas A&M Univ.--Kingsville, Campus Box 218, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA.)---Bonasa umbellus must forage longer in SE USA in winter than in other parts of their range and may experience higher mortality.---D.E.F. {C912, C914} {ROL #81}

{D306} Higgins, P. J., & J. D. B. Smith. 1999. Nocturnal feeding by a White-faced Heron. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 123--125. (Birds Aust., 415 Riversdale Rd., Hawthorn E., Vic. 3123, Australia.)---Egretta novaehollandiae successfully caught prey under artificial lighting.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D306} Hildreth, R. W. 1999. Starlings and tent caterpillars. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 145--146. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.)---Sturnus vulgaris rubs hairs off Eastern tent caterpillars Malacosoma americanum on pavement before eating them.---W.E.D. {ROL #81}

{D306} Hurly, T. A., & M. D. Oseen. 1999. Context-dependent, risk-sensitive foraging preferences in wild Rufous Hummingbirds. Anim. Behav. 58: 59--66. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Lethbridge, 4401 Univ. Drive, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4, Can. EM: rufus. {ROL #81}

{D306} Kaltenecker, G. S., et al. 1998. Winter foraging ecology of Bald Eagles on a regulated river in southwest Idaho. J. Raptor Res. 32: 215--220. (Idaho Bird Obs., Dept. Biol., Boise State Univ., 1910 University Dr., Boise, ID 83725, USA.)---Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {C926} {ROL #81}

{D306} Kamil, A. C., R. P. Balda, & S. Good. 1999. Patterns of movement and orientation during caching and recovery by Clark’s Nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana. Anim. Behav. 57: 1327--1335. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0118, USA. EM: {ROL #81}

{D306} Katzir, G., et al. 1999. Cattle Egrets are less able to cope with light refraction than are other herons. Anim. Behav. 57: 687--694. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Haifa, Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel. EM: prey capture in water in Bubulcus ibis, Egretta garzetta, Ardeola ralloides, Nycticorax nycticorax---A.K.T. {B310} {ROL #81}

{D306} Krakauer, A. H. 1999. Foraging of Yellow-headed Caracaras in the fur of a Three-toed Sloth. J. Raptor Res. 33: 270. (Mus. Vert. Zool., 3101 Valley Life Sci. Bldg., Univ. California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3160, USA.)---Milvago chimachima, Bradypus variegatus. {D106} {ROL #81}

{D306} Lekuona, J. M., & F. Campos. 1997. Foraging strategies of the Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in the Ebro River [Spain]. Misc. Zool. 20 (1): 1--8. (Depto. Zool. Ecol., Univ. Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, España.) {ROL #81}

{D306} Lekuona, J. M. 1999. Effects of the fishing strategy, the relative position and the size of fishing groups on the foraging success of Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo during winter. Ardeola 46 (1): 13--21. (Virgen del Puy, 5, 7.-D, E-31011, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; EM: {ROL #81}

{D306} Malan, G. 1998. Solitary and social hunting in Pale Chanting Goshawk (Melierax canorus) families: why use both strategies?. J. Raptor Res. 32: 195--201. (Percy FitzPatrick Inst., Univ. Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7700 South Africa.) {B314} {ROL #81}

{D306} Martìnez-Abrain, A. 1998. Trophic association between herons in the Albufera de Valencia paddy fields [Spain]. Ardeola 45 (1): 29--34. (Estación Ornitológica de L'Albufera. Avda. Los Pinares, 106. E-46012, El Saler, Valencia, Spain; EM: {ROL #81}

{D306} Matthysen, E. 1999. Foraging behaviour of Nuthatches (Sitta europaea) in relation to the presence of mates and mixed flocks. J. f. Ornithol. 140: 443--451. (Dept. of Biol. (UIA), Univ. of Antwerp, B-2610 Antwerpen, Belgium.) {B314} {ROL #81}

{D306} McNair, D. B. 1994. Caching by an irruptive [Northern] Hawk-Owl. Blue Jay 52: 216--217. (Tall Timbers Res. Stn., Rt. 1, Box 678, Tallahassee, FL 32312-9712, USA.)---Surnia ulula. {ROL #81}

{D306} Mills, K. L. 1998. Multispecies seabird feeding flocks in the Galápagos Islands. Condor 100: 277--285. (Dept. Ecol. & Evol. Biol., Univ. California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.)---The presence of pursuit-diving seabirds such as Spheniscus mendiculus and Campsohaelius [Phalacrocorax] harrisi increases the duration of feeding flocks. The mechanisms that keep prey close to the surface near shore may differ from those in the open ocean.---S.N.L. {foraging behavior} {ROL #81}

{D306} Minton, C. D. T. 1999. More on Pied Oystercatchers feeding on golf courses. Stilt 34: 30. (165 Dalgetty Rd., Beaumaris, Vic. 3193, Australia.)---Haematopus longirostris seem to feed on grass when ground is soft owing to recent rain or artificial watering.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D306} Oliver, D. L. 2000. Foraging behaviour and resource selection of the Regent Honeyeater, Xanthomyza phrygia, in northern New South Wales [Australia]. Emu 100: 12--30. (Div. Zool., Univ. New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.)---This Endangered species apparently has a more generalised diet, and is less dependant on nectar than previously thought.---W.K.S. {D302} {ROL #81}

{D306} Rosén, M., et al. 1999. Hunting flight behaviour of the Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae. J. Avian Biol. 30: 342--350. (Dept. Anim. Ecol., Lund Univ., Ecol. Bldg., SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden; EM: of flight tracks within 4 km of breeding cliffs on Sardinia using optical range finder.---R.T.B. {ROL #81}

{D306} Safran, R. J., et al. 2000. Foraging site selection by nonbreeding White-faced Ibis. Condor 102: 211--215. (Dept. Ecol. & Evol. Biol., Corson Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; EM: Plegadis chihi select locations closer to emergent vegetation > 10 cm in height, and those with higher chironomid and lower oligochaete biomasses than in random locations.---S.N.L. {waterbirds, San Joaquin Valley, water depth, wetland management} {ROL #81}

{D306} sermely, D., & G. Gaibani. 1998. Is foot squeezing pressure by two raptor species sufficient to subdue their prey? Condor 100: 757--763. (Dipart. Biol. Evol. Funz., Univ. Parma, Viale delle Scienze, 43100 Parma, Italy; EM: by thoracic compression by Buteo buteo and Falco tinnunculus is sufficient to kill prey without use of beak or talons.---S.N.L. {D302, predation, prey killing} {ROL #81}

{D306} Smith, R., et al. 1998. Spatial variation in foraging of the Black-throated Green Warbler along the shoreline of northern Lake Huron. Condor 100: 474--484. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5018, USA; EM: behavior of Dendroica virens varies with respect to distance from Lake Huron shoreline because of spatial differences in prey due to microclimatic influences of Lake Huron. Emergent aquatic insects and midges may be important prey during spring migration.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{D306} Smulders, T. V. 1998. A game theoretical model of the evolution of food hoarding: applications to the Paridae. Am. Nat. 151: 356--366. (Dept. Psychol., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853 USA; EM:"Game against the field" model predicts no memory is needed for hoarders to invade non-hoarders in severe conditions; develops scenario for hoarding in Paridae.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{D306} Sol, D., et al. 1998. Competition for food in urban pigeons: The cost of being juvenile. Condor 100: 298--304. (Dept. Biol. Anim.-Vert., Univ. Barcelona, Avda Diagonal, 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; EM: Columba livia foraged more poorly than adults in all situations analyzed. Differential mortality of juvenile and adult pigeons could in part arise from differences in competitive foraging abilities.---S.N.L. {age-specific mortality, starvation} {ROL #81}

{D306} Thurber, F. 1999. A Hermit Thrush foraging for northern red-backed salamanders. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 78--81. (C/O/ BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.)---Catharus guttatus, Plethodon cinereus. {ROL #81}

{D306} Tuckwell, J., & E. Nol. 1997. Foraging behaviour of American Oystercatchers in response to declining prey densities. Can. J. Zool. 75: 170--181. (EN: Watershed Ecosystems Graduate Prog., Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8, Can.)---Haematopus palliatus responded to a decline in oysters by eating more prey species.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{D306} van Balen, B., & W. M. Rombang. 1999. Nocturnal feeding by Brahminy Kites. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 126. (Wageningen Agric. Univ., Trop. Nat. Conserv. Vert. Ecol. Group, Bornsesteeg 69, 6708PD Wageningen, Netherlands.)---Haliastur indus flying around security lighting shortly before dawn.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D306} Verbeek, N. A. M. 1997. Food cache recovery by Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus). Can. J. Zool. 75: 1351--1356. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.)---Discusses a series of experiments manipulating cache sites.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{D306} Weber, L. M., & S. M. Haig. 1997. Shorebird-prey interactions in South Carolina coastal soft sediments. Can. J. Zool. 75: 245--252. (Human and Nat. Ecol. Prog., 625 Rollins Way, Emory Univ. Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.)---Contrary to expectations, prey depletion by charadriiforms did not result in re-distribution of shorebirds.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{D306} Wischusen, E. W. 1998. Rates of open-field foraging by the Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis). J. Raptor Res. 32: 246--247. (Dept. Biol. Sci., 104 Life Sciences Bldg., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.) {ROL #81}

{D308} Bautista, L. M., J. C. Alonso, & J. A. Alonso. 1998. Foraging site displacement in Common Crane flocks. Anim. Behav. 56: 1237--1243. (Dept. Ecol. Evol., Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, José Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain. EM: grus stole food more often when their own feeding rate dropped.---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{D308} Estrada-Devesa, V., et al. 1997. Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus brookei) kleptoparasitised by Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus cachinnans). Ardeola 44 (2): 225--226. (Avda. República Argentina, 63, 5º, 3ª, E-08023 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{D308} Stienen, E. W. M., & A. Brenninkmeijer. 1999. Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich Terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by Black-headed Gulls. Anim. Behav. 57: 1135--1144. (Inst. For. Nat. Res., PO Box 23, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. EM: sandvicensis, Larus ridibundus. {ROL #81}

{D502} Blondel, J., et al. 1999. Selection-based biodiversity at a small spatial scale in a low-dispersing insular bird. Science 285: 1399--1402. (Ctr. d’Ecol. Fonctionnelle et Evol, Ctr. Natl. de la Rech. Scientifique, 1919 Rt. de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5, France; EM: of gene flow seen on mainland populations but not island populations of Parus caeruleus.---M.J.J. {ROL #81}

{D502} Bouzat, J. L., et al. 1998. Genetic evaluation of a demographic bottleneck in the Greater Prairie Chicken. Conserv. Biol. 12: 836--843. (Dept. Ecol. Ethol. Evol., Univ. Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.)---Tympanuchus cupido. {ROL #81}

{D502} Bouzat, J. L., H. A. Lewin, & K. N. Page. 1998. The ghost of genetic diversity past: historical DNA analysis of the Greater Prairie Chicken. Am. Nat. 152: 1--6. (Dept. Ecol. Ethol. Evol., Univ. Illinois, Urbana IL 61801, USA; EM: analysis from museum specimens of Tympanuchus cupido from central Illinois showed loss of alleles following demographic contraction.---J.R.F. {D504} {ROL #81}

{D502} De La Cruz-Cardiel, P. J., et al. 1997. Genetic variation and gene flow in populations of Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Ardeola 44 (2): 173--181. (Depto. Biol. Veg., Fac. Biol., Univ. Salamanca, E-37007 Salamanca, España.) {ROL #81}

{D502} Keller, L. F., & P. Arcese. 1998. No evidence for inbreeding avoidance in a natural population of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Am. Nat. 152: 380--392. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol., 1630 Linden Dr., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA; EM: Mandarte Island, British Columbia, found little avoidance of inbreeding despite inbreeding depression.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{D502} Tordoff, H. B., & P. T. Redig. 1999. Close inbreeding in Peregrine Falcons in midwestern United States. J. Raptor Res. 33: 326--328. (Bell Mus. Nat. Hist. & Dept. Ecol., Evol., & Behav., 1987 Upper Buford Circle, Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---Falco peregrinus. {ROL #81}

{D504} Cronin, M. A., et al. 1996. Breeding populations of Northern Pintails have similar mitochondrial DNA. Can. J. Zool. 74: 992--999. (LGL Alaska Res. Assoc., Inc., 4175 Tudor Ctr. Dr., Suite 202, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA.) {ROL #81}

{D504} Pierson, B. J., et al. 2000. Molecular genetic status of Aleutian Canada Geese from Buldir and the Semidi Islands, Alaska. Condor 102: 172--180. (U.S. Geol. Survey, Biol. Resour. Div., Alaska Biol. Sci. Ctr., 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: analysis of 2 widely-separated populations of Branta canadensis leucoparea suggests limited contemporary gene flow or major shifts in gene frequency through genetic drift. Some evidence of population bottlenecks, but no significant evidence of non-random mating or inbreeding.---S.N.L. {microsatellites, mtDNA, Branta canadensis minima} {ROL #81}

{D504} Young, D. L., et al. 1998. DNA fingerprint variation and reproductive fitness in the plain pigeon. Conserv. Biol. 12: 225--227. (Dept. Biol. Sci., George Washington Univ., Washington, DC 20052, USA.)---Columba inornata wetmorei. {ROL #81}

{D508} Cavitt, J. F., A. T. Pearse, & D. A. Rintoul. 1998. Hybridization of Mountain Bluebird and Eastern Bluebird in northeastern Kansas. Bull. Kansas Ornithol. Soc. 49: 21--25. (Div. Biol., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS 66506-4901, USA.)---Male Sialia currucoides paired sequentially with 2 female Sialia sialis, Riley and Geary cos., Apr--Aug 1997.---R.F.J. {ROL #81}

{D508} Collins, P., et al. 1999. A possible record of hybridisation between Pied Haematopus longirostris and Sooty Oystercatchers H. fuliginosus at Mud Islands, Victoria [Australia]. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 160--163. (RMB 4009, Cowes, Vic. 3922, Australia.)---Alternative NZ species eliminated on basis of plumage and soft part colouration.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D508} Henry, P. Y., & Y. Kayser. 1998. [Possible Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica × House Martin Delichon urbica hybrids in Provence {France}.] Faune de Provence 19: 59--60. (Station biol. Tour du Valat, Le Sambuc, F-13200 Arles, France) (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{D508} Hull, C. L., & A. Wiltshire. 1999. An apparent hybrid Royal × Rockhopper Penguin at Macquarie Island. Aust. Bird Watcher 18: 95--100. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Dr., Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Can.)---Crest morphology, size of bird, gait and call consistent with hybrid Eudyptes schlegeli × Eudyptes chrysocome from mixed colony. DNA analysis confirmed maternal Rockhopper parentage.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D508} Laurenti, S., & G. Lenzini. 1996. A natural female Chaffinch-Brambling hybrid caught near Narmi, Umbria [Italy]. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 21 (1): 83--85. (Via della Palazzetta, 6. I-05020 Montoro, TR, Italy).---Fringilla coelebs × Fringilla montifringilla. {ROL #81}

{D508} Leray, V., P. Yésou, J.-C. Beaudoin, & A. Fossé. 1999. [A hybrid Mediterranean Gull × Black-headed Gull successfully reared two young in Maine-et-Loire (France) in 1998.] Ornithos 6: 40--45. (23 rue du Musée, Rochemenier, F-49700 Louresse, France.)---Larus melanocephalus × Larus ridibundus. (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{D508} Solberg, E. J., et al. 2000. Fertile House Sparrow × Tree Sparrow (Passer domesticus × Passer montanus) hybrids? J. f. Ornithol. 141: 102--104. (Norw. Inst. For Nat. Res., Tungasletta 2, N-7005 Trondheim, Norway.) {ROL #81}

{D702} Carter, C. 1998. Identification of large Acrocephalus warblers at Candaba Swamp, Luzon, Philippines. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 27: 51--54. (13 Queens Grdns., Hornsea, E. Yorkshire HU18 1AU, UK.)---A winter population of reed warblers was mist-netted in swamp 90 km N. of Manila. Measurements given for Acrocephalus orientalis (n = 13) and Acrocephalus stentoreus (n = 4) and characters by which the 2 species are readily separable in the hand.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{D702} Kaufman, K. 1989. Buteos of the winter fields. Am. Birds 43: 1241--1244. (American Birds, 950 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022, USA.)---Buteo platypterus, Buteo lineatus, Buteo swainsoni, Buteo jamaicensis, Buteo lagopus, Buteo regalis. {ROL #81}

{D702} McLaren, I. A., et. al. 1989. Eurasian Siskins in North America-distinguishing females from green-morph Pine Siskins. Am. Birds 43: 1268--1274. (Biol. Dept., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS B3H 4J1, Can.)---Carduelis spinus, Carduelis pinus. {ROL #81}

{D702} Poole, C. M., J.-Y. Park, & N. Moores. 1999. The identification of Chinese Egret and Pacific Reef Egret. Oriental Bird Club Bull. 30: 39--41. (c/o 3 Heron Ct., Parkgate, S. Wirral L64 6TB, UK.)---Egretta eulophotes distinguished from Egretta sacra on basis of bill shape, leg length, jowl, eye position and loral shape, neck shape and posture and, less so, bare part coloration; photos.---I.C.R. {ROL #81}

{D702} Rufray, X. 1999. [Field identification of Eleonora’s Falcon.] Ornithos 6: 83--88. (GRIVE, Maison de l’Environnement, 16 rue Ferdinand Fabre, F-34090 Montpellier, France.)---Falco eleonorae. (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{D702} Thompson, J. E., et al. 1999. Improving use of morphometric discrimination to identify Canada Goose subspecies. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 274--280. (Ducks Unlimited Canada, #200, 10720-178 St., Edmonton, AB, T5S 1J3, Canada.)---Subspecific classification of Branta canadensis using discriminant function equations based on skeletal measurements should be restricted to after hatch-year birds.---W.P.J. {B508} {ROL #81}

{D702} Tomás G., F. J. 1997. Radiological identification of an Ibis mummy. Misc. Zool. 20 (2): 133--138. (C/ Lluis Sagnier 13, 1º, E-08041 Barcelona, Spain). {ROL #81}

{D704} Arroyo, B., & V. Bretagnolle. 1999. Field identification of individual Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax males using plumage patterns. Ardeola 46 (1): 53--60. (Ctr. d'Études Biol. de Chizè, Ctr. Natl. Recherche Scientifique, Villiers en Bois, 79360, France; {ROL #81}

{D704} Arroyo, B. E., T. DeCornulier, & V. Bretagnolle. 2000. Sex and age determination of Short-eared Owl nestlings. Condor 102: 216--219. (Ctr. Nat. Rech. Sci., Ctr. Etudes Biol. Chizé, Villiers en Bois, F-79360 France; EM: on secondaries vary according to sex from about 10-15 days of age. Provides aging formulas based on mass for nestlings up to 15 days, and on wing length for older nestlings.---S.N.L. {aging techniques, growth parameters} {ROL #81}

{D704} Duquet, M. 1999. [Ageing of Pied Flycatcher in autumn.] Ornithos 6: 122--124. (22 av. du Tambourin, F-34230 Vendémian, France.)---Ficedula hypoleuca. (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{D704} Matthew, J. S. 1999. A new method for ageing some species of Meliphagidae. Corella 23: 69--71. (c/o CSIRO Div. Wildl. Ecol., P.O. Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.)---Birds in 1st immature plumage retain juvenile alula.---I.D.E {ROL #81}

{D900} Chartier, A. 1998. Twenty-two years of Ruby-throated Hummingbird migration at Holiday Beach Conservation area, Ontario. Ontario Birds 18: 101--110. (1142 W. River Park Dr., Inkster, MI 48141, USA.)---Data on annual, seasonal and daily migration patterns of Archilochus colubris at a site on the north shore of Lake Erie, including information on patterns relative to wind direction, food plants, flight style, flight speed, and altitude of flight. In contrast to Hawk Mountain, Pennsylvania most autumn migration was early in the day except late in the season. A bounding flight style of rapid wing flapping, followed by a "free-fall" appears to be newly described for this species. Flight direction suggests avoidance of open water, suggesting that fewer may fly directly across the Gulf of Mexico than generally believed.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{D900} Gette, B. 1999. Bird Banding station at the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 189--193. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.)---Joppa Flats Bird Banding Station for research and education is established at the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Plum Island, Newbury, Massachusetts.---W.E.D. {ROL #81}

{D902} Alonso, J. C., M. B. Morales, & J. A. Alonso. 2000. Partial migration, and lek and nesting area fidelity in female Great Bustards. Condor 102: 127--136. (Mus. Nat. Cienc. Nat., CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain; EM: patterns of seasonal movements of Otis tarda females in northwestern Spain: migration between breeding and wintering areas (20%), movement only to mate (32%), movement for nesting (16%), permanent home range (32%). All showed fidelity to nesting and breeding areas, most to leks.---S.N.L. {C920} {ROL #81}

{D902} Bonaccorsi, G. 1999. [Behaviour of the Little Crake Porzana parva at a stop-over site.] Ornithos 6: 46--49. (immeuble Azalée, chemin de Biancarello, F-20090 Ajaccio, France.)---Anxiety, foraging, feeding and preening behaviour and vocalizations. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{D902} Chesser, R. T., & D. J. Levey. 1998. Austral migrants and the evolution of migration in New World birds: diet, habitat, and migration revisited. Am. Nat. 152: 311--319. (Dept. Zool., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA; EM: discussion from Levey and Stiles (Am. Nat. 140: 447-476) using new examples; suggest migrants evolved from taxa with ephemeral foods.---J.R.F. {ROL #81}

{D902} Cuadrado, M. 1991. [Feeding of trans-Saharan migrants during the prenuptial passage in the south of Spain.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 5: 133--141. (Grupo Ornitol. SUR, Apdo. 1607, Sevilla, España.) {ROL #81}

{D902} Grandio, J. M. 1998. Comments on the autumn migration strategy of Sedge Warblers Acrocephalus schoenobaenus in the Iberian Peninsula. Ardeola 45 (2): 213--215. (Soc. Cienc. Aranzadi. Sec. Vert. Alto de Zorroaga, Elkano Bidea,31. E-20014 Donostia/San Sebastian, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D902} Spaar, R., H. Stark, & F. Liechti. 1998. Migratory flight strategies of Levant Sparrowhawks: time or energy minimization? Anim. Behav. 56: 1185--1197. (Swiss Orn. Inst., 6204 Sempach, Switzerland. EM: brevipes. {ROL #81}

{D902} Stokes, D. L., Boersma, P. D., & L. S. Davis. 1998 Satellite tracking of Magellanic Penguin migration. Condor 100: 376--381. (Dept. Zool., Box 351800, Univ. Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; EM: male Spheniscus magellanicus were tracked for 3-6 weeks from beginning of winter migration. 3 were continuing northeastward at a distance of over 800 km from colony when signal lost. Initially, all traveled rapidly and made few deep dives. Later, rate of travel slowed, paths became more erratic, and they made more deep dives. All birds remained within 250 km of shore for entire period.---S.N.L. {D904, satellite telemetry} {ROL #81}

{D902} Warnock, N., & M. A. Bishop. 1998. Spring stopover ecology of migrant Western Sandpipers. Condor 100: 456--467. (For. Sci. Lab., Pacific Northwest Resear. Stn., USDA Forest Service, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA; EM: of 132 Calidris mauri found mean length of stays at 7 sites other than banding sites ranged from 1.1--3.3 days. Birds radio-marked at an interior site had significantly shorter stays and lower fat scores than birds at coastal sites.---S.N.L. {D906, body condition, radiotelemetry, shorebirds} {ROL #81}

{D902} Wheeler, W. E., & L. E. Vine. 1999. Spring staging, distribution, and habitat use by the Mississippi Valley population of Canada Geese in Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 61: 143--153. (Dept. Nat. Resour., 1210 N. Palmatory St., Horicon, WI 53032, USA.)---Branta canadensis interior. {ROL #81}

{D902} Yamamoto, C. 2000. [Migration of Oriental Honey Buzzards from Shimo-Koshiki-shima, an island in southern Japan.] Strix 18: 99--103. (1501, 1-7-12, Chikuko, Minato-ku, Osaka City, Osaka 552-0021, Japan.)---Evidence of migration by Pernis apivorus found at the SW end of the island. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{D904} Barter, M. A., et al. 1999. The Huang He Delta---an important staging site for Little Curlew Numenius minutus on northward migration. Stilt 34: 11--17. (21 Chivalry Ave., Glen Waverley, Vic. 3150, Australia; EM: known life-cycle information and describes study which demonstrated importance of this site on northeast coast of China.---I.D.E. {B910} {ROL #81}

{D904} Brinker, D. F., et al. 1997. Autumn migration of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) in the Middle Atlantic and Northeastern United States: What observations from 1995 suggest. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 74--89. (Heritage Biodiver. Conserv. Prog., Maryland Dept. Nat. Resour., Annapolis, MD 21401, USA.)---More than 5,900 owls were banded in fall 1995 in one of the largest movements recorded. Discusses winter range and habitat needs. Appendix provides method for determining sex.---J.M.S. {D704} {ROL #81}

{D904} Cantos, F. J. 1995. [Migration and wintering of Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) in the Iberian Peninsula {Spain}.] Ecología 9: 425--433. (Gran Vía de S. Francisco, 4. E-28005 Madrid, España.) {C926} {ROL #81}

{D904} Cantos, F. J. 1998. [The geographic distribution of long distance migrating warblers across the Iberian Peninsula]. Ecología 12: 407--411. (Dirección Gen. Conserv. Nat., Min. Medio Ambiente, Gran Vía de S. Francisco 4, E-28005 Madrid, Spain). {ROL #81}

{D904} Castro N., H., et al. 1995. [Phenology and distribution of Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta) in the saltpans of Cabo de Gata {Spain}. Habitat improvements.] Ecología 9: 417--423. (Depto. Biol. Veg., Univ. Almería, España.) {C310} {ROL #81}

{D904} Cuadrado, M. 1993. [Ringing and recovery data of some over-wintering migrant species analysed during two years in southern Spain.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 365--375. (Depto. Ecol. Anim., Inst. Ecol., S-223 62, Lund, Switzerland.) {ROL #81}

{D904} Davis, J. R. 1998. Fall hawk migration at Hanging Rock, Monroe County, West Virginia. Redstart 65: 57--64. (P.O. Box 161, Lewisburg, WV 24901, USA.)---Data for 1995--1997.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{D904} Erdman, T. C., et al. 1997. Autumn populations and movements of migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) at Little Suamico, Wisconsin. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 167--172. (Richter Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Wisconsin-Green Bay, 2420 Nicolet Dr., Green Bay, WI 54311, USA.)---Annual catch rate increased 10-fold after starting use of audiolures. Analysis of >200 recoveries.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{D904} Figuerola, J., & A. Bertolero. 1996. Differential autumn migration of Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) through the Ebro Delta, northeast Spain. Ardeola 43 (2): 169--175. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{D904} Goroshko, O. A. 1999. Migration of Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis) through Transbaikalia (Russia) and adjacent regions of North-eastern Mongolia. Stilt 35: 34--40. (Daursky Nat. Res., Nizhny Tsasuchey, Chita 674480, Russia.)---Birds either have different migration routes on northward and southward passage, or they prefer to stop in different areas at different times of the year.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D904} Grandio, J. M. 1999. Differential autumn migration of Sedge Warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) through the Txingudi marsh [Spain]. Ardeola 46 (2): 171--178. (c/ Lezo, 4, 4. A. E-20301 Ir•n, Guipúzcoa, Spain.) {D902} {ROL #81}

{D904} Grandío, J. M. 1997. Residence times and phenology of three warbler species (Sylvia spp.) in a western Pyrenean stopover site. Ardeola 44 (2): 163--171. (Soc. Cienc. Aranzadi. Secc. Vert., Alto de Zorroaga, Elkano Bidea, 31, E-20012 Donostia-San Sebastián, España.)---Sylvia atricapilla, Sylvia borin, Sylvia communis. {ROL #81}

{D904} Grattarola, A., F. Spina, & A. Pilastro. 1999. Spring migration of the Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) across the Mediterranean Sea. J. f. Ornithol. 140: 419--430. (Instituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica, Via Ca' Fornacetta 9, I-40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy.) {ROL #81}

{D904} Guerrieri, G & A. Castaldi. 1998. Migration and winter presence of rails along Latium coast-Central Italy. Gli Uccelli d`Italia 23 (1-2): 25--31. (Gruppo Attivitá Richerce Ornitologiche del Litorale, Via Villabassa, 45 00124 Rome, Italy; EM: {ROL #81}

{D904} Holroyd, G., & J. Duxbury. 1999. Travels of Peregrine Falcon #5735. Blue Jay 57: 146--149. (CWS, Environment Canada, 4999-98 Ave., Edmonton, AB T6B 2X3, Can.)---An adult female Falco peregrinus tracked by satellite transmitter from her nest in NE Alberta to the Caribbean Sea, July to November, 1998.---R.W.N. {E524} {ROL #81}

{D904} Houston, C. S., & K. I. Fung. 1999. Saskatchewan's first Swainson's Hawk with satellite radio. Blue Jay 57: 69--72. (863 University Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0J8, Can.)---Buteo swainsoni tracked from its nest site to its wintering grounds in Argentina and return.---R.W.N. {E524 {ROL #81}

{D904} Hurley, G. F. 1997. Fall hawk migration at Hanging Rock on Peters Mountain, West Virginia, Part 4. Redstart 64: 118--125. (3907 Estel Road, Fairfax, VA 22031, USA.)---Data for the years 1987--1994.---G.A.H. {ROL #81}

{D904} Launey, F., O. Combreau, & M. A. Bowardi. 1999. Annual migration of Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii from the United Arab Emirates. Bird Conserv. Int. 9: 155--161. (Natl. Avian Res. Ctr., Environ. Res. and Wildl. Dev. Agency, PO Box 45553, Abu Dhabi, UAE.)---Platform transponder terminals used to track 5 birds between UAE and breeding grounds in western-central Asia and China. Description of annual migration cycle is first for species, thought to be declining throughout its range.---K.J.E. {ROL #81}

{D904} Meissner, W., & A. Wlodarczak. 1998. [Spring migration of waders Charadrii in the area of the projected "Rzeczne Laki" reserve at the Bay of Puck {Poland}.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 219--229. (Katedra Ekologii i Zoologii Kr_gowców, Uniwersytet Gdanski, Al. Legionów 9, 80-441 Gdansk, Poland)---Baltic coastal meadows, overview of data from other Polish sites. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{D904} Minton, C. D. T., & R. Jessop. 1999. Sightings of leg-flagged waders from Victoria, Australia: report number 7. Stilt 35: 43--51. (165 Dalgetty Rd., Beaumaris, Vic. 3193, Australia.)---Annotated list of 14 species sighted since Oct 1998.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D904} Minton, C. D. T., & R. Jessop. 1999. Sightings of waders and terns leg-flagged in North-western Australia: report number 6. Stilt 35: 52--58. (165 Dalgetty Rd., Beaumaris, Vic. 3193, Australia.)---Annotated list of 18 species sighted during Apr--Jul 1999.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D904} Minton C. D. T., & R. Jessop. 1999. Sightings of leg-flagged waders from NW Australia: report number 5. Stilt 34: 41--45. (165 Dalgetty Rd., Beaumaris, Vic. 3193, Australia; EM: species with yellow flags sighted since Oct 1997. Good numbers from Hong Kong, Republic of Korea and Japan.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{D904} Munilla, I. 1997. Movement of Yellow-legged Gulls, Larus cachinnans, in the north of the Iberian Peninsula [Spain]. Ardeola 44 (1): 19--26. (Area Ecol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, España.) {ROL #81}

{D904} Olioso, G. 1998. [1997 report of the Provence {France} regional ringing center.] Faune de Provence 19: 69-45. (la Mail, F-26230 Grignan, France.) (French, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{D904} Perez Tris, J., & B. Asensio. 1997. Migration and wintering of the Grey Wagtail, Motacilla cinerea, and the Pied Wagtail, Motacilla alba, in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands [Spain]. Doñana Acta Vert. 24 (1-2): 79--89. (Depto. Biol. Anim. I (Vert.) Fac. Biol. Univ. Complutense. E-28040 Madrid. Spain). {C926} {ROL #81}

{D904} Pérez-Tris, J., & B. Asensio. 1997. Migration and wintering of the Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava) in the Iberian Peninsula. Ardeola 44 (1): 71--78. (Depto. Biol. Anim. 1, Fac. Biol., Univ. Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, España.) {C926} {ROL #81}

{D904} Potti, J. 1998. Arrival time from spring migration in male Pied Flycatchers: individual consistency and familial resemblance. Condor 100: 702--708. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Alcalá, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain; EM: time of male Ficedula hypoleuca in central Spain was not consistent for individuals or similar between relatives. Oldest males arrived first. Males with longest wings settled earlier.---S.N.L. {age, heritability} {ROL #81}

{D904} Saniga, M. 1996 The spring migration arrival and altitudinal occurrences of some species in the Vela Fatra Mountains {Slovakia}---a 15-year summary. Tichodroma 9: 80--86. (Inst. Forest Ecology SAS, Research Station, 976 02 Staré Hory, Slovakia.)---Mean, earliest and latest dates given for 51 species.---P.R.B. {ROL #81}

{D904} Scebba S., G. Moschetti. 1995. Geographical origins of migrating and wintering bird populations in Apulia: An analysis of recaptures. Gli Uccelli d’Italia 20 (2): 95--104. (No address given.) {ROL #81}

{D904} Stiles, D. J., & M. I. Houston. 1994. Distant travels of the Tree Swallows of the Prairie Provinces, 1968--1992. Blue Jay 52: 206--212. (201 Lake Wapta Rise SE, Calgary, AB T2J 2M9, Can.)---26 out-of-Province recoveries, out of 55,000 banded over 25 years, show consistent routes from Alberta and Saskatchewan for Tachycineta bicolor.---R.W.N. {ROL #81}

{D904} Villarán, A. 1999. Migration and wintering of Reed Buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus) in Spain. Ardeola 46 (1): 71--80. (Urbanizaciûn "La Tejera", Blq.4, E-28794 Guadalix de la Sierra, Madrid, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{D906} Figuerola, J., & A. Bertolero. 1995. Theoretical flight ranges of waders resting in the Ebro Delta [Spain] during autumn migration. Doñana Acta Vert. 22 (1-2): 124--130. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal, 645, E-08028 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{D906} Grandio, J. M. 1998. Comparison of body mass, body mass increase, stop-over residence time and abundance of the Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus between two areas of the Txingudi marsh [Spain]. Ardeola 45 (2): 137--142. (Soc. Cienc. Aranzadi, Sec. Vert. Alto de Zorroaga, Elkano Bidea, 31. E-20014 Donostia/ San Sebastian, Spain.) {D902} {ROL #81}

{D908} Åkesson, S, & J. Bäckman. 1999. Orientation in Pied Flycatchers: the relative importance of magnetic and visual information at dusk. Anim. Behav. 57: 819--828. (Dept. Anim. Ecol., Lund Univ., Ecol. Bdg., SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. EM: hypoleuca. {ROL #81}

{D908} Sandberg, R., et al. 1999. Staying in plastic containers interferes with the orientation of clock-shifted homing pigeons. Anim. Behav. 57: 695--704. (W. Wiltschko: FB Biol. Zool., J-W-Goethe Univ., Siesmayerstr. 70, D-60054 Frankfurt, Germany. EM: livia. {ROL #81}

{D908} Wiltschko, R., & W. Wiltschko. 1999. [The orientation system of birds---IV. Evolution.] J. f. Ornithol. 140: 393--417. (FB Biol., Zool., d. Joh. Wolfg. Goethe-Univ., Siesmayerstr. 70, D-60054 Frankfurt a.M., FRG.) (German, English summ.) {D105} {ROL #81}

{E101} Alaja, P., & H. Mikkola. 1997. Albinism in the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) and other owls. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 33--37. (Dept. Appl. Zool., Univ. Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211, Kuopio, Finland.) {ROL #81}

{E101} Crossland, A. C., & D. Simamora. 1999. Albinism amongst Black-winged Stilts in New Zealand. Stilt 35: 41. (46 Frensham Cres., Christchurch 8006, NZ.)---Two partial and one full albino Himantopus himantopus definitely distinguished from juvenile Cladorhynchus leucocephalus.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{E101} Fairfield, G. 1998. A colour variant of the Fox Sparrow. Ontario Birds 18: 146--147. (332 Fairfield Blvd., Toronto, ON M4P 2B8, Can.)---Larger than an adjacent Passerella iliaca iliaca at the same feeder, with reddish-brown head, neck and throat.---M.K.M. {ROL #81}

{E101} Olson, C. V., & S. A. H. Osborn. 2000. First North American record of a melanistic female Northern Harrier. J. Raptor Res. 34: 58--59. (Montana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.)---Circus cyaneus. {ROL #81}

{E101} Polak, M. 1999. [A Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus with an additional leg.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 40: 91. (Krasickiego24/33, 25-430 Kielce, Poland)---Single juvenile, photo record. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{E101} Svingen, P. H., & K. R. Eckert. 1999. An albinistic/leucistic Ring-billed Gull in Duluth [Minnesota.] Loon 71: 112--113. (2602 E. 4th St., Duluth, MN 55812, USA.)---Larus delawarensis. {ROL #81}

{E101} White, M. 1999. An unusual plumage of Bonaparte’s Gull. Birders J. 8: 38--39. (2518 Monroe, Commerce, TX 75428, USA.)---Photos and description of a Larus philadelphia in first basic plumage at Cooper Lake, TX. Extensive dark color on greater and median coverts.---A.L.L. {ROL #81}

{E101} Yésou, P., & P. Ferreira. 1999. [A summer-plumaged Common Tern in December in Brittany {France}.] Ornithos 6: 94--95. (O.N.C., 53 rue Russeil, F-44000 Nantes, France.)---Sterna hirundo, 30/31 December 1998, in Douarnenez harbour. (French, English summ.)---G.O. {ROL #81}

{E102} Dobado-Berrios, P. M., et al. 1998. Effects of age and captivity on plasma chemistry values of Egyptian Vultures. Condor 100: 719--725. (J.A.Donázar: Dept. Appl. Biol., Est. Biol. Doñana, Consejo Superior Invest. Cient., Avda. Maria Luisa s/n, Pabellón del Perú, E-41013 Sevilla, Spain; EM: Neophron percnopterus nestlings had different plasma chemistry from sub-adults and adult. Values differed between captive and free-living adults owing to differences in diet quality and physical activity.---S.N.L. {raptors} {ROL #81}

{E102} Stein, R. W., et al. 1998. Comparative hematology and plasma biochemistry of Red-tailed Hawks and American Kestrels wintering in California. J. Raptor Res. 32: 163--169. (3115 Calhoun Way, Stockton, CA 95219-3707, USA.)---Buteo jamaicensis, Falco sparverius. {ROL #81}

{E104} Akaki, C., & G. E. Duke. 1998. Egestion of chitin in pellets of American Kestrels and Eastern Screech Owls. J. Raptor Res. 32: 286--289. (Dept. Vet. PathoBiology, Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.)---Falco sparverius, Otus asio. {D304} {ROL #81}

{E104} Meynard, C., et al. 1999. Digestive enzymes of a small avian herbivore, the Rufous-tailed Plantcutter. Condor 101: 904--907. (F. Bozinovic: Dept. Ecol., Fac. Cienc. Biol., P. Univ. Católica Chile, Casilla114-D, Santiago, Chile; EM: rara has 3 intestinal membrane-bound digestive enzymes that may allow the exploitation of plants: the disaccharidases sucrase and maltase, and the oligopeptidase, aminopeptidase-N.---S.N.L. {digestion} {ROL #81}

{E108} Beletsky, L. D., et al. 1995. Testosterone and polygyny in birds. Curr. Ornithol. 12: 1--41. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.)---Reviews endocrinological correlates of mating habits and influences and constraints of hormones on reproductive behavior, male-male aggression, and parental care. Includes experimental studies of testosterone implants with male Yellow-headed Blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) and Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).---S.N.L. {B714, B302, promiscuity, leks, breeding density, reproductive success, challenge hypothesis} {ROL #81}

{E108} Jacobs, J. D., & J. C. Wingfield. 2000. Endocrine control of life-cycle stages: A constraint on response to the environment? Condor 102: 35--51. (Dept. Zool., Box 351800, Univ. Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; EM:’ ability to respond to environmental variation may be constrained by the adaptability of their endocrine control systems. Applies finite-state machine theory to define and compare different life-history cycles and interactions of environmental cues on the timing of life-history stages.---S.N.L. {follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, reproduction} {ROL #81}

{E108} Papeschi, A., F. Briganti, & F. Dessì-Fulgheri. 2000. Winter androgen levels and wattle size in male Common Pheasants. Condor 102: 193--197. (Dept. Anim. Biol., Univ. Florence, Via Romana 17, 50125 Florence, Italy; EM: of morphological and hormonal measurements of 101 male Phasianus colchicus found a positive correlation between wattle size and body mass, and between wattle size and androgen level in January but not February, suggesting wattle size can indicate earlier androgen production.---S.N.L. {E114, sexual selection} {ROL #81}

{E108} Vleck, C., & J. L. Brown. 1999. Testosterone and social and reproductive behaviour in Aphelocoma jays. Anim. Behav. 58: 943--951. (Dept. Zool. & Genet., Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011, USA. EM: Aphelocoma californica woodhouseii have high testosterone levels for a shorter spring period than group-living Aphelocoma ultramarina---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{E108} Wasser, S. K., et al. 1997. Noninvasive physiological measures of disturbance in the Northern Spotted Owl. Conserv. Biol. 11: 1019--1022. (Div. Reproductive Endocrinol., Dept. Obstetrics & Gynecology, Box 354793, Univ. Washington, Sch. Med., Seattle, WA 98195, USA.)---Strix occidentalis caurina. Hormone measures from feces indicate stress.---G.C.L. {E518} {ROL #81}

{E110} MacMillen, R. E., & D. S. Hinds. 1998. Water economy of granivorous birds: California House Finches. Condor 100: 493--503. (705 Foss Rd., Talent, OR 97540, USA; EM: that Carpodacus mexicanus under most circumstances depend upon exogenous water supplies. Although more economical, desert forms approach water independence only at night.---S.N.L. {evaporative water loss, metabolic water production, water economy model. {ROL #81}

{E114} Barbosa, A. 1999. Tail streamers and flight performance in Barn Swallows: natural or sexual selection?. Ardeola 46 (1): 101--104. (Depto. Ecol. Evolutiva,. Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat. CSIC. C/Josè Gutierrez Abascal, 2. E-28006 Madrid, Spain; EM: {B306, B318} {ROL #81}

{E114} Barbraud, C., & O. Chastel. 1998. Southern Fulmars molt their primary feathers while incubating. Condor 100: 563--566. (C.E.B.C./C.N.R.S., 79360 Villiers en Bois, France; EM: molt overlaps breeding season in Fulmarus glacialoides, perhaps owing to food abundance during the short summer and a reallocation of energy into molt during incubation.---S.N.L. {E118, breeding} {ROL #81}

{E114} Bojarinova, J. G., E. Lehikoinen, E., & T. Eeva. 1999. Dependence of postjuvenile moult on hatching date, condition and sex in the Great Tit. J. Avian Biol. 30: 437--446. (Biol. Inst., St. Petersburg State Univ., Oranienbaumskoje sh. 2, Stary Peterhoff, St. Petersburg 198904, Russia; EM: major. {ROL #81}

{E114} Cobley, N. D., & P. A. Prince. 1998. Factors affecting primary molt in the Gray-headed Albatross. Condor 100: 8--17. (Br. Antarc. Survey, Nat. Environ. Res. Counc., High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK; EM: number of primaries molted by Diomedea chrysostoma vary with year and previous breeding experience independently, but is not related to individual reproductive success over a longer period.---S.N.L. {arrival mass, South Georgia, year effects} {ROL #81}

{E114} de Repentigny, Y., H. Ouellet, & R. McNeil. 1997. Quantifying conspicuousness and sexual dimorphism of the plumage of birds: a new approach. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1972--1981. (Dept. Sci. Biol., Univ. Montreal, CP 6128 Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Can.) {E116} {ROL #81}

{E114} Ellis, D. E., et al. 1999. Pronounced variation in tarsal and foot feathering in the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) in Mongolia. J. Raptor Res. 33: 323--326. (USGS Patuxent Wildl. Res. Ctr., HCR 1 Box 4420, Oracle, AZ 85623, USA.) {ROL #81}

{E114} Grubb, T. C. Jr. 1995. Ptilochronology: A review and prospectus. Curr. Ornithol. 12: 89--114. (Behav. Ecol. Group, Dept. Zool., Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.)---Examines the use of width of daily growth bars on feathers as an index of nutritional condition. Considers the causes of growth bars, sensitivity to nutritional condition, and applications in research.---S.N.L. {D302, social dominance, caching, relative fitness} {ROL #81}

{E114} Hemborg, C. 1998. Sexual differences in the control of postnuptial moult in the Pied Flycatcher. Anim. Behav. 56: 1221--1227. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Uppsala, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden. EM: clutch manipulation experiments with Ficedula hypoleuca, moult in male, but not female depended on age of nestlings.---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{E114} Leafloor, J. O., C. D. Ankney, & K. W. Risi. 1996. Social enhancement of wing molt in female Mallards. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1376--1378. (Min. Nat. Resour., P.O. Box 730, 2 Third Ave., Cochrane, ON P0L 1C0, Can.)---Synchronous wing molt in Anas platyrhynchos may reduce predation risk and allow more time preparing for fall migration.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{E114} McKnight, S. K., & G. Hepp. 1999. Molt chronology of American Coots in winter. Condor 101: 893--897. (Ducks Unlimited Inc., One Waterfowl Way, Memphis, TN, USA; EM: intensity quantified by converting percentages of developing feathers sampled in 10 feather regions to molt scores and by estimating percentage of total feather mass undergoing molt. Latter measure found to provide a more biologically meaningful measure of molt.---S.N.L. {nutrition} {ROL #81}

{E114} Ontiveros, D. 1995. Growth velocity for wing and tail feathers in Milvus migrans and Buteo buteo during moulting. Ardeola 42 (2): 183--189. (Dr. Fermín Garrido, Edif. Brasilia, 6-6ºB, E-18012 Granada, España.) {ROL #81}

{E114} Polo, V., & L. M. Carrascal. 1999. Ptilochronology and fluctuating asymmetry in tail and wing feathers of Coal Tits Parus ater. Ardeola 46 (2): 195--204. (Dept. Evol. Ecol., Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., CSIC, C/ Josè Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain; EM: mcnp154@ {ROL #81}

{E114} Polo, V., & L. M. Carrascal. 1998. Relationship between body condition and feather growth in the Coal Tit (Parus ater) during winter. Ardeola 45 (2): 201--211. (Depto. Ecol. Evol., Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat. Madrid, CSIC. C/Josè Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid,. Spain.) {E118} {ROL #81}

{E114} Savalli, U. M. 1995. The evolution of bird coloration and plumage elaboration: A review of hypotheses. Curr. Ornithol. 12: 141--190. (Dept. Biol., Allegheny Coll., Meadville, PA 16335, USA.)---Evaluates the evidence in support of 5 categories of hypotheses (physiological, facilitation of foraging, interspecific signaling, intraspecific signaling, nonadaptive) and considers recent approaches that may be able to predict particular patterns or ornaments.---S.N.L. {B318, D105} {ROL #81}

{E114} Stephenson, R., & C. A. Andrews. 1997. The effect of water surface tension on feather wettability in aquatic birds. Can. J. Zool. 75: 288--294. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Toronto, 25 Harbord St., Toronto, ON M5S 3G5, Can.) {ROL #81}

{E114} Van De Wetering, D., & F. Cooke. 2000. Body weight and feather growth of male Barrow’s Goldeneye during wing molt. Condor 102: 228--231. (Can. Wildl. Serv., 91782 Alaska Hwy., Whitehorse, YT Y1A 5B7, Can.; EM: daily change in primary feather length for male Bucephala islandica was 2.6%. Mean duration of flightless period, 31 days. Peak wing molt, 20 July-23 August. Body weight of adult males decreased significantly during wing molt. Body reserves may be used to increase the rate of remigial growth.---S.N.L. {molt strategies, nutrient reserves} {ROL #81}

{E114} Vrtiska, M. P., et al. 1997. Geographical displacement and timing of molt of the remiges in male Wood Ducks. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1545--1548. (Ducks Unlimited, Inc., South. Regional Off., 193 Business Park Dr., Suite E, Jackson, MS 39213, USA.)---Aix sponsa. {D900} {ROL #81}

{E116} Brown, M. 1996. Assessing body condition in birds. Curr. Ornithol. 13: 67--135. (Dept. Biol. Sci., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN 47907-1392, USA.)---Reviews literature of body condition research, examines the basic approach of 7 condition indices, evaluates their accuracy and utility, illustrates how they have been applied, and suggests guidelines for investigating how body condition affects performance.---S.N.L. {D302, ptilochronology, ultrasonic conductance, plasma, fat scoring, lipid mass} {ROL #81}

{E116} Carrascal, L. M., & Polo, V. 1999. Coal Tits, Parus ater, lose weight in response to chases by predators. Anim. Behav. 58: 281--285. (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain. EM: {C916} {ROL #81}

{E116} Johnson, D. H. 1997. Wing loading in 15 species of North American owls. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 553--561. (Washington Dept. Fish Wildl., 600 Capitol Way N., Olympia, WA 98501-1091, USA.)---Includes analysis of sexual dimorphism for most of the 15 species.---J.M.S. {B306} {ROL #81}

{E116} McClelland, B. R., et al. 1998. Size variation of migrant Bald Eagles at Glacier National Park, Montana. J. Raptor Res. 32: 120--125. (Box 366, West Glacier, MT, USA.)---Haliaeetus leucocephalus. {ROL #81}

{E116} Pearson, R. D. 1999. Long-billed European Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 523--524. (Gerstein Sci. Info. Ctr., Univ. Toronto, 9 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON M5S 1A5, Can.) {ROL #81}

{E116} Polo, V., & L. M. Carrascal. 1997. The winter diurnal cycle of body weight in a wild population of Parus cristatus in central Spain. Ardeola 44 (2): 215--224. (Depto. Ecol. Evol., Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., C.S.I.C., C/ José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28005 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{E116} Potti, J., & J. Merino. 1995. Female mass losses are related to male age and body condition in the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Ardeola 42 (2): 173--181. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Univ. Alcalá de Henares, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{E116} Robson, D. 1996. Influence of temperature on the body mass of the Brambling [Fringilla montifringilla]. Ardeola 43 (2): 139--144. (Paseo Margall, 7, 1º-1ª, E-08026 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{E116} Senar, J. C., et al. 1995. The bill crossover ratio of the Common Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra, is not always 1:1. Ardeola 42 (2): 209--210. (Mus. Zool., Apdo. 593, E-08080 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{E118} Abraham, C. L., & R. M. Evans. 1999. The development of endothermy in American White Pelicans. Condor 101: 832--841. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Can.; EM: erythrorhynchos chicks gain thermal competence with age, reaching a modest degree of incipient endothermy by day 7, and thermoregulatory self-sufficiency at day 16.---S.N.L. {B720, altricial, nestling} {ROL #81}

{E118} Bahat, O., I. Choshniak, & D. C. Houston. 1998. Nocturnal variation in body temperature of Griffon Vultures. Condor 100: 168--171. (Fac. Aerospace Engineering, Technion-Israel Inst. Technol., Haifa 32000, Israel; EM: temperature in Gyps fulvus was significantly lower at night than during the day. Nocturnal drop in body temperature was greater for food-deprived birds.---S.N.L. {ambient temperature, body core temperature, daily temperature variation} {ROL #81}

{E118} Battley, P. F., et al. 1999. Differential organ reduction during bird migration. Stilt 35: 60. (Aust. Sch. Environ. Stud., Griffith Univ., Nathan, Qld. 4111, Australia.)---Calidris tenuirostris lost 85% of stored fat and 16% of lean tissue from pectoral muscles, skin, intestine, liver, kidneys and salt glands. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {D906} {ROL #81}

{E118} Chai, P., & R. Dudley. 1999. Maximum flight performance of hummingbirds: capacities, constraints, and trade-offs. Am. Nat. 153: 398--411. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA; EM: with Archilochus colubris showed relatively invariant physiological capacities which may constrain trade-offs between morphology and performance.---J.R.F. {B306} {ROL #81}

{E118} Cooper, S. J. 1999. The thermal and energetic significance of cavity roosting in Mountain Chickadees and Juniper Titmice. Condor 101: 863--866. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Wisconsin-Stevens Point. Stevens Point, WI 54481-3897, USA; EM: used by Poecile gambeli and Baeolophus griseus have less wind than open sites, allowing more fasting, endurance of 2.2 to 3 hours in summer, 5.7 to 7.3 hours in winter.---S.N.L. {B308, energy metabolism, thermal microclimate} {ROL #81}

{E118} Dawson, R. D., & G. R. Bortolotti. 1997. Total plasma protein level as an indicator of condition in wild American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). Can. J. Zool. 75: 680--686. (Dept. Biol., Univ. SK, 112 Science Pl., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Can.) {ROL #81}

{E118} Fortin, D., G. Gauthier, & J. Larochelle. 2000. Body temperature and resting behavior of Greater Snow Goose goslings in the high Arctic. Condor 102: 163--171. (GG: Dépt. biol. & Ctr. d’Études Nordiques, Univ. Laval, Ste. Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Can.; EM: caerulescens atlantica goslings from 4--31 days old maintained mean body core temperature within a narrow range around 40.6° C. As temperature decreased, brooding behavior was prolonged. Body temperature during huddling bouts was significantly lower than during periods of activity.---S.N.L. {B720, hypothermia, social thermoregulation} {ROL #81}

{E118} Hinton, T. G., et al. 1998. An evaluation of whole body potassium-40 content for estimating lean and fat mass in pigeons. Condor 100: 579--582. (Univ. Georgia, Savannah River Ecol. Lab., Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802, USA; EM: body assays of 40K, when used alone, were not useful predictors of lean mass nor derived fat mass.---S.N.L. {Columba livia, body composition, lipids} {ROL #81}

{E118} Hodum, P. J. 1998. Energy expenditure and food requirement of Cassin’s Auklets provisioning nestlings. Condor 100: 546--550. (Dept. Avian Sci., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616-8532, USA; EM: energy expenditure of Ptychoramphus aleuticus adults provisioning nestlings was 413 Å 59 kJ. High field metabolic rate reflects costs of flapping flight and pursuit diving. High water flux rates may reflect diet and foraging mode.---S.N.L. {doubly-labeled water, food consumption, seabird energetics} {ROL #81}

{E118} Weathers, W. W., & E. Greene. 1998. Thermoregulatory responses of Bridled and Juniper Titmice to high temperature. Condor 100: 365--372. (Dept. Avian Sci., Univ. California, Davis, CA 95616-8532, USA; EM: wollweberi, which prefer more heavily vegetated, moister, cooler habitats, has a higher rate of evaporative water loss than Baeolophus ridgwayi, even after accounting for the difference in body size, suggesting physiology plays a role in these species’ habitat preferences.---S.N.L. {energy metabolism, heat stress} {ROL #81}

{E120} Graveland, J. 1996. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources. Can. J. Zool. 74: 1035--1044. (Inst. For. Nat. Res., P.O. Box 23, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands.)---Calcium consumption in Great Tits (Parus major).---D.E.F. {B710, D302} {ROL #81}

{E120} Johnson, D. D. P., & J. V. Briskie. 1999. Sperm competition and sperm length in shorebirds. Condor 101: 848--854. (Edward Grey Inst. Field Ornithol., Dept. Zool., Univ. Oxford, South Parks Rd., Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK; EM: 16 species of shorebirds investigated, sperm were significantly longer in non-monogamous species than in socially monogamous species, suggesting that sperm size increases with intensity of sperm competition.---S.N.L. {B714, Charadriidae, Scolopacidae, Jacanidae, mating system, sperm morphology} {ROL #81}

{E120} Jones, G. A., & C. J. Norment. 1998. Absence of breeding readiness in Neotropical and long-distance migrant landbirds during spring stopover. Condor 100: 373--376. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol. & Conserv., Univ. Florida Inst. Food & Agric. Sci., 303 Newins-Ziegler Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-0430, USA; EM: 2 of 775 individuals, representing 14 species, examined for outward physiological indication of male breeding readiness showed a cloacal protuberance. No cloacal lavage samples taken from 48 birds showed presence of cloacal sperm. Poor energetic condition may explain lack of early sperm production.---S.N.L. {early sperm release, gonadal recrudescence, reproductive timing, stopover ecology} {ROL #81}

{E120} Puigcerver, M., et al. 1993-1994. Presence of penis in the European Quail, Coturnix c. coturnix. Misc. Zool. 17: 288--291. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{E120} Tilgar, V., R. Mänd, & A. Leivits. 1999. Effect of calcium availability and habitat quality on reproduction in Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca and Great Tit Parus major. J. Avian Biol. 30: 383--391. (Inst. Zool. & Bot., Estonian Agric. Univ., Vanemuise 46, Tartu 51014, Estonia; EM: study shows that calcium limitation may occur on naturally calcium-poor soils.---R.T.B. {ROL #81}

{E120} Wesotowski, T. 1999. Reduction of phallus in birds---an avian way to safe sex? J. Avian Biol. 30: 483--485. (Dept. Avian Ecol., Wroclaw Univ., Sienkiewicza 21, 50 335 Wroclaw, Poland; EM: of phallus in birds may increase speed of sperm transfer and hence reduce predation risk and increase copulation efficiency.---R.T.B. {B312} {ROL #81}

{E122} Dunker, H.-R. 2000. [The respiratory apparatus of birds and their locomotory and metabolic efficiency.] J. f. Ornithol. 141: 1--67. (Inst. F. Anatomie u. Zellbiol. d. Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Aulweg 123, D-35392 Giessen, FRG.) (German, English summ.) {ROL #81}

{E124} Clark, L. 1997. Physiological, ecological, and evolutionary bases for the avoidance of chemical irritants by birds. Curr. Ornithol. 14: 1--37. (USDA, Anim. & Health Inspection Serv., Anim. Damage Control, Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr., Fort Collins, CO 80524, USA.)---Anatomical description of the chemesthetic system of birds, neurochemical mechanisms mediating the perception of irritation and pain, role of sensory systems in mediating avoidance response, differences in avoidance of irritants between birds and mammals, importance of chemical nature of repellents in fruits, role of irritants in conservation and management of birds.---S.N.L. {B310, E520} {ROL #81}

{E126} Berman, S., et al. 1998. Intraspecific variation in the hindlimb musculature of the Northern Flicker. Condor 100: 574--579. (Dept. Biol., Coll. Holy Cross, Worcester, MA 01610, USA; EM: dissection of 51 specimens of Colaptes auratus showed 3 variations involving M. iliofibularis, M. pubo-ischio-femoralis, and M. flexor perforatus digiti IV.---S.N.L. {morphology, random variation} {ROL #81}

{E126} Calmaestra, R. G., & E. Moreno. 1998. Ecomorphological patterns related to migration in the genus Sylvia: an osteological analysis. Ardeola 45 (1): 21--27. (Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., CSIC. Depto. Ecol. Evol. C/José Gutierrez Abascal,2., E-28006 Madrid, Spain; EM: mcng {D900} {ROL #81}

{E126} Dutta, C., et al. 1998. Skeletal development at the time of fledging in House Wrens. Condor 100: 568--573. (L.S.Johnson: Dept. Biol. & Chem., Towson Univ., Towson, MD 21252, USA; EM: fledging, skeleton of Troglodytes aedon has 30% less calcium than adult skeleton. Calcium appears to be selectively allocated, with coracoids and leg bones most calcified.---S.N.L. {B720, growth} {ROL #81}

{E302} Tokaryk, T. T. 1999. A toothed bird Hesperornis sp. (Hesperornithiformes) from the Pierre Shale (Late Cretaceous) of Saskatchewan. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 670--672. (Eastend Fossil Res. Sta., Royal Saskatchewan Mus., Box 460, Eastend, SK S0N 0T0, Can.) {ROL #81}

{E304} Mayr, G. 2000. A new mousebird (Coliiformes: Coliidae) from the Oligocene of Germany. J. f. Ornithol. 141: 85--92. (Forschungsinst. Senckenberg, Sektion f. Ornithol., Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt/M., FRG.) {ROL #81}

{E304} Seguí, B. 1999. A Late Tertiary Woodcock from Menorca, Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Condor 101: 909--915. (Dept. Ciènc. De la Terra, Univ. Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5 E-07071, Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain; EM: Scolopax carmesinae n. sp., known from one proximal fragment and one complete humerus. May have been the ancestor of Scolopax rusticola.---S.N.L. {biogeography, paleontology} {ROL #81}

{E308} Agilar B., A., & F. Hernández C. 1993. [Remains of raptors from Holocene archaeological sites in the Iberian Peninsula {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 379--388. (Lab. Arqueozool., Fac. Cienc. C-XV, Univ. Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco, España.) {ROL #81}

{E308} Hernández, F., & T. Tyrberg. 1999. The Demoiselle Crane Anthropoides virgo in the Iberian Peninsula, a summary of historical and subfossil data. Ardeola 46 (1): 97--100. (Colección Aves y Mamìferos, Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., C/Josè Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid, Spain.) {C310} {ROL #81}

{E308} Sánchez, A. 1996. Fossil birds of the Iberian Pleistocene: Climatic, ecological and zoogeographic traits. Ardeola 43 (2): 207--219. (Depto. Paleonthol., Mus. Nac. Cienc. Nat., C.S.I.C. José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{E502} Conrad, K. F., R. J. Robertson, & P. T. Boag. 2000. Difficulties in storing and preserving tyrant flycatcher blood samples used for genetic analyses. Condor 102: 191--193. (Upper Flat, 27 King Harry Lane, St. Albans, Herts., AL3 4AS, UK)---Stored blood samples of Sayornis phoebe and Tyrannus tyrannus nestlings did not reliably produce quantity and quality of DNA useful for multi-locus DNA fingerprinting. DNA extractions should be conducted as soon as possible after collection.---S.N.L. {blood preservation, paternity} {ROL #81}

{E502} Hobson, K. A. 1999. Stable-carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of songbird feathers grown in two terrestrial biomes: Implications for evaluating trophic relationships and breeding origins. Condor 101: 799--805. (Prairie & North. Wildl. Res. Ctr., Can. Wildl. Serv., 115 Perimeter Rd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4, Can., & Dept. Biol., Univ. Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2, Can.; EM: of stable-nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in feathers of insectivorous songbirds and in their supporting foodwebs between boreal forest sites and prairie agro-wetland sites in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Feather carbon-13 isotope values did not differ, but feathers from boreal forest birds had less nitrogen-15 than those of prairie site birds.---S.N.L. {frugivory, migration, nectarivory} {ROL #81}

{E502} Merino, S., et al. 1999. Phytohaemagglutinin injection assay and physiological stress in nestling House Martins. Anim. Behav. 58: 219--222. (Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain. EM: urbica. {ROL #81}

{E504} Ellis, D. H., et al. 2000. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. Condor 102: 104--112. (USGS/BRD, Patuxent Wildl. Ctr., 12302 Beech Forest Rd., Laurel, MD 20708-4022, USA; EM: 1st year survival rate for 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Grus canadensis pulla was 80%. Highest survival rate was for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds.---S.N.L. {reintroduction techniques} {ROL #81}

{E504} Pollock, L. 1999. Osprey rescues at Preeceville. Blue Jay 57: 143--145. (Box 255, Preeceville, SK S0A 3B0, Can.)---Pandion haliaetus. {ROL #81}

{E506} Bowman, T. D., & P. F. Schempf. 1999. Detection of Bald Eagles during aerial surveys in Prince William Sound, Alaska. J. Raptor Res. 33: 299--304. (U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., 1011 East Tudor Road, Anchorage, AK 99503, USA.)---Estimated detection rates for Haliaeetus leucocephalus during fixed-wing aerial surveys to extrapolate the index (number actually observed) to an estimate of the total population of the species in the study area.---P.A.G. {ROL #81}

{E506} Cantos, F. J., et al. 1999. Application of sensor and thermal cameras for the census of winter roosts of birds. Ardeola 46 (2): 187--193. (Prog. Desarrollo de la Estrategia Española de Biodiversidad. D. G. Conserv. Nat., Gran Vìa de San Francisco 4, 28005 Madrid, Spain.) {ROL #81}

{E506} Drapeau, P., A. Leduc, & R. McNeil. 1999. Refining the use of point counts at the scale of individual points in studies of bird-habitat relationships. J. Avian Biol. 30: 367--382. (Gp. de rech. écol. forestière interuniv. (GREFi), Univ. Québec à Montréal, C.P. 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3C 3P8; EM: {ROL #81}

{E506} Francis, C. M., & M. S. W. Bradstreet. 1997. Monitoring boreal forest owls in Ontario using tape playback surveys with volunteers. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 175--184. (Long Pt. Bird Obs., P.O. Box 160, Port Rowan, ON N0E 1M0, Can.)---Pilot study to determine feasibility of long-term surveys to detect owl population changes. Strix varia, Strix nebulosa, Aegolius acadicus, Aegolius funereus.---J.M.S. {E522} {ROL #81}

{E506} Holroyd, G. L., & L. Takats. 1997. Workshop: Report on the nocturnal raptor monitoring workshop. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 609--611. (Can. Wildl. Serv., Environ. Can., Rm. 200, 4999-98 Avenue, Edmonton, AB T6B 2X3, Can.; EM: survey techniques for inventorying and monitoring owls.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{E506} Kujawa, K. 1999. [Influence of the transect course on assessment of breeding bird densities in farmland.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 40: 79--85. (Zaklad Badania Srodowiska Rolniczego i Lesnego PAN, Stacja Badawcza, Szkolna 4, 64-003 Turew, Poland, EM: of Alauda arvensis and Motacilla flava in Poland and Bavaria are substantially lower close to built-up and wooded areas. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{E506} Loyn, R. 1999. A quarter-century of wader counts in Western Port [Victoria, Australia] (the BOCA survey). Stilt 35: 64. (Arthur Rylah Inst., Dept. Nat. Resour. Environ., 123 Brown St., Heidelberg, Vic. 3084, Australia; EM: and major findings for individual species. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {C914} {ROL #81}

{E506} Mocci D., A. 1997. A new methodology for rapid censuses in wide areas. Gli Uccelli d`Italia. 22 (1): 7--15. (Dept. Biol. Anim. Ecol., Univ. Cagliari, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.) {ROL #81}

{E506} Nur, N., & G. R. Geupel. 1993. Evaluation of mist-netting, nest-searching, and other methods for monitoring demographic processes in landbird populations. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 237--244. (Pt. Reyes Bird Obs., 4990 Shoreline Highway, Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA.)---Assesses accuracy of constant-effort netting in measuring fecundity and survivorship.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, B904, C910, C914, C918} {ROL #81}

{E506} Paton, P. W. C., et al. 1990. Surveying Marbled Murrelets in inland forested sites: A guide. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-120. (Pacific SW Res. Stn.: P.O. Box 245, Berkeley, CA 94701-0245, USA.)---Brachyramphus marmoratus. {B906, C914} {ROL #81}

{E506} Pelletier, L., & C. J. Krebs. 1997. Line-transect sampling for estimating ptarmigan (Lagopus spp.) density. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1185--1192. (208 des Canotiers, Aylmer, PQ J9J 1W4, Can.)---Status of population may not be accurately assessed by censussing only a small area. Lagopus lagopus, Lagopus mutus, Lagopus leucurus.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{E506} Pinilla, J., & B. Arroyo. 1995. Methodological remarks about census of Montagu's Harriers, Circus pygargus. Alytes R.E.C.N. 7: 561--567. (Coslada, 8, E-28028 Madrid, España.) {ROL #81}

{E506} Proudfoot, G. A., et al. 1997. Effectiveness of broadcast surveys in determining habitat use of Ferruginous Pygmy-owls (Glaucidium brasilianum) in southern Texas. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 338. (Caesar Kleberg Wildl. Res. Inst., Campus Box 218, Texas A&M Univ.-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA.)---Results indicate habitat use can be determined by response to broadcast survey.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{E506} Ralph, C. J. 1993. Designing and implementing a monitoring program and the standards for conducting point counts. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 204--207. (U.S. For. Serv., Redwood Sci. Lab., 1700 Bayview Dr., Arcata, CA 95521, USA.) {B906, C914} {ROL #81}

{E506} Ralph, C. J., et al. 1993. Handbook of field methods for monitoring landbirds. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-144. (Pacific SW Res. Stn.: P.O. Box 245, Berkeley, CA 94701-0245, USA.) {C914, E508} {ROL #81}

{E506} Sato, S., & T. Kuroiwa. 2000. [An evaluation of the roadside territory mapping method for monitoring a woodland bird community.] Strix 18: 89--98. (Shikoku Res. Ctr., For. & For. Products Res. Inst., 2-915 Asakura-nichimachi, Kochi 780-8077, Japan.)---5 or 6 censuses of roadside territory mapping were necessary to record the major species and their composition ratio. (Japanese, Engl. summ.)---M.J.U. {ROL #81}

{E506} Zuberogoitia, I., & L. F. Campos. 1998. Censussing owls in large areas: a comparison between methods. Ardeola 45 (1): 47--53. (Lab. Zool., Depto. Zool. y Dinámica Celular Anim., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Pais Vasco, Ap. 644. E-48080 Bilbao, Spain; EM: {ROL #81}

{E506] Kosinski, Z., & M. Kupczyk. 1998. [Accuracy of the circle count method as compared with the mapping method and its usefulness for monitoring of waterfowl.] Notatki Ornitologiczne 39: 243--252. (Zaklad Biologii i Ekologii Ptaków UAM, Fredry 10, 61-701 Poznan, Poland; EM: count used on one lake over 4 seasons, much less accurate than the combined mapping but proposed for extensive monitoring. (Polish, Engl. summ.)---T.W. {ROL #81}

{E508} Hines, E. M., & J. Franklin. 1997. A sensitivity analysis of a map of habitat quality for the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) in southern California. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 218--236. (JF: Dept. Geog., San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA 92182, USA.)---Using GIS, a sensitivity analysis was performed on estimated mapping errors of several features. This will generate different map realizations for a population model.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{E508} Preston, E. M., & C. A. Ribic. 1993. EMAP and other tools for measuring biodiversity, habitat conditions, and environmental trends. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 223--228. (U.S. Environ. Prot. Agency, Environ. Res. Lab.-Corvallis, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.)---Describes methodologies used by the E.P.A.---W.M.G. {Environmental Protection Agency, Neotropical migrants, B904, C914, C908} {ROL #81}

{E508} Rich, T. D. 1993. Monitoring goals and programs of the Bureau of Land Management. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-229: 265--268. (1387 S. Vinnell Way, Boise, ID 83709, USA.)---Remoteness of many land holdings makes monitoring difficult.---W.M.G. {Neotropical migrants, Partners in Flight, B904, C914, E506} {ROL #81}

{E509} Granadeiro, J. P., M. D. Burns, & R. W. Furness. 1999. Food provisioning to nestling shearwaters: why parental behaviour should be monitored. Anim. Behav. 57: 663--671. (Inst. Conserv. Nat., Rua Ferreira Lapa 38, 6o, 1150 Lisboa, Portugal. EM: provisioning data obtained by periodic weighing and by logging parental visits in Calonectris diomedea---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{E509} Seguin, J.-F., et al. 1998. A comparison of methods to evaluate the diet of Golden Eagles in Corsica. J. Raptor Res. 32: 314--318. (Parc Naturel Régional de Corse, B. P. 417, F-20184 Ajaccio, Corsica; or Ecole Pratique Hautes Etudes, Lab. Biogéogr. & Ecol. Vertébrés, Place Eugène Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France)---Aquila chrysaetos. {ROL #81}

{E510} King, D. I., & R. M. DeGraaf. 1999. Silvicultural options for managing birds in northern hardwoods forests in extensively forested landscapes. Bird Obs. (Massachusetts) 27: 232--240. (C/O BOEM, P.O. Box 236, Arlington, MA 02476, USA.) {B910} {ROL #81}

{E510} Pribil, S., & J. Picman. 1997. The importance of using the proper methodology and spatial scale in the study of habitat selection by birds. Can. J. Zool. 75: 1835--1844. (Dept. Biol., Univ. Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Can.)---Habitat selection of Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) studied at different scales within a marsh.---D.E.F. {ROL #81}

{E510} Stahlecker, D. W. 1997. Using tape playback of the staccato song to document Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus) reproduction. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 597--600. (Eagle Ecol. Serv., 30 Fonda Rd., Santa Fe, NM 87505, USA.)---8 Aegolius, incl. 1 Aegolius acadicus, responded in 16 hours of playback. This method is far quicker for finding fledged owls in mid-summer than looking for nests.---J.M.S. {E522} {ROL #81}

{E512} Alderson, G. W., H. L. Gibbs, & S. G. Sealy. 1999. Determining the reproductive behaviour of individual Brown-headed Cowbirds using microsatellite DNA markers. Anim. Behav. 58: 895--905. (HLG: Dept. Biol., McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Can. EM: ater. {ROL #81}

{E512} Baker, A. J., T. Piersma, & A. D. Greenslade. 1999. Molecular vs. phenotypic sexing in Red Knots. Condor 101: 887--893. (TP: Netherlands Inst. Sea Res. (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, & Ctr. Ecol. And Evol. Stud., Univ. Groningen, P.O. Box 14, 9750 AA Haren, The Netherlands; EM: sexing based on size of polymerase chain reaction products from the CHD genes after digestion with Hae III accurately identifies gender in this species, while size or plumage dimorphism are only partly effective indicators.---S.N.L. {D704, morphometrics, plumage, shorebirds} {ROL #81}

{E512} Kraaijeveld-Smit, F., R. MacIntosh, & M. A. Weston. 1999. Sexing the Hooded Plover. Stilt 35: 63. (Dept. Zool., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. 3052, Australia.)---DNA technique using blood samples for Thinornis rubricollis. (Abstract only).---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{E512} Morrison, J. L., & M. Maltbie. 1999. Methods for gender determination of Crested Caracaras. J. Raptor Res. 33: 128--133. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol. Conserv., P. O. Box 110430, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.)---Genetic analyses correctly identified the gender of 14 known-sex Caracara plancus; morphometric measurements were unreliable.---P.A.G. {D704} {ROL #81}

{E512} Norris-Caneda, K. H., J. D. Elliott, Jr. 1998. Sex identification in raptors using PCR. J. Raptor Res. 32: 278--280. (South Carolina Ctr. Birds of Prey, P. O. Box 1247, Charleston, SC 29402, USA.)---Investigates the possible use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a genetic technique, to identify sex in nine species of raptors.---P.A.G. {D704}. {ROL #81}

{E512} Wink, M., et al. 1999. The use of DNA fingerprinting to estimate annual survival rates in the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). J. f. Ornithol. 140: 481--489. (Inst. f. Pharmazeutische Biol. d. Univ. Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg, FRG.) {ROL #81}

{E514} Akcakaya, H. R., & J. L. Atwood. 1997. A habitat-based metapopulation model of the California Gnatcatcher. Conserv. Biol. 11: 422--434. (Appl. Biomathematics, 100 N. Country Rd., Setauket, NY 11733, USA.) {B904, C914} {ROL #81}

{E514} Brooks, T. M., S. L. Pimm, & N. J. Collar. 1997. Deforestation predicts the number of threatened birds in insular Southeast Asia. Conserv. Biol. 11: 382--394. (Dept. Ecol. Evol. Biol., (569 Dabney Hall, Univ. TN, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.)--Provides an index of extinction crisis based on extent of deforestation.---G.C.L. {B900} {ROL #81}

{E514} Haney, J. C., & A. R. Solow. 1992. Analyzing quantitative relationships between seabirds and marine resource patches. Curr. Ornithol. 9: 105--161. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.)---Examines dimensions for interpreting relationships between seabirds and marine resources relevant to at-sea census and environment studies.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{E514} Hayward, G. D., & D. B. McDonald. 1997. Matrix population models as a tool in development of habitat models. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 205--212. (Dept. Zool. Physiol., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA.)---Measures derived from population matrix models appear to provide flexible, powerful and intuitively appealing metrics with rigorous links to fundamental theory in population ecology and genetics. Discussion uses owls.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{E514} Hodar, J. A. 1997. The use of regression equations for the estimation of prey length and biomass in diet studies of insectivorous vertebrates. Misc. Zool. 20 (2): 1--10. (Depto. Biol. Anim. Ecol., Fac. Cienc., Univ. Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain). {ROL #81}

{E514} Kearns, A. E. 1997. Workshop: The role and management implications of modeling owl populations and the habitats they occupy. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 616--619. (Nat. Resour. Inst., Univ. Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Can.)---Focused on GIS, HSI models, Meta-population models, and Population Matrix models; set of strategies developed for using these modeling techniques to promote ecosystem management.---J.M.S. {B910} {ROL #81}

{E514} Moulton, M. P., & J. G. Sanderson. 1997. Predicting the fates of passeriform introductions on oceanic islands. Conserv. Biol. 11: 552--558. (Dept. Wildl. Ecol. Conserv., P.O. Box 110430, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.) {B509} {ROL #81}

{E515} Frith, S. D., K. M. Mazur, & P. C. James. 1997. A method for locating Barred Owl (Strix varia) nests in the southern boreal forest of Saskatchewan. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 545--547. (Box 22, Grp. 5, RR 2, Ste. Anne, MB R5H 1R2, Can.)---Response to playback located pair in evening, listening for pair just before dawn gave strong indication of nest site, and only investigation of the suitable sites remained for daytime.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{E515} Marini, M. â., & C. Melo. 1998. Predators of quail eggs, and the evidence of the remains: Implications for nest predation studies. Condor 100: 395--399. (Dept. Biol. Geral, ICB, C.P. 486, Univ. Federal Minas Gerais, 30161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil; EM: consumption of Coturnix coturnix eggs by captive reptiles, birds, and mammals. Since all 3 groups of predators left all types of egg remains, nest predators should not be inferred from egg remains alone.---S.N.L. {C916, artificial nests, predator behavior} {ROL #81}

{E515} Siegel, R. B., W. W. Weathers, & S. B. Beissinger. 1999. Assessing parental effort in a Neotropical parrot: a comparison of methods. Anim. Behav. 57: 73--79. (Inst. Bird. Pop., PO Box 1346, Point Reyes Station, CA 94956-1346, USA. EM: a field study of Forpus passerinus, nestling provisioning rate, but not time away from nest, adult mass change or feeding latency, was correlated with doubly labeled water estimate of metabolic rate in males and females---A.K.T. {ROL #81}

{E515} Wilson, G. R., M. C. Brittingham, & L. J. Goodrich. 1998. How well do artificial nests estimate success of real nests? Condor 100: 357--364. (MCB: Sch. For. Resour., Pennsylvania State Univ., For. Resour. Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USA; EM: comparison of 58 active Hylocichla mustelina nests and 58 artificial nests, rates of nest predation were lower for active nests (33%) than artificial nests (64%), while Molothrus ater parasitized 26% of active nests and no artificial nests. Rates of predation were highest in small woodlots and declined with increasing forest patch size for both active and artificial nests.---S.N.L. {B704, C916} {ROL #81}

{E516} Delaney, D. K., T. G. Grubb, & D. K. Garcelon. 1998. An infrared video camera system for monitoring diurnal and nocturnal raptors. J. Raptor Res. 32: 290--296. (USDA For. Serv., Rocky Mountain Res. Stn., 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001-6381, USA.) {ROL #81}

{E516} Richardson, D. M., et al. 1999. A video probe system to inspect Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavities. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 353--356. (USFWS, Noxubee NWR, Rt. 1, Box 142, Brooksville, MS 39739, USA.)---Picoides borealis. {ROL #81}

{E518} Johnson, N. K., J. V. Remsen Jr., & C. Cicero. 1998. Refined colorimetry validates endangered subspecies of the Least Tern. Condor 100: 18--26. (Mus. Vert. Zool. & Dept. Integrative Biol., Univ. California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3160, USA; EM: of Sterna antillarum browni, Sterna antillarum athalassos, and Sterna antillarum antillarum are clearly distinguishable by using modern colorimetry to quantitatively analyze color variation.---S.N.L. {D108, D702, conservation biology, taxonomy} {ROL #81}

{E518} Purvis, J. R., et al. 1999. Estimation of Ring-necked Pheasant condition with total body electrical conductivity. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 216--220. (Texas Parks Wildl. Dept. 4200 Smith School Rd., Austin, TX 78744, USA.)---For Phasianus colchicus, total body electrical shock predicted lean mass at 99.5% of actual, and lipid mass at 106.8% of actual; predictions based on total body electrical shock were better than those based on morphological measurements.---W.P.J. {E118} {ROL #81}

{E520} Conover, M. 1999. Can waterfowl be taught to avoid food handouts through conditioned food aversions? Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 160--166. (Jack Berryman Inst., Dept. Fish. Wildl., Utah State Univ., Logan, UT 84322-5210, USA.)---Free ranging Branta canadensis and Cygnus olor fed dimethyl anthranilate or methiocarb treated bread were less likely to accept handouts; however, aversions in geese were weak.---W.P.J. {ROL #81}

{E520} Davies, R. A. G. 1999. The extent, cost, and control of livestock predation by eagles with a case study on Black Eagles (Aquila verreauxii) in the Karoo [South Africa]. J. Raptor Res. 33: 67--72. (Mammal Res. Inst., Univ. Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.) {ROL #81}

{E520} Jones, D. N., & L. K. Thomas. 1999. Attacks on humans by Australian Magpies: management of an extreme suburban human-wildlife conflict. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 473--478. (Suburban Wildl. Res. Group, Australian School Environ. Stud., Griffith Univ., Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia.)---Gymnorhina tibicen. {ROL #81}

{E520} Kenward, R. E. 1999. Raptor predation problems and solutions. J. Raptor Res. 33: 73--75. (Inst. Terrestrial Ecol., Furzebrook Res. Stn., Wareham, Dorset BH20 5AS, UK.) {ROL #81}

{E522} Gallego, S., J. D. Rodríguez-Tejeiro, & M. Puigcarver. 1993. [The efficiency of using bird calls to capture Quail (Coturnix c. coturnix).] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 429--436. (Mus. Zool., Fac. Biol., Univ. Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal, 645, E-08028 Barcelona, España.) {ROL #81}

{E522} Montero, A. R., J. J. Iribarren, & D. Campion. 1993. [Using play-back to survey falconiforms, Navarra {Spain}.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 415--419. (Depto. Zool., Univ. Navarra, E-31008 Pamplona, España.) {ROL #81}

{E524} Gilson, L. N. 1998. Evaluation of neck-mounted radio transmitters for use with juvenile Ospreys. J. Raptor Res. 32: 247--250. (Raptor Res. Ctr., Boise State Univ., 1910 University Dr., Boise, ID 83725, USA.)---Pandion haliaetus. {ROL #81}

{E524} Harmata, A. R., et al. 1999. Using marine surveillance radar to study bird movements and impact assessment. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 44--52. (Fish Wildl. Prog., Biol. Dept., Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT 59717, USA.)---Marine surveillance radar was effective at quantifying time, location, and magnitude of bird movements. Flight speeds were obtained for many species; Ardea herodias, Branta canadensis, Grus canadensis, Hirundo rustica, Nucifraga columbiana.---W.P.J. {B306, D900} {ROL #81}

{E524} Mawhinney, K., & A. W. Diamond. 1999. Using radio-transmitters to improve estimates of gull predation on Common Eider ducklings. Condor 101: 824--831. (Atlantic Coop. Wildl. Ecol. Res. Network, Univ. New Brunswick, P.O. Box 45111, Fredericton, NB E3B 6E1, Can.)---Using radio-transmitters fitted on Somateria mollissima ducklings and subsequently retrieved from Larus marinus pellets suggests traditional methods underestimate predation by a factor of 5--17.---S.N.L. {D302} {ROL #81}

{E524} Meyers, P. M., S. A. Hatch, & D. M. Mulcahy. 1998. Effect of implanted satellite transmitters on the nesting behavior of murres. Condor 100: 172--174. (SAH: Biol. Resour. Div., USGS, Alaska Sci. Ctr., 1011 E Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503, USA; EM: 16 Uria aalge and Uria lomvia fitted with satellite transmitters, 6 were re-sighted at the colony, and no implanted bird retained breeding status. 7 of 10 surgically treated control birds did retain breeding status.---S.N.L. {implantation, seabird} {ROL #81}

{E524} Ostrand, W. D., et al. 1998. Evaluation of radio-tracking and strip transect methods for determining foraging ranges of Black-legged Kittiwakes. Condor 100: 709--718. (Migratory Bird Manage., U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., 1011 E. Tudor Rd., Anchorage, AK 99503-6199, USA; EM: data gave a more representative indication of foraging distances in Rissa tridactyla than did strip transect sampling.---S.N.L. {habitat use, Prince William Sound, seabirds} {ROL #81}

{E526} Aranda L., E. P., & J. A. Masero O. 1993. [Computer methods to manage passeriform ringing data.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 403--415. (No address given.) {C702} {ROL #81}

{E526} Drewien, R. C., K. R. Clegg, & R. E. Shea. 1999. Capturing Trumpeter Swans by night-lighting. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 209--215. (Hornocker Wildl. Inst., Univ. Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843, USA.)---Cygnus buccinator. {ROL #81}

{E526} Duffy, K. E., & P. E. Matheny. 1997. Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) captured at Cape May Point, NJ, 1980--1994: Comparison of two capture techniques. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 131--137. (P.O. Box 26, Moose, WY 83012, USA.)---Capture rates increased 6-fold when using audiolures in vicinity of mist nets.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{E526} Erdman, T. C., & D. F. Brinker. 1997. Increasing mist net captures of migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) with an audiolure. USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 533--544. (Richter Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI 54311, USA.)---Use revolutionized the banding of this owl on migration. Detailed appendix describes equipment and operation.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}


{E526} Evans, D. L. 1997. The influence of broadcast tape-recorded calls on captures of fall migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) and Long-eared Owls (Asio otus). USDA, For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-GTR-190: 173--174. (Hawk Ridge Nat. Reserve, 2928 Greysolon Rd., Duluth, MN 55812, USA.)---Varied capture times with and without tapes, altering the capture rates of both species.---J.M.S. {ROL #81}

{E526} Johnson, C. L., & R. T. Reynolds. 1998. A new trap design for capturing Spotted Owls. J. Raptor Res. 32: 181--182. (USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Res. Stn., 240 W. Prospect St., Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA.)---Strix occidentalis lucida. {ROL #81}

{E526} Kehoe, F. P., & K. Mawhinney. 1999. Evaluation of various methods used to color mark ducklings. Can. Field-Nat. 113: 675--677. (Ducks Unlimited Can., 350 Aqueduct Rd., Brooks, AB T1R 2B7, Can.)---Nasal discs best.---D.L.E. {ROL #81}

{E526} Lane, S. G. 1999. Notes on banding Wonga Pigeons Leucosarcia melanoleuca at Moonee, New South Wales [Australia]. Corella 23: 67--68. (66 Fairview Rd., Moonee, NSW 2450, Australia.)---Compares different trap types and discusses recaptures.---I.D.E. {ROL #81}

{E526} McCloskey, J. T., & S. R. Dewey. 1999. Improving the success of a mounted Great Horned Owl lure for trapping Northern Goshawks. J. Raptor Res. 33: 168--169. (USDA, For. Serv., Ashley Natl. For., Vernal Ranger Dist., 355 North Vernal Ave., Vernal, UT 84078, USA.)---Bubo virginianus, Accipiter gentilis. {ROL #81}

{E526} Pascual, J. A., S. J. Peris, & J. M. Calvo. 1993. [Use of a nest-trap model in capture-ringing-recapture.] Alytes R.E.C.N. 6: 421--427. (Depto. Biol. Anim., Ecol., Parasitol., Edaphol., Fac. Biol., Univ. Salamanca, E-37071, Salamanca, España.) {ROL #81}

{E526} Weiss, V. A., & D. A. Cristol. 1999. Plastic color bands have no detectable short-term effects on White-breasted Nuthatch behavior. Condor 101: 884--886. (DAC: Dept. Biol., Coll. William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795, USA; EM: carolinensis were studied in an aviary setting to see if plastic bands harmed their very short legs. No harmful effects were found.---S.N.L. {ROL #81}

{E526} Wilson, J. R., C. D. T. Minton, & D. I. Rogers. 1999. Weight loss by waders held in captivity following capture by cannon-netting. Stilt 35: 25--33. (13/27 Giles St., Kensington, ACT 2604, Australia.)---Weight loss per hour decreases with time and increases with temperature. Percentage weight loss depends on physiological condition of birds. Previous published studies appear to be incorrect.---I.D.E. {E116} {ROL #81}

{E526} Winchell, C. S. 1999. An efficient technique to capture complete broods of Burrowing Owls. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27: 193--196. (USFWS-Ecol. Serv., Carlsbad Fish Wildlife Off., 2730 Loker Ave. West, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA.)---Athene cunicularia. {ROL #81}