Archivists and Genealogical Researchers: A Bibliography

This bibliography is an ongoing project centered around ICA's Committee on Outreach and User Services. Special attention is paid to genealogical researchers, who -- worldwide -- make up a consistently large proportion of the users of most archives. Abstracts have been added for selected articles, those that deal specifically with family history or those that are insightful to the study of archival attitudes towards genealogy.

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Abbott, Andrew. The System of Professions : An Essay on the Division of Expert Labor. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Ailes, Adrian and Iain Watt.  "Survey of Visitors to British Archives, June 1998." Journal of the Society of Archivists 20, 2 (1999): 177-194.

Altman, Burt and John R. Nemmers.  "The Usability of On-line Archival Resources: The Polaris Project Finding Aid." The American Archivist 64 (Spring/Summer 2001): 121-131.

Amason, Craig R.  "Instructions for Genealogists in the Public Library." The Reference Librarian 22 (November 22,1988): 283-295.

American Library Association. Reference and Adult Services Division. History Section. Genealogy Committee. "Guidelines for Developing Beginning Genealogical Collections and Services." Chicago: American Library Association. 1992.

Anonymous Comment.  "Archives, Heritage, and Leisure." Journal of the Society of Archivists 14(1993): 110.

Ashton, Rick J. "A Commitment to Excellence in Genealogy: How the Public Library Became the Only Tourist Attraction in Fort Wayne, Indiana." Library Trends 32:1 (Summer 1983): 89-96.

Ashton, Rick. "Curators, Hobbyists, and Historians: Ninety Years of Genealogy at the Newberry Library." Library History 47, 2 (1977): 149-62.

Avery, Christine and Diane Zabel.  "Gathering Client Data: What Works? Total Quality Management in Academic Libraries: Initial Implementation Efforts." Proceedings from the International Conference on TQM and Academic Libraries (Washington, D.C., April 20-22, 1994).

Baker, Russell P. "Genealogical Collections for the Small Institution." Arkansas Libraries 43, 2 (June 1986): 10-12.

Baker, Zachary M.  "What We Owe the Genealogists: Genealogy and the Judaica Reference Librarian." Judaica Librarianship 6,1-2 (Spring 1991-Winter 1992): 43-48.

This article gives helpful mention of a library joke in which genealogists are asked to pay 500 if questions they ask require more than five minutes to answer. Genealogical researchers are described as being thought of (by other librarians) as “compulsively tedious and self-absorbed.” This is so, perhaps because the “roles of library user and information provider” in encounters with genealogical researchers “seem to reverse themselves.” Nevertheless, the author goes on to applaud genealogical research and to note that the period in which he wrote is one of widespread ethnic self discovery. Noting again Roots, he dates the interest in US Jewish genealogy to the 1977 publication of Finding Our Fathers by Rottenberg and to the publication of a journal and gazetteer in the late 1970s and early 1980s wholly devoted to Jewish genealogy. Though fairly brief, the article gives a very clear picture of Jewish genealogy and its various leaders in the last thirty decades of the twentieth century. The author ends by noting that Jewish genealogical societies are poised to play a pivotal role in opening up Eastern European archives…..”

Balay, Robert. "Genealogy." Guide to Reference Books: Covering Materials from 1985-1990. [Supplement to, see also: Sheehy, 1986.]

Barclay, Richard L. "Access to Information with a Genealogy and History Referral File." RQ 18, 2 (Winter 1978): 153-155.

Barth, Christopher D.  "Archivists, Genealogists, Access, and Automation: Past and Present Trends in Archival Access Technologies and their Implications for the Future of Genealogical Research in Archives." 1997. December 1, 2003. <>

This lengthy online article explores how genealogical researchers motivate both archivists and access providers to develop greater understanding of automated tools, and how such tools today help or hinder researchers. The author predicts that corporations geared towards providing digital aids for conducting genealogical research will continue to develop as competitors with archives. He also argues that that even if many online databases are free from archives, genealogical researchers will continue to have some interest in purchasing some databases.  He looks at noteworthy efforts of archives, notably the Special Collections department at the University of South Florida in Tampa. He notes the results of two surveys in which he queried genealogists and archivists about their responses to technological changes and archival use satisfaction in general.  His most important finding centers around the fact that archivists and genealogical researchers work with a common automation infrastructure, which makes communication between the two groups essential.

Bearman, David.  Archival Methods.  Pittsburgh: Archives and Museum Informatics, 1989.

Bearman, David A.  "User Presentation Language in Archives." Archives & Museum Informatics 3, no. 4 (1989/90): 3-7.

Beattie, Diane L.  "An Archival User Study: Researchers in the Field of Women's History." Archivaria 29(Winter 1989/90): 33-50.

Bennett, Archibald F.  "The Record Copying Program of the Utah Genealogical Society." The American Archivist 16, 3(July 1953): 227-232.

Written some fifteen years after the beginning of the LDS microfilming project, this article shows something of both Mormon and archivists attitudes towards genealogy. The Mormon interest in “collecting, compiling, establishing, and maintaining a genealogical library” is recounted with an emphasis on knowing and venerating ancestors. The microfilming project successes are told in numbers. The article also presents two accounts of times when archivists were leery of the project – notably in the filming of the records of the Connecticut State Library and those of the church registers and early census records of Scotland.

Berner, Richard C.  "Manuscript Collections, Archives, and Special Collections: Their Relationships." Archivaria 18(Summer 1984): 248-254.

Bidlack, Russell E.  "The Awakening Genealogy As It Relates to Library Service." RQ 23 (Winter 1983): 171-181.

This is the only article I have found that touches upon a phrase often repeated in archival collection policies, to avoid "materials that are purely genealogical in nature." The author here is discussing book collection policies, noting that, "As late as 1950, the Enoch Pratt Free Library's staff manual" contained a statement about not purchasing books "that are narrowly and technically genealogical."  The article itself reports on a late 1970s' survey of libraries that documented the increase in use by genealogists and the changes in service to manage this shift in demand.  The author, Dean of the School of Library Science at the University of Michigan, notes the unflattering image of the family historians, as "an elderly woman, a prim little old lady or the elderly gentleman with a cane" - all white - and  possessed of  imperfect  knowledge and respect is also noted.   He speaks of his own interest in family history, the impact of WWII on interest in genealogy, the appearance of college-aged users in the genealogical reference rooms in the 1940s and 1950s, the Bicentennial and Roots, historians' dim view of genealogy, the Freedom of Information Act, and volunteers helping in genealogical libraries and departments. A drawing of the National Archives appears in the article though this institution is not covered in the article.

Billeter, Anne.  "Why Don't Librarians Like Genealogists? Beginning Genealogy for Librarians." Oregon Library Association 7, 4(Winter 2001): 2-6.

Librarians, this article argues, don’t like to admit their ignorance of the specialized resources genealogists use. The author proposes several ways that librarians could become better informed about genealogical work. While the article is brief and does not discuss professional concerns, it nevertheless could be used as a jumping off point for a discussion of some of the issues raised in Systems of Professions. One of these issues is that librarians act as the disseminators of knowledge, with knowledge of how to get information (rather than the information itself). That this expertise is somewhat then threatened by genealogical researchers – might be one conclusion.

Bishop, Ronald. "In the Grand Scheme of Things: An Exploration of the Meaning of Genealogical Research." Presented at the Mid-Atlantic Popular/American Culture Association conference, Wilmington, Delaware. November 7, 2003.

From abstract: The popularity of genealogy has increased dramatically in the last decade, thanks in large measure to the internet, which has expedited access to a wide and still expanding range of information. Little research has been done on why individuals embark on genealogical research, or on the meaning they derive from their research. The author performed a narrative analysis of the responses to surveys and diaries completed by genealogical researchers to develop a clearer picture of how genealogical researchers assign meaning to the information and individuals they discover in their work. In short, the author attempted to piece together a "metanarrative" that describes how these genealogists endeavor to create engaging, accurate family narratives to be shared with future generations. Along the way, respondents ponder the place their families have in society's grander narrative.

Blais, Gabrielle and David Enns.  "From Paper Archives to People Archives: Public Programming in the Management of Archives" in Canadian Archival Studies and the Rediscovery of Provenance. Ed. Tom Nesmith. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993. 443-459.

This article argues that the future of archival institutions and the archival profession, in large part, is dependent upon “the degree to which we recognize” the increasingly important role played by resource allocators, donors, supporters, and various user groups. Four concepts – “ image, awareness, education and use” – are discussed, all as a part of public programming. The overriding concern is that we must provide the opportunity for the public to comprehend and value archives. The article is helpful in looking at Canadian attitudes towards genealogical researchers. The authors trace Canadian archival education and practice over a long period of time, noting that certain pressures only recently begun to create “user centered,” as opposed to “materials centered” archives. Part of this change, in Canada, occurred in the 1960s, with “a democratization of culture.” (445) On the other hand, it was not until the 1980s, that Canadian archivists began “seriously to reconsider public service and examine their obligation to make holdings and related services accessible to the public. The article notes, for example, that “In dealing with user needs, much of our effort has been in reaction to the pressing demands of client groups which we have tended to perceive as somewhat of a nuisance. Our genealogical clientele is the most obvious example of this.” (449-451). The authors characterize this response as “reactive.” They also note that “our genealogical clientele is stable at approximately 45 percent of the total number of researchers” – while the percentage of “professional historians” is “consistently low” in user studies in the US and Canada and while a new nebulous group of researchers continues to grow and change. (453) Footnote 12 (456) discusses equality of access versus equality of service. “Archivists must work at tailoring reference and related services to particular client groups in order that their needs are more effectively met. On the other hand, we cannot allow certain client groups to be permitted favored treatment on the basis of our judgment concerning the ultimate value of their research project.” The note here also refers readers to a discussion of accessibility by the public to museums and galleries.

Bockstruck, Lloyd DeWitt. "Four Centuries of Genealogy: A Historical Overview." RQ, 23, 2 (Winter 1983): 162-70.

Tracing the development of US genealogical reference materials, this article offers an overview of people and ideas involved in family history. Helpful dates are given for the colonial period, notably a correction of the often cited 1771 Stebbins book as the first genealogy in America (the first was actually Memoirs of Roger Clapp, 1731), as well as some exploration of the interest in family history of well known individuals (Washington, Franklin, Latrobe).  Other helpful dates, such as the founding of various historical societies, genealogical societies, are given. Interestingly many of the first compilers for publications on genealogy were associated with historical societies and this is perhaps important to a study of archival attitudes towards family historians. The author does not given any importance to the 1910 publication by LC of a bibliography on genealogy, nor to the absence of interest by other government libraries to family history, though he does note the importance of the Newberry Library, as the nation's most accessible genealogical collection.  He discusses also the coming of age of genealogical research in the 1970s, not just because of Roots but also because of such people as Filby (director of the Maryland Historical Society) and two publications from the New York Public Library. The article cements firmly the idea that a number of people who might today consider themselves archivists were at one time, particularly in the 19th and first three quarters of the twentieth century) involved in family history.

Boling, Yvette Guillot. "Expectations: A Patron's Point of View." LLA Bulletin 54, 2 (Fall 1991): 75-81.

Bolotenko, George.  "Archivists and Historians: Keepers of the Well." Archivaria 16(Summer 1983): 5-25.

Borgman, Christine L., Donald Owen Case and Dorothy L. Ingebretsen. "University Faculty Use of Computerized Databases: An Assessment of Needs and Resources." Online Review 9(Aug.'85): 307-32.

Bosman, Ellen.  "Creating the User-Friendly Library by Evaluating Patron Perception of Signage." Reference Services Review 25 no. 1(1997): 71-82.

Boyns, Rosemary.  "Archivists and Family Historians: local authority record repositories and the family history user group." Journal of the Society of Archivists 20, 1(April 1999): 61-74.

This article looks at selected archives in the UK and surveys the attitudes of archivists towards family historians. Noting that there has been no discussion in print on archival attitudes and policies towards family historians, the author links positive change - a greater willingness to work with genealogists - to archivists of the 1990s. She ends with a plea for use and preservation to have dual roles in archival management.

Bradsher, James G. "Taking America's heritage to the People: The Freedom Train Story." Prologue 17 (Winter 1985): 229-246.

Bradsher, James Gregory, ed.  Managing Archives and Archival Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Brekke, Eliane, Comp. "User Surveys in ARL Libraries."  SPEC Kit 205. Washington: ARL Publications Department, 1994.

Brodecky, Alverna. "A Genealogy Seminar for Librarians." Wilson Library Bulletin 52, 7 (1978): 575-577.

Brooks, Philip C.  "Archivists and Their Colleagues: Common Denominators." The American Archivist 14, 1(January 1951): 33-45.

This article mentions historians, statisticians, librarians and documentalists as colleagues of archivists – with, as the title suggests, common interests. Definitions of archivists and archives are explored in some detail and some insight is gained into how archivists perceived themselves, and by extension, the atmosphere in which they greeted users.

Brown, Richard Harvey and Beth Davis-Brown. "The Making of Memory: The Politics of Archives, Libraries and Museums in the Construction of National Consciousness." History of the Human Sciences. Great Britain: 1998 11(4): 17-32.

Brigham, Clarence S. "Report of the Council." Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society; April 15, 1953-October 21, 1953, 63 (Worcester, Mass.: The Society, 1954), 7.

Bryan, Charles F.  "What should we do about the "genies"?" History News 41, 1(January 1986): 31-33.

This article explores the perspective of a director of an historical society who has lost some of his members to genealogical societies. Here, the stereotypical genealogist is described as a white haired woman. The article deals with how to respond to, not react to genealogical researchers, how to reach out to them, and how one might explore the common growth of genealogical and local history societies.

Burke, Frank G.  "Archival Cooperation." The American Archivist 46, 3(Summer 1983): 293-305.

Cadell, Patrick.  "Building on the Past, Investing in the Future through Genealogy and Local History Services." IFLA Journal 28, 4(2002): 175-180.

Discussing his own familiarity with genealogical researchers, including an American woman within a UK reading room and also a man demanding little real evidence of descent, the author here explores how genealogy and archivists’ reactions to them have changed, particularly in Scotland. Admitting that ”there are still a few archivists who do not like dealing with genealogists, and who consider that family history is not true research,” he then also notes that these are a dying breed and that family historians themselves are better equipped today to begin and complete research. Noting the 1998 survey of readers at the Scottish Records Office “and the high percentage of first time users,” he then discusses the joint activities of the LDS Church and the Scottish Archive Network to make basic genealogical material more easily accessible from off site (via the Internet). He discusses also the rigors of genealogy and notes the influence of Roots, as well as Alistair MacLeod’s book No Great Mischief. Nevertheless, to an American reader, this tone is somewhat patronizing. He notes that “the besetting virtue of the genealogist is optimism. Hope is always there and links are made which the actual evidence will not support.” In addition, with the advent of Internet access, there will be “less need and possibly less opportunity for the genealogist to interface with that best of all finding aids, the archivist or librarian behind the desk.” Accurately, he places the solution for these problems in better descriptions online. Other problems for the archivist will be that in the future we will not have as much knowledge of either the research in progress or the researchers. The researcher online may depend too much on what appears on screen as complete. Cadell then notes that with the Internet there is the realization that there is now less distinction between unique items in repositories and information; users have fewer obligations to know where information comes from. This makes archives more like libraries. Email holds its own dangers, of the sender expecting a quick result, of much work needing still to be done onsite, and of also blanket emails, in which archives are not necessarily explored before sending the email. Nevertheless he notes the importance of genealogical research to changing concepts of archives and libraries as important ones as evidenced by their inclusion for discussion at the IFLA meeting in 2001, and in how archives will grow. As genealogists become more adept at their work, they will add to the body of knowledge available to others, notes Cadell. He does not specifically mention donations of papers to archives but does so through examples. Overall the article is helpful for looking at attitudes towards family history and access in the UK. His own work as the head of the Scottish National Archives at the time of its change of name from the Record Office seems to be linked to a time of greater access to archives for all researchers. Likewise here is some linking of the change in attitudes towards family historians seems to the survey of visitors from the late 1990s, and general acknowledgement that a great number of users are interested in family history.

Cappon, Lester J.  "Genealogy, Handmaid of History." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 45, 1(March 1957): 1-9.

Written by an archivist/historian, this article should be read with an eye towards Cappon's past, his extensive record of service to university archives, state historical records, and other projects, and his position as a past president of the Society of American Archivists. Cappon believed (both) that archivists are historians and are allied with records managers. The article itself does not give this background but is helpful in looking at how genealogists regard their position in regards to history. Cappon begins by noting that the genealogists and historians became suspicious of, and alienated from one another as a “growth of nationalism and the trend toward academic specialization” in the late nineteenth century. The early nineteenth century had the conflation of the roles of historian, genealogists, antiquarian and compiler of annals. He gives extensive background here on the various societies formed around all these areas of interest and some of the key individuals who often crossed lines between the various groups.

According to Cappon, the work of genealogy involves chronology, enumeration of data, and a narrative account portraying the family and its relation to the community. The dual meaning of the study of family and society is important, and found in the term ”historical genealogy.” History, on the other hand, is a broader pursuit involving the same facets but from the beginning, wider interpretation. Thus, genealogy is a more restricted auxiliary discipline in its function, particularly its use of sources. By the early twentieth century, according to Cappon, genealogy often had abandoned historical principles for preoccupation with questions of superiority in family origins, or military glory and “of patriotism as a restricted birthright.” Although biography offered a common meeting ground, historians and the public in general in the early nineteenth century avoided genealogy as a remnant of the Old World. Cappon, however, places early interest in the study of families in the 1826 celebration of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, in the work of the antiquarian John Farmer in his 1820’s Genealogical Register of the First Settlers of New England, and the 1825 founding of the New England Historic Genealogical Society in Boston. These men (and only men were admitted) petitioned successfully for the state record commission in Massachusetts and for the printing of early records of the colony (1853). The Civil War meant more interest in American military exploits and an accelerated quest for ancestral lineage. Various registers and bibliographies of genealogies date from the period just following the Civil War, and involved not only publishers and bibliographies but also the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Also during this period, an expanding population of immigrants coupled with patriotic zeal at the centennial brought about the founding of the Sons of the Revolution (1876), the Daughters of the Revolution (1890), and the Children of the Revolution (1895). Following closely were organizations for the descendants of the War of 1812, the Colonial Wards the Mayflower, and even the Barons of Runnemede. “While all these carried a strong connotation of Anglo-Saxon ancestry, the Dutch and the Huguenots proclaimed in similar fashion their pride of nationality.” The Irish established the Journal of the American Irish Historical Society in 1898. Local genealogical societies were also founded at this time (The New York Society in 1869 and the American College of Heraldry and Genealogical Registry in 1873), and Cappon lists a number more of these in the northeast. At the same time, academic historians began organizing with the founding of the American Historical Review in 1895. Historians decried genealogical interest in a narrow American patriotism based on proper ancestral conditions. “Now genealogy became the indentured servant of neo patriotism.” Footnotes in this section of the article (page 6) are helpful as they give examples of invented genealogies, such as the one where Washington’s Family is traced to Odin, the Founder of Scandinavia B.C. 70. The founding of the National Genealogical Society in 1903, and the early bulletin (which advertised its work was devoted to “Genealogy, patriotism, and historical research”) is noted. In 1912 the Society established its own Quarterly. Publications are also noted for the period up to WWI and the increase of publications (two fold) that followed in the period 1918-1940. Essentially, the article is helpful in tracing the evolution of U.S. (and, to a limited extent British attitudes) towards genealogy, and in providing titles representative both of genealogy itself and historians’ views of genealogy.

Carlson, Marie S. "Genealogy Services in Small Libraries." The Bookmark 49,1 (Spring 1991): 161-163.

Carothers, Diane Foxhill.  "Introduction to the theme issue on Genealogy and Libraries." Library Trends 32 (Summer 1983): 3-5.

Carothers, Diane Foxhill. "Resources of the Large Academic Research Library." Library Trends 32, 1 (Summer 1983): 67-88.

Caswell, John Edwards. "The Archives for Tomorrow's Historians." The American Archivist 1958 21(4): 409-417.

Center, Clark.  "Manuscript Collections in Alabama: Who Uses Them?  Why? and Under What Terms?" The Alabama Archivist 19:2 (Spring 1996): 1-3.

"The Chicago Public Library: a priorities needs assessment study; a project of the Chicago Public Library Foundation, November 1987-December 1988." Carroll Group, 1989.

Cobb, H. S. "Archivists and History." Journal of the Society of Archivists [Great Britain] 1995 16(2): 139-144.

Cohen, Laura B., ed.  Reference Series for Archives and Manuscripts.  New York: Haworth, 1997.

Colket, Meredith B. Jr.  " The American University's First Institute in Genealogical Research." The American Archivist 14, 2(April 1951): 141-146.

This article repeats the familiar refrain seemingly announced at almost every period in American history: that interest in family history is growing, (here specifically in the late 1940s and early 1950s). The article itself, significant because it appear in The American Archivist and because it reported on an institute set within the same school that housed American University’s program on archives, notes that this particular period created special emphasis on cultural values, the significance of research techniques, and the importance of critical evaluation of evidence. Genealogists thus are important for developing data on migration patterns, for biographies on “the common man,” and for their discoveries of evidence of the family within community and national life.

Collins, Karen.  "Providing Subject Access to Images: A Study of User Queries." The American Archivist 61 (Spring 1998): 36-55.

Conway, Paul.  "Facts and Frameworks: An Approach to Studying the Use of Archives." The American Archivist 49 (Fall 1986): 393-408.

Conway, Paul.  Partners in Research: Improving Access to the Nation's Archive: User Studies at the National Archives and Records Administration. Pittsburgh: Archives and Museum Informatics, 1994.

Conway, Paul.  "Research in Presidential Libraries: A User Survey." Midwestern Archivist 11 (1986): 35-56.

Cook, Michael.  Archives Administration: A Manual for Intermediate and Smaller Organizations and Local Government.  Folkestone, 1977.

Cook, Terry.  "Viewing the World Upside Down." Reflections on the Theoretical Underpinnings of Archival Public Programming." Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-1991): 123-134.

Cook, Terry.  "What is Past is Prologue: A History of Archival Ideas Since 1898, and the Future Paradigm Shift." Archivaria 43: 17-63.

Cook, Sharon Anne. "Connecting Archives and he Classroom." Archivaria 44 (Fall 1997): 102-117.

Cox, Richard J.  American Archival Analysis: The Recent Development of the Archival Profession in the U.S.  Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

Cox, Richard J.  "Archivists and Historians: A View From the United States." Archivaria 19(Winter 1984-85): 185-190.

Cox, Richard J.  "Archivists and the Use of Archival Records; or, a View from the World of Documentary Editing." Provenance 9 (1991) 89-110.

Cox, Richard J.  Closing an Era: Historical Perspectives on Modern Archives and Records Management.  Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Cox, Richard J.  "The Concept of Public Memory and Its Impact on Archival Public Programming." Archivaria 36 (Autumn 1993): 122-135.

Cox, Richard J.  "Genealogy and Public History: New Genealogical Guides and their Implications for Public Historicans." The Public Historian 6, 2(Spring 1984): 89-96.

This is a review article of the second edition of Filby’s American and British Genealogy and Heraldry and A Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives. The author notes that “both volumes reflect the rapid growth of interest in genealogy that has occurred during the past decade.” The latter book is also “the product of a besieged archives staff striving to serve expeditiously a daily swarm of genealogists.” Despite this somewhat negative view of family historians, the next paragraphs discuss inclusion of genealogy within the definition of public history and the spare public record of the history of genealogy. Citations here to Cappon, Sheppard, and Andrews are very helpful and the author also remarks that “Genealogy is literally the most public of all history.” The author then also notes the developments of the two decades from 1960 to 1980 in which many genealogical organizations were founded (a third since the Bicentennial of 1976). The author then returns to the early period, tracing genealogical interest from the late 19th century forward. “Nearly every genealogical manual published” has justified genealogy through its didactic value, for creating “better citizens who are more aware of the past.” Also included is mention or how reference librarians and archivist know genealogists of all educational levels and income groups, and as “dedicated supporters of historical institutions in their perpetual conflict with budgets and staffing.” Like archivists and librarians, however, “the public history movement has neglected this field so ripe for harvest, probably because the public historian has retained some of the academic biases.” He quotes J. Franklin Jameson on the lack of value in genealogy and Howard Peckman on the right to exclude from the archives the “genealogist who wants family data which will be of interest only to her children and a few relatives.” Cox here also gives a very helpful mention of a 1981 article in the The American Archivist, which noted that denigrating genealogists has been a cherished avocation of archivists. This article, by Jacobsen, linked this attitude to the archivists’ desire for professional status. Cox does concede, however, that archivists and librarians are more comfortable with genealogists than are the public historians. He then reviews the books, noting how history and genealogy are linked throughout therein, and also ends by a plea for the inclusion of genealogists in public history.

Cox, Richard J.  "Researching Archival Reference as an Information Function: Observations on Needs and Opportunities." RQ 31 (Spring 1992): 387-97.

Craig, Barbara.  "The Acts of the Appraisers: The Context, the Plan and the Record." Archivaria 34 (Summer 1992): 175-180.

Craig, Barbara L.  "Old Myths in New Clothes: Expectations of Archives Users." Archivaria 45 (Spring 1998): 118-126.

Craig, Barabara L.  "Perimeters with Fences? Or Thresholds with Doors? The Views of a Border." The American Archivist 66, 1(Spring/Summer 2003): 96-101.

Craig, Barbara L.  "What are the Clients?  Who are the Products? The Future of Archival Public Services in Perspectives." Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 135-141.

Crawford, Denise S. "Developing a Genealogy Collection in a Small Public Library." Iowa Library Quarterly 24, 3 (Summer 1987): 23-28.

Crawford, John C.  "The Stakeholder Approach to the Construction of Performance Measures." Paper presented at the Northumbria International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries and Informational Services, 1995.

Danielson, Elena S. "The Ethics of Access." The American Archivist 52 (Winter 1989): 52-62.

Dervin, Brenda and Michael Nilan.  "Information Needs and Uses." Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST) 21 (1986): 3-33.

Dollar, Charles M.  "Archivists and Records Managers in the Information Age." Archivaria 36 (Autumn 1993): 37-52.

Dowler, Lawrence.  "The Role of Use in Defining Archival Practice and Principles: A Research Agenda." The American Archivist 51 (Winter and Spring 1988): 74-86.

Doyle, Christine.  "The Perceptions of Library Service Questionnaire (PLSQ): The Development of a Reliable Instrument to Measure Student Perceptions of and Satisfaction with Quality Service in an Academic Library." The New Review of Academic Librarianship 1 (1995): 139-59.

Drake, Michael.  "The Democratisation of Historical Research: the case for DA301." Journal of the Society of Archivists 17, 2(October 1996): 201-207.

Although dealing with what is called in Canada and the US social history, this article is helpful in its reading of the British attitude towards changes in views of history itself. “Historical research proper is still widely regarded as an elite activity.” The course, DA 301, starts with an emphasis on one’s own family and moves to other families and community history. The author also notes that historical research is too life enhancing to be left in the hands of a small elite.


Duff, Wendy M. and Catherine A. Johnson.  "Accidentally Found on Purpose: Information Seeking Behaviour of Historians." Library Quarterly 72 (October 2002) 472-496.

Duff, Wendy M. and Catherine A. Johnson.  "A Virtual Expression of Need: An Analysis of Archival Reference Questions." The American Archivist 64 (Spring/Summer 2001): 43-60.

Duff Wendy M. and Catherine A. Johnson.  "Where is the List with All the Names? Information-Seeking Behavior of Genealogists." The American Archivist 66, 1(Spring/Summer 2003): 79-95.

The abstract to this article notes that “This study gives the results of a study involving in-depth interviews with ten genealogists. The findings provide information on the stages of genealogical research, how genealogists search for information, the access tools they use, the knowledge required, and the barriers they face.” The constraints enumerated are particularly helpful to any discussion of archival responses to genealogical researchers. These are the necessity of reframing questions so that one asks about record forms and creators (rather than the subject of records, or people). The writers, using the language of the current environment of the Internet, note that a central portal is often unavailable and that genealogists then must learn to retrieve information from a piecemeal system. “Most archival systems have been developed to meet the needs of archivists and historians.” Genealogists thus develop their own systems (“parallel systems”) for retrieving information, including finding aids reorganized by genealogists, and a strong network of colleagues and courses. Time constraints are also mentioned, in terms of hours of archival institutions. The authors also echo Gordon’s finding, that genealogists (and other users) often prefer informal to formal sources for finding materials and also use other sources well such as maps, guides published by genealogical societies and the expertise of colleagues. The authors then argue for “new findings aids systems designed to meet the needs of genealogists” in which retrieval would be possible by name, by place, by type of document, and by event.”

Duff, Wendy, Barbara Craig and Joan Cherry.  "Historians' Use of Archival Sources: Promises and Pitfalls of the Digital Age." Public Historian: Submitted. E. Yakel, (in press), "Listening to Users." Archival Issues.

Duff, Wendy and Penka Stoyanova. "Transforming the Crazy Quilt: Archival Displays from a User's Point of View." Archivaria 45 (Spring 1998): 44-79.

Dunae, Patrick A.  "Archives and the Spectre of 1984: Bolotenko Applauded." Archivaria 17(Winter 1983-84): 286-290.

Dunhill, Rosemary and Cynthia Short. "The Training of Archivists 1970-1990: An Overview." Journal of the Society of Archivists 12, 1 (1991): 42-50.

*Durrie, Daniel Steele. Bibliographica Genealogica Americana: An Alphabetical Index to American Genealogies and Pedigrees, contained in state, county, and town Histories.(Albany, N.Y.: Joel Munsell's sons, 1868).

Edwards, Rhianna Helen.  Archivists' Outlook on Service to Genealogists in Selected Canadian Archives. (MAS diss. University of British Columbia, 1987).

This is the most detailed of all studies of archival responses to genealogical researchers. Noting that “a long-standing antipathy towards genealogists on the part of archivists” is found throughout archival literature, the author locates a shift in archival responses in the 1980s and early 1990s. She attributes this growth of interest to social history, genealogical professionalism itself, and the lobbying power of such a large user group as a friend to archives. “The literature suggests that all these influences are leading archivists to accept the principle that genealogy and genealogists should receive service and respect that is equal to that afforded academic and other researchers.” She then gives information from interviews with seven archivists at three Canadian provincial archives. She discusses their responses -- one antipathetic, three impartial, three frustrated and discouraged. She also discusses the principle of equality in access and how to put this into place, without endangering arrangement and description practices and with some increased emphasis on reference and access. The thesis also contains an excellent short introduction to the history of genealogy in England, Canada, and the US. Another helpful section assesses attitudes of archivists from archival literature. Genealogists are, in the words of two writers, “second class citizens,” and “mink clad dowagers determined to trace ancestry to Adam.” In the eyes of other archivists, they are wealthy, conservative superpatriots. In Britain, they have been seen on the whole as less than legitimate or worthy user groups. All these comments date from the 1980s. The author also notes librarians’ responses to genealogists in the same and slightly earlier time period. She then devotes attention to changes in attitudes, as a result of the 1976 publication of Roots and to such little discussed (in archival literature) changes in school exercises in which children are introduced to time lines and family history as early as first grade. She also discusses archivists’ links to historians and the historians’ idea that genealogy is not a serious pursuit.

Ellis, David.  "A Behavioral Approach to Information Retrieval System Design." Journal of Documentation 45 (September 1989): 171-212.

Emmison, E. G.  Archives for All.  The Essex Record Office, 1950-55. Chelmsford, 1956.

Ericson, Timothy L. "Anniversaries: A Framework for Planning Public Programs." Advocating Archives (Chicago: SAA, 1994): 65-82.

Ericson, Timothy L.  "'Preoccupied with our own Gardens': Outreach and Archivists." Archivaria 31(Winter 1990-91): 114-122.

Eveleigh, Alexandra.  "Recent Annual Reports: The Public Image of Archives." Journal of the Society of Archivists 20, 1(1999): 105-108.

Feeney, Katherine. "Retreival of Finding Aids Using World-Wide-Web Search Engines." The American Archivist 62 (Fall 1999): 206-228.

Finch, Elsie Freeman. "Archival Advocacy: Reflections on Myths and Realities." Archival Issues 20, 2 (1995): 115-127.

Finch, Elsie Freeman. "Making Sure they Want It: Managing Successful Public Programs." The American Archivist 56 (Winter 1993): 70-75.

Finch, Elsie Freeman and Paul Conway. "Talking to the Angel." Advocating Archives (Chicago: SAA, 1994): 5-22.

Fleckner, John A.  "Cooperation as a Strategy for Archival Institutions." The American Archivists 39, 4(October 1976): 447-459.

Forde, Helen and Rosemary Seton, eds.  Archivists and Researchers: Mutual Perceptions and Requirements.  London: Society of Archivists and the British Records Association, 1994.

Foxhill Carothers, Diane., ed., "Genealogy and Libraries." Library Trends 32, 1 (Summer 1983).

Freeman, Elsie T.  "Soap and Education: Archival Training, Public Service and the Profession--an Essay." Midwestern Archivist 16 (1991): 87-94.

This article looks at archival training programs and the lack of course work given to identifying user needs.  The philosophy of serving all archival users is important in terms of archival relationships with genealogical researchers.

Freeman, Elsie T. "In the Eye of the Beholder: Archives Administration frm the User's Point of View." The American Archivist 47, 2 (Spring 1984): 111-123.

Gagan, David and H. E. Turner.  "Social History in Canada: A Report on the 'State of the Art." Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982): 27-43.

Gagnon-Arguin, L.  "Les Question de Recherche comme Materiau D'Etudes des Usagers en Vue du Traitement des Archives." Archivaria 46 (Fall 1998): 86-102.

Gardiner, Allen.  "Genealogy and the Librarian: Hope and Help for the Librarian's Frayed Nerves." Show Me Libraries (September 1984): 25-32.

While acknowledging that genealogists "come in all sizes and shapes and colors, this article also begin with the premise that: "it’s an accepted fact that the word genealogy” can strike terror into the hearts of librarians everywhere.” The article then offers a listing of: how-to books, guides, referrals, to state level organizations. He also notes the use of sources such as gazetteers, dictionaries, newspapers; cooperative work with genealogical societies; and genealogical collections. The author ends with the familiar refrain (here from the 1980s): that genealogists can be the library’s best friend -- a potential volunteer, helper to other patrons interested in family history, and donor. The guide at the end, for genealogists, defines primary sources.

Gibson, J.S.W. "Regional Societies for the Study of Family History." Local Historian. Great Britain: 1978 13(2): 100-102.

Gilliand-Swetland, Anne J., Yasmin B. Kafai, and William E. Landis. "Integrating Primary Sources into the Elementary School Classroom: A Case Study of Teachers' Perspectives." Archivaria 48 (Fall 1999): 89-115.

Goggin, Jacqueline.  "The Indirect Approach: A Study of Scholarly Users of Black and Women's Organizational Records in the Library of Congress Manuscript Division." Midwestern Archivist 11, 1 (1986): 57-67.

Gordon, Anne.  Using the Nation's Documentary Heritage: The Report of the Historical Documents Study.  Washington, DC: National Historical Publications and Records Commission, 1992.

Grabowski, John J.  "Keepers, Users and Funders: Building an Awareness of Archival Value." The American Archivist 55 (Summer 1992): 464-472.

Gracy,David B. "Archivists, You Are What People Think You Keep." The American Archivist 52 (Winter 1989): 72-78.

Graham, Laura. "Tales from the Vault: A Journey over the Mountain." Common-Place 3 (January 2003) <>.

Gray, Ann S. and Diane Geraci.  "Complex Reference Services: Data Files for Social Research." Reference Librarian 48 (1995) 137-140.

Hall, David D. and Alan Taylor. "Reassessing the Local History of New England." in Roger Parks, ed., New England: A Bibliography of Its History. Hanover, NH and London: University Press of New England. 1989.

Hamburger, Susan.  "How Researchers Search for Manuscripts and Archival Collections." Presented at the Society of American Archives, Denver Co., August 31, 2000.

Hamer, Collin B. Jr., ed. LLA Bulletin 54, 2 (Fall 1992).

Harris, Donald E.  "Reassessing User Needs." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45 (June 1994): 331-4.

Hartwell, J. Glenn and Betty L. Book. "Genealogy in Collection Development." Library Journal Special Report 6 (1978): 51-53.

Hays, Samuel P.  "History and Genealogy: Patterns of Change and Prospects for Cooperation." In Generations and Change: Genealogical Perspectives in Social History. Eds. Robert Taylor and Ralph J. Crandall, Macon: Mercer University Press, 1986. 26-47.

This article looks at the separate worlds of historians and genealogists, and somewhat of archivists. The author, an historian and a genealogist, looks to create the means by which the two (and perhaps three, though he does not say this at the outset) can work more closely together.  He notes the heavy use of records from county courthouses around the nation by genealogists and the importance of these types of records to social history. He notes particularly that historians should use their influence and resources to encourage the preservation and use of local and family records. The last three pages of the article deal specifically with archivists -- their knowledge of record creation, preservation, and use. He notes that for genealogists, the growing interest in kinship networks has meant that the manuscript census returns have become the most important single source of evidence, and the huge amount of work that has gone into indexing such retunes.  He also briefly discusses other types of records - polls lists, land transfers, school records, and others - as being of great genealogical interest. He argues, as others have, that the use of archives by genealogists requires a perceptual shift on the part of archivists: to think of people within record keeping.

Heald, Carolyn A.  "Reference Services in Archives: Wither a Professional Ethos?" Canadian Library Journal 49 (1992): 353-359.

Heim, Kathleen M., ed. RQ 23, 2 (Winter 1983).

Hernon, Peter.  "Service quality in Libraries and Treating Users as Customers and Non-Users as Lost or Never-Gained Customers." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 22 (May '96): 171-2.

Hijiya, James. "Roots: Family and Ethnicity in the 1970s." American Quarterly 30, 4 (Autumn 1978): 549.

Hill, William Carroll. A Century of Genealogical Progress, Being a History of the New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1845-1945 (Boston: The Society, 1945).

Hoadley, Irene Braden.  "Customer service? Not really." College & Research Libraries News 3 (Mar. '95): 175-6.

Hobsbawm, E.J. "The Social Function of the Past: Some Questions." Past & Present 55 (1972): 3-17.

Hoover, Clara G. "Genealogy Reference Books." Booklist 86,16 (April 15, 1990): 1652-655, 1658.

Jackson, Susan McEnally.  "Reference Education and the New Technology." The Reference Librarian 25-26 (1989): 541-55.

Jacobs, Sally J. "How and When We Make the News: Local Newspaper Coverage of Archives in Two Wisconsin Cities." Archival Issues 22, 1 (1997): 45-60.

Jacobson, Phebe R. "'The World Turned Upside Down': Reference Priorities and the State Archives." The American Archivist 44, 4 (Fall 1981): 341-345.

Jacobus, Donald Line. Genealogy as Pastime and Profession (New Haven, 1930).

Jameson, John Franklin, "The Functions of State and Local Historical Societies with Respect to Research and Publication." American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1897 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1898), 57.

Jameson, John Franklin. The History of Historical Writing in America (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1891).

Jardine, Caroline.  "Maybe the 55% Rule Doesn't Tell the Whole Story: A User-Satifaction Survey." College & Research Times 56 (November 1995): 447-85.

Jimerson, Randall C.  "Redefining Archival Identity: Meeting User Needs in the Information Society." The American Archivist 52 (1989): 332-340.

Joyce, William L. "Archivist's and Research use." The American Archivist 47, 2 (Spring 1984): 124-133.

Kahn, Herman. "Some Comments on the Archival Vocation." The American Archivist 1971 34(1): 3-12.

Kammen, Michael. Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture. New York: Knopf, 1991.

Kaufman, Mary. "Developing a Genealogy Collection: Some Initial Considerations." Collection Building, Studies in the Development and Effective Use of Library Resources. Gaylord Professional Publications in Association with Neal-Schuman Publishing, 1, 3 (1978): 98-101.

Kemp, Thomas Jay.  "Genealogy and the Virtual Library." OLA Quarterly 7, 4(Winter 2001): 23.

Kemp,Thomas Jay. "Inexpensive Items for Building Your Genealogical Library." Connecticut Ancestry 19 (November 1976): 73-80.

Kemp, Thomas Jay.  "The Roots of Genealogy Collections." Library Journal 124, 6(1999): 57-60.

Ketelaar, Eric.  "The Difference Best Postponed? Cultures and Comparative Archival Science." Archivaria 44: 142-148.

Kleiner, Janellyn Pickering and Charles A. Hamaker.  "Libraries 2000: Transforming Libraries Using Document Delivery, Needs Assessment, and Networked Resources." College & Research Libraries 58 (July 1997): 355-74.

Lamb, W. Kaye. "The Archivist and the Historian." American Historical Review 1963 68(2).

Lawton, Bethany.  "Library Instruction Needs Assessment: Designing Survey Instruments." Research Strategies 7 (Summer 1989): 119-28.

LeDuc, Carol.  "Targeting Services to Users: Personnel Needs and Gaps." Minnesota Libraries 28 (Autumn '86): 218-20.

LeFurgy, William. "Levels of Service for Digital Repositories." Dlib Magazine (May 2002) <>

Leonard, Thomas M.  "Archivists & Genealogists: The Trend Toward Peaceful Coexistence." Archival Issues 18, 2(1993): 121-32.

Ling, Ted. "Why the Archives Introduced Digitisation on Demand." RLG DigiNews 6, 4 (August 15, 2002). <>

Link, Arthur S., "Presidential Address: The American Historical Association, 1884-1984; Retrospect and Prospect." American Historical Review 90 (February 1985): 1-17.

Long, Linda J.  "Question Negotiation in the Archival Setting: The Use of Interpersonal Communication Techniques in the Reference Interview." The American Archivist 52 (1989): 40-50.

Lowenthal, David. The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Lowenthal, David. The Past is a Foreign Country. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

MacNeil, Heather.  "Defining the Limits of Freedom of Inquiry: The Ethics of Disclosing Personal Information held in Government Archives." Archivaria 32 (Summer 1991): 138-151.

This article does not envision any particular archives user and thus adds mainly an overview of thoughts on privacy that have influenced archivists.  The questions addressed concern the balancing of research and privacy, the two competing interests - research/knowledge and privacy, and archivists guardianship of documents "obtained from, or about, individuals on an earlier occasion and for a different purpose" but now used by researchers. The author looks to philosophy and the context of social science research protocols in general. From the former, she discusses risk-benefit comparisons, harmful and beneficial consequences. She notes especially a Kantian view of weighing privacy rights, choosing to protect them based on "consistency with human dignity - on treating individuals as ends in themselves.  She does not offer any particular response to large records groups sought by family historians but the work is helpful in introducing concepts of privacy.

Macy, Jr., Harry. "Recognizing Scholarly Genealogy and Its Importance to Genealogists and Historians." NEHGR 150 (January 1996):

Maher, William J.  "The Use of User Studies." Midwestern Archivist 11 (1986): 17.

Maidbury, L. "The General Register of Births, Deaths and Marriages." Amateur Historian 1957 3(3): 108-112.

Malbin, Susan L.  "The Reference Interview in Archival Literature." College & Research Libraries 58 (Jan. 1997) 69-80.

Martin, Kristin E.  "Analysis of Remote Reference Correspondence at a Large Academic Manuscripts Collection." The American Archivist 64 (Spring/Summer 2001), 17-42.

Meisels, Sarah.  "Building the Geanealogy Collection in the Public Library: An Interagency Approach." Illinois Libraries 68 (April 1986): 254-258.

This article notes several points not elsewhere emphasized: that genealogy collections are very expensive and that interagency cooperation, particularly the cooperation of local genealogical societies, is important.  The crucial presence of a librarian interested in genealogy is also noted. Genealogists themselves are characterized as "intelligent, mature people who do not hesitate to speak their minds and voice their concerns. They always want more, and they are not afraid to tell you so.

Menant, Francois; Lozoraitis, Daina, transl. "L'Altra Storiografia." Quademi Storici. Italy: 1998 33)1): 216-226.

Merland, Michel. "The Education of Librarians and Documentalists." Journal of Library History 1984 19(1): 143-163.

Methven, Patricia J.  "Performance measurement and standards." Journal of the Society of Archivists. 11(1990): 84.

Meyers, Martha L. "Genealogical Resources 'Hidden' Within a Basic Reference Collection." Show-Me Libraries 31:5 (February 1980): 46-49.

Michelson, Avra.  "Research Trends: Introduction." The American Archivist 57 (1994) 110-113.

Michelson, Avra and Rothenberg, Jeff.  "Scholarly Communication and Information Technology: Exploring the Impact of Changes in the Research Process on Archives." The American Archivist 55 (1992): 235-315.

Mick, Colin K., George H. Lindsey, and Daniel Callahan.  "Toward Usable User Studies." Journal of the American Society for Information Science 35 (September 1980): 347-56.

Millar, Laura.  "Discharging our Debt: The Evolution of the Total Archives Concept in English Canada." Archivaria 46: 103-146.

Miller, Carolynne L. "Who's Out on a Limb?" Library Occurrent 22, 10 ( may 1968): 243-248.

Miller, Fredric.  "Use, Appraisal and Research: A Case Study of Social History."The American Archivist 49 (1986): 371-392.

Miller, Fredric M.  "Social History and Archival Practice." The American Archivist 44 (Spring 1981): 113-124.

Mills, Elizabeth Shown, "Academia vs. Genealogy: Prospects for Reconciliation and Progress." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 71 (June 1983): 99-106.

Mills, Elizabeth Shown.  "Critique: In Defense of Genealogy." Annual Meeting, 1990 Society of American Archivist, Seattle, Washington.

Mills, Elizabeth Shown.  "Genealogy in the 'Information Age': History's New Frontier?" National Genealogical Society Quarterly 91 (December 2003): 260-278.

Mills, Gary B. and Elizabeth Shown Mills.  "Rootsmania in the Academic World: The (Mis?)Application of Genealogy to Social and Demographic Studies." Presented before the Louisiana Historical Association, Annual Meeting, March 1986.

Moeller, Josephine F., ed. "Genealogy Collections II." Illinois Libraries 74, 5 (November 1992).

Moore, Dahrl Elizabeth. The Librarian's Genealogy Notebook: A Guide to Resources. Chicago: American Library Association, 1998.

Morgan, Francesca Constance. "'Home and Country': Women, Nation, and the Daughters of the American Revolution, 1890-1939." Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University, 1998.

Morgan, Frances Constance. "'Regions Remote from Revolutionary Scenes': Regionalism, Nationalism, and the Iowa Daughters of the American Revolution, 1890-1930." Annals of Iowa 56, 1-2 (1997): 46-79.

Morgan, Steve.  "How Well Are We Doing? Common Themes and Possible Solutions in Academic Libraries." Paper presented at the Northumbria International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries and Information Services, 1995.

Mullin, Patrick. "Patience and Diligence Needed!" Ohio Library Association Bulletin 46, 2 (April 1976): 18-21.

National Council on Archives.  An Archives Policy for the United Kingdom. London, 1996.

Nelms, Willie. " Using Local history and Genealogy to Build Library Support." Library Journal 104:6 (March 15,1979): 686-687.

Nesmith, Tom.  "Archives From the Bottom Up: Social History and Archival Scholarship." Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982): 5-43.

Although this article is devoted to social history, and the changes in archives since the social history movement of the 1960s and 1970s in Canada, it is helpful for its delineation of historians “our oldest and of our best allies.” Parallels with genealogical research by social historians (their use of “parish registers, censuses, and personnel files in order to document social characteristics and changes”) are not made.

Newens, Stan. "Family Histories Societies." History Workshop Journal. 1981 (11): 154-159.

Newhouse, Robert C.  "A Library Essential: Needs Assessment." Library Review 39 (1990): 33-36.

Orbach, Barbara C.  "The View from the Researcher's Desk: Historians' Perceptions of Research and Repositories." The American Archivist 54 (1994): 28-43.

Ormsby. William G.  "The Public Archives of Canada, 1948-1968." Archivaria 15(Winter 1982-83): 36-46.

O'Toole, James M. "The Archivist's Perspective: Knowledge and Values." In Understanding Archives and Manuscripts. Society of American Archivists: Archival Fundamentals Series. Chicago (1990): 49-60.

O'Toole, James M. "The Symbolic Significance of Archives," The American Archivist 56 (Spring 1993)" 234-255.

Parker, J. Carlyle. "Assertiveness for Librarians Harried by Inappropriate Lecture Hall and Classroom Assignments (Examples and Solutions for Local History and Genealogical Research Assignments." Public Libraries 29, 3 (May/June 1990): 166-171.

Parker, J. Carlyle. "Becoming the Ideal Reference Librarian for Genealogy Patrons." RQ 23, 2 (Winter 1983): 182-188.

Parker, J. Carlyle.  "Discrimination Against Genealogists." Wilson Library Bulletin 47 (November 1972): 254-256.

Parker, J. Carlyle. "Collection Development." Chapter 2. Library Service for Genealogists. Michigan: Gale Research Co., 1981: 5-13. (Gale Genealogy and Local History Series, no. 15)

Parker, J. Carlyle. "Library Service for Generalogists." Gale Research Co., 15, 1981. (Gale Genealogh and Local History Series).

Parker, J. Carlyle. "Resources in the Field-Genealogy: Part II: Basic Reference Tools for American Libraries." Wilson Library Bulletin 4,3 (November 1972): 257-261.

Parker, J. Carlyle. "Typical Genealogical Research Problems and Reference Questions." Chapter 24. Library Service for Genealogists. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1981. (Gale Genealogy and Local History Series 15: 305-310.

Parker, Wyman W.  " How Can the Archivist Aid the Researcher?" The American Arhivist 2 (1940): 233-240.

This article gives a curious likening of the librarian to the scholar as stable companion to thoroughbred. "Many a thoroughbred remains happier and performs better if it has the company of a smaller and inferior animal." This relationship so that we might help the productive scholar run a better race.  He then discusses the collection of materials, care of materials, appraisal of materials, and dissemination of information. Access is confined, seemingly to scholars and there is no mention of genealogists. However, the reader today cannot help but see how such an attitude influenced the development of a number of attitudes within special collections.  

Peckham, "Aiding the Scholar in Using Manuscripts." The American Archivists XIX 93 (July 1956): 225.

Pederson, Ann.  "User Education and Public Relations." In Keeping Archives. Ed. by J. Elis. Melbourne, 1993, p. 306.

Peel, Bruce.  "Librarianship in Canada Before 1952." Archivaia 15 (Winter 1982-83): 78-95.

Perry, Joanne M.  "Use of Map Collections by Genealogists: Responses to a Survey." SLA Geography & Map Division Bulletin 170 (December 1992): 22-31.

Poster, Mark. "Foucault and History." Social Research 1982 49(1): 116-142.

Powell, Sheila.  "Archival Reappraisal: The Immigration Case File." Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991-92): 104-116.

Powell, Ted E.  "Saving the Past for the Future." The American Archivist 39 (July 1976): 311-318.

Pugh, Mary Jo.  Providing Reference Services for Archives and Manuscripts. Chicago, Il.: Society of American Archivists, 1992.

Quinn, Patrick M.  "In Defense of Genealogy." Society of American Archivists 54th Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, September 2, 1990.

Radoff, Morris L. "What Should Bind Us Together." The American Archivist 19, 1 (1956): 3-9.

RASD HS Genealogy Committee.  "Guidelines for a Unit or Course of Instruction in Genealogical Research at Schools of Library and Information Science." RQ 36, 1(Fall 1996): 73-77.

Redmann, Gail R.  "Archivists and Genealogists: The Trend Toward Peaceful Coexistence." Archival Issues 18, no.2 (1993): 121-132.

Reed, Ronald D. "A Selected Bibliography for the Establishment of a Small Genealogy Collection for Medium-Size Libraries in Illinois." Illinois Libraries 59 (April 1977): 271-279

Reid, David.  "The Book of Names." New Library World 80 (June 1979): 110-112.

Reid, Judith P.  "Branching Out into Genealogy." Library Journal 117, 18(November 1992): 51-56.

Reinert, M. Ann and Donald R. Brown. "The Challenge of Genealogicl Reference Services: Introduction." RQ 23, 2 (Winter 1983): 159-161.

Rice, James.  "Library Awareness Survey." Public Libraries 31 (Nov/Dec 1992): 347-50.

Roff,Sandra Sholock. "These Are a Few of Our Favorite Things: Reference Works for Genalogists." Reference Services Review 14, 2 (Summer 1986):27-30.

Rosenzweig, Roy and David Thelen. The Presence of the Past. Popular Uses of History in American Life. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Rowley, Dennis.  "Genealogical Research in Mormon Doctrine: A Peculiar Practice of a Peculiar People?" SAA Annual Meeting 1990, Seattle Washington.

Rowley, Jennifer E.  "Knowing your Customers." Aslib Proceedings 49 (Mar. '97): 64-6.

Rubincam, Milton.  "What the Genealogist Expects of an Archival Agency or Historical Society." The American Archivist 12, 4(October 1949): 333-338.

Rushinek, Avi and Sara F. Rushinek.  "The Effects of Communiation Moniters on User Satisfaction." Information Processing & Management 22 (1986): 345-51.

Russell, Mattie U.  "The Influence of Historians on the Archival Profession in the United States." The American Archivist 46, 3(Summer 1983): 277-285.

Russo, David. Keepers of Our Past: Local Historical Writing in the United Sttates, 1820s-1930s. Westport, CO: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Ruth, Janice E.  "Educating the Reference Archivist." The American Archivist 51 (1988): 266-276.

Sandy, John H.  "By any other name, they're still our customers." American Libraries 28 (Aug.'97): 43-5.

Schuyler, Michael.  "We're All Cousins' and Other Web Revelations." Computers in Libraries 20, 2(February 2000): 44-46.

Sheehy, Eugene P., ed. "Genealogy." Guide to Reference Books. 10th ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1986: 313-328. [See also: Balay, 1992]

Sheppard Jr., Walter Lee. "A Bicentennial Look at Genealogy." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 65, 1 (March 1977): 7-8.

Sheppard, Walter Lee Jr.  "A Bicentennial Look At Genealogy Methods, Performance, Education, And Thinking." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 65, 1(March 1977): 3-15.

Shiner, Larry. "Reading Foucault: Anti-Method and the Genealogy of Power-Knowledge." History and Theory 1982 21(3): 382-397.

Shklar, Judith N., "Subversive Genealogies." Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 101 (Winter 1972): 129.

Shubert, Joseph F. and E. J. Josey, eds. "Family History Resources." The Bookmark 49, 3 (Spring 1991).

Simko, P. and S. Peters. "A Survey of Genealogists at the Newberry Library." Library Trends 32, 1 (Summer 1983): 97-109.

Sinko, Peggy Tuck. "Building a Small Genealogy Collection in the Public Library." Illinois Libraries 59, 4 (April 1977): 288-292.

Smart, John.  "The Professional Archivists' Responsibility as an Advocate of Public Research." Archivaria 16 (Summer 1983): 139-149.

Smith, Brian S.  "Record Repositories in 1984." Journal of the Society of Archivists, Vol. 8(1996): 1-16.

Snell, Mary kay. "Genalogy for Librarians." Texas Libraries 52,1 (Spring 1991): 17-22.

Spadoni, Carl.  "In Defence of the New Professionalism: A Rejoinder to George Bolotenko." Archivaria 19 (Winter 1984-85): 191-195.

Spadoni, Carl.  "No Monopoly for 'Archivist-Historians': Bolotenko Assailed." Archivaria 17(Winter 1983-84): 291-295.

Speakman, Mary N.  "The User Talks Back." The American Archivist 47, 2(Spring 1984): 164-171.

Spencer, Thomas T.  "The Archivist as Historian: Towards a Broader Definition." Archivaria 17(Winter 1983-84): 296-300.

Spindler, Robert P. and Pearce-Moses, Richard.  "Does AMC Mean 'Archives Made Confusing'?: Patron Understanding of USMARC AMC records." The American Archivist 56 (1993): 330-341.

Spufford, Peter. "How I Did It, or Four Centuries of Spuffords." Amateur Historian 1963 5(6): 173-176, 182.

Stevens, Mark.  "Measuring Reference Service Quality." New Zealand Archivist (Winter/June 1994): 1-5.

Stevenson, Noel C. ed. The Genealogical Reader: A Collection of Articles. New Orleans, LA: Polyanthos, 1977.

Sullivan, Patricia A. and Peggy Seidan.  "Educating Online Catalog Users: The Protocol Assessment of Needs." Library Hi Tech 3/2 (1985): 11-19.

Swift, Michael D.  "The Canadian Archival Scene in the 1970s: Current Developments and Trends." Archivaria 15(Winter 1982-83): 47-57.

Taylor, Hugh A.  "The Collective Memory: Archives and Libraries As Heritage." Archivaria 15(Winter 1982-83): 118-130.

Taylor, Hugh A.  "Family History: Some New Directions and Their Implications for the Archivist." Archivaria 11 (Winter 1980-81): 228-231.

Taylor, Jr., Robert M. "Summoning the Wandering Tribes: Genealogy and Family Reunions in American History." Journal of Social History 16, 2 (Winter 1982): 33.

Taylor, Jr., Robert M. and Ralph J. Crandall, "Historians and Genealogists: An Emerging Community of Interest." In Taylor and Crandall, eds., Generations and Change: Genealogical Perspectives in Social History (Macon, Ga.: Mercer, 1986), 3-27.

Tibbo, Helen R.  "The Epic Struggle: Subject Retrieval from Large Bibliographic Databases." The American Archivist 57 (1994) 310-326.

Tibbo, Helen R.  "Primarily History: Historians and the Search for Primary Source Materials." Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2002.  Portland, OR, July 14-18, 2002.  New York: ACM, 2002.

Tibbo, Helen R.  "Primarily History in America: How U.S. Historians Search for Primary Materials at the Dawn of the Digital Age." The American Archivist 66, 1(Spring/Summer 2003): 9-50.

Tibbo, Helen R. and Lokman I. Meho. "Finding Aids on the World Wide Web." The American Archivist 64 (Spring/Summer 2001): 61-77.

Tilley, Peter. "Creating Life Histories and Family Trees From Nineteenth-Century Census Records, Parish Registers and Other Sources." Local Population Studies 68 (2002): 63-81.

Tissing, Robert W. Jr. "The Orientation Interview in Archival Research." The American Archivist 47, 2 (Spring 1984): 173-178.

Thomas, Willa J. "May: Family Reunion Month." Reference Services Review 14, 3 (Fall 1986): 64-67.

Torok, Andrew G., and Jitka M Hurych.  "End User Online Searching Among University Faculty." ASIS '86 (1986).

Trant, J. "When All You've Got is 'The Real Thing': Museums and Authenticity in the Networked World." Archives and Museum Informatics 12, 2 (1998): 107-125.

Turnbaugh, Roy C.  "Archival Mission and User Studies." Midwestern Archivist 9 (1986): 27-33.

Turnbaugh, Roy. "The Impact of Genealogical Users on State Archives Programs." Library Trends 32, 1 (Summer 1983): 39-49.

Tyacke, Sarah.  "Archives in a Wider World: The Culture and Politics of Archives." Archivaria 52: 1-25.

U.S. Library of Congress. American and English Genealogies in the Library of Congress: Preliminary Catalogue (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1910).

Van Tassel, David D. "From Learned Society to Professional Organization: The American Historical Association, 1884-1900." American Historical Review 89 (October 1984)" 929-956.

Verhoeven, Stanley M.  "User Surveys." Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science 45:10. New York: Dekker, 1990.

Volkel, Lowell M., ed. "Genealogical Collections in Illinois." Illinois Libraries 68, 4 (April 1986).

Volkel, Lowell, M., ed. "Genealogical Collections II." Illinois Libraries 70, 7 (September 1988).

Wagenknecht, Robert E.  "Genealogy Reconsidered." Illinois Librarian 58 (June 1976): 456-458.

Ward, W. Peter.  "Family Papers and the New Social History." Archivaria 14(Summer 1982): 63-73.

Waggener, Jean B. "Genealogy for Homecoming '86: Advice on Aiding Genealogical Research and Strengthening Local library Collections." Tennessee Librarian 38, 1 ( Winter 1986): 21-23.

Wagner, Anthony Richard. English Genealogy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960.

Warner, Robert M. Diary of a Dream : A History of the National Archives Independence Movement, 1980-1985. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1995.

Warner, Robert M. and Francis X. Blouin Jr.  "Documenting the Great Migrations and a Century of Ethnicity in America." The American Archivists 39 (July 1976): 319-328.

Watt, Iain "The Family Records Centre: Government Joins-up to Serve the Family History Researcher." Archivum 45(2000): 233-246.

This is a thorough introduction to the founding of Family Records Centre, in London a joint venture of the Public Record Office and the Office for National Statistics. Most important for a cross cultural study of archivists and genealogical researchers are the statistics given on users (in the first year of the Centre, 1996/97, family historians made up 52 percent of the total for the Public Record Office), the concept of family history, and improvements in service. The incorporation of family historians into the decision making policies of the institutions also offers much for study.

Weil, Francois. Of Families, Trees, and Identities: Genealogy in American Culture. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, forthcoming.

Whalen, Lucille (Ed.).  "Reference Services in Archives." Reference Librarian 13 (1985-1986).

Widdows, Richard, et al.  "The Focus Group Interview: A Method for Assessing Users' Evaluation of Library Service." College and Research Libraries 52: 4 (July 1991): 352-9.

Widener, Michael.  "The Status of Users in Archival Enterprise." Provenance 9/1-2 (1991): 1-23.

Wilson, Ian E.  "'A Noble Dream': The Origins of the Public Archives of Cananda." Archivaria 15(Winter 1982-83): 16-35.

Wilson, Ian.  "Strategies for Communication." Journal of the Society of Archivists 16(1995): 68.

Wilson, Ian E.  "Towards a Vision of Archival Services." Archivaria 31 (Winter 1990-91): 91-100.

Wilson, Thomas D.  "Information for Business: The Business of Information." Aslib Proceedings 39 (Oct. '87): 275-9.

Wood, Helen. “The Fetish of the Document: An Exploration of Attitudes Towards Archives.” In New Directions in Archival Research. Edited by Margaret Procter and C.P. Lewis. Liverpool, Liverpool University Centre for Archive Studies.

Noting that “all response towards archives, regardless of their intensity, are culturally encoded” and that ”archivists are prominent players in this process of acculturation,” the author here analyses handwritten documents and manuscripts as fetish objects, contrasting them to other “information media.” She does so in discussions of archivists roles and in an examination of whether archivists normalize or minimize fetishistic behavior, that is behavior in reaction to objects endowed with special energy or independent life force.” She analyses the state’s position, in conferring archives with the role as the holder of collective memory; the archivist’s role as an appointed collector of paper; the researcher with a role akin to archivists as interpreters of unique items, and as part of the ritualization of archives; the public as users “granted some access” as onlookers of exhibitions; and finally the thief as abuser of rules. In terms of the study of attitudes towards genealogical researchers, her comments on the restriction and hierarchy of use are important. She notes that the rules of access are “generally not a democratic tool of State,” that “users without correct academic credentials, a letter of introduction or proper form of identification are not allowed to consult certain items in archives.” (29). She notes the hierarchy of users in which academic researchers maintain a trusted position in which they may consult originals, and thus take precedence over “family historians and students who must settle for microform versions or facsimiles.”


Wright, Raymond S., III, ed. Syllabus, Genealogy and Local History Reference Services: and RASD History Section Preconference, University of San Francisco, June 24-26, 1981. Chicago: History Section, Reference and Adult Services Divsion, American Library Association, 1981.

Yakel, Elizabeth.  "Thinking inside and outside the Boxes: Archival Reference Services at the Turn of the Century." Archivaria 49: 140-160.

Yakel, Elizabeth and Laura L. Bost.  "Understanding Administrative Use and Users in University Archives." The American Archivist 57 (Fall 1994): 596-615.

Yakel, Elizabeth and Deborah A. Torres.  "AI: Archival Intelligence and User Expertise." The American Archivist 66, 1(Spring/Summer 2003): 51-78.

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