The posterior inferior frontal gyrus


{Zoefel and VanRullen, 2016, #8293}

Moreover, it has been reported that phase entrainment to both attended and unattended speech can be observed in early cortical regions; however, the entrainment to unattended (but not attended) speech is “lost” in more frontal areas (Ding and Simon, 2012, Horton et al., 2013 and Zion Golumbic et al., 2013). A similar effect might underlie our findings: Both intelligible and unintelligible speech might entrain early cortical regions, but only intelligible speech might entrain more frontal areas (and affect behavior). Thus, although intelligibility of speech might not directly affect the neural entrainment in regions of auditory processing, it might act as a crucial variable that determines whether the entrained neural activity affects decisions in frontal areas or not (or possibly, whether temporal and frontal areas are functionally connected; Weisz et al., 2014).


posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) ~ pars opercularis (of the inferior frontal gyrus) ~ BA 44

With respect to their cortical localization, I rely on this image:


Fig. 121 Sub-divisions of the frontal lobes

As Dumontheil explains,

  1. Schematic representation of the major anatomical sub-divisions of the frontal lobes. Following a caudal to rostral direction, labelled areas include motor cortex, dorsal and ventral premotor cortices, dorsal and ventral aspects of anterior premotor cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and lateral frontopolar cortex, also termed rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). Boundaries and Brodmann areas (BA) are approximate.

  2. Schematic representation of the rostro-caudal gradient of the organization of the prefrontal cortex. The consensus among diverse theoretical accounts of the organization of the PFC is that progressively more anterior PFC regions support cognitive control of progressively more abstract and temporally extended representations (adapted from Badre, 2008).

Prefrontal cortex and executive functions

The inferior frontal gyrus is one of several gyri that make up what is known as the prefrontal cortex:


Posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG)

Anterior insula

does not support speech artiuclation {Fedorenko et al., 2015, #2138}



  • Fedorenko, E., Fillmore, P., Smith, K., Bonilha, L., & Fridriksson, J. (2015). The superior precentral gyrus of the insula does not appear to be functionally specialized for articulation. Journal of neurophysiology, 113(7), 2376-2382.

  • Manes, J. L., Parkinson, A. L., Larson, C. R., Greenlee, J. D., Eickhoff, S. B., Corcos, D. M. et al. (2014). Connectivity of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus pars interna to regions within the speech network: A meta-analytic connectivity study. Human Brain Mapping, 35(7), 3499-3516.

The next topic

The next topic is The Ventral premotor cortex.

Last edited Aug 22, 2023